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Lec 26 Swine

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Lec 26 Swine

  1. 1. Sus scrofa
  2. 2. General Information• Porcine• Male = Boar• Female = Sow• Female < 1 yr = Gilt• Male castrated before secondary sexual characteristics develop = Barrow• Male after secondary char. = Stag
  3. 3. • Young = Pig• Newborn = Suckling pig• Any pig over 200 pounds = hog
  4. 4. Statistics• Body Temperature 101.7 to 103.3• Heart rate 70 – 80 bpm• Respiration 8 – 18• Injection sites: IV – ear vein, cranial vena cava IM – muscles of ham (buttocks) or neck SQ – Loose tissue behind ears
  5. 5. Anatomy• Poor eyesight • Needle teeth• Acute sense of hearing • Heat intolerant• Rooters • Omnivores• Fast • Long intestines
  6. 6. Breeding• Polyestrus (decreased fertility in summer)• Gestation - 114 days (3mo, 3 wk, 3 days)• Average litter size – 6 to 15• Breeding life span 5 plus years• Weaning at about 5 weeks• Puberty 5 to 8 months
  7. 7. Farrowing Crates• Act of giving birth is farrowing• Place sow in crate several days before due Advantages: Reduces loss from chilling and squashing. Simplifies feeding and medicating Safer for handler Disadvantages: Increased cost & work
  8. 8. Processing Suckling Pigs• Procedures done in first few days of life 1. Dip navel in disinfectant 2. Iron dextran injection 3. Tail docking 4. Clip needle teeth 5. Castrate 6. Vaccinate
  9. 9. 7. Identification – ear notching Right ear indicates litter number Left ear indicates individual pig number
  10. 10. Restraint• Can’t herd or lead – must drive individually into holding area: Pig panel Cane Bucket Snout snare Squeeze chute
  11. 11. Behavior• Intelligent• Curious• Destructive• Noisy• Stubborn• Startle easily
  12. 12. Housing• Clean animal given choice• Cement, metal or wood floors• Fencing• Bedding
  13. 13. • Cooling source in temperatures over 80 F• Boars must be housed individually• Quarantine area for new arrivals
  14. 14. Nutrition• Omnivores – utilize energy from both plant and animal sources• Birth weight average – 3 pounds, doubles in one week to 220 pound average at 6 months• Mature sow ration 3 ½ to 5# balanced ration• Lactating sow 10 to 18# per day
  15. 15. • Breeding boars – 3 ½ to 5 #, but increase by 2 to 3 # for increased activity• Growing pigs – ad lib on balanced rations• Fresh water at all times.• Competition
  16. 16. Health ConcernsProtection from: Sunburn Sunstroke Frostbite
  17. 17. Bacterial Diseases• Atrophic Rhinitis Highly infectious – infects and attacks fine network of bones within snout Symptoms, sneezing, rubbing face, advanced stages – twisted snout Prevention – good sanitation and ventilation Vaccine available
  18. 18. • Leptospirosis:• Spread in urine• Causes abortion, weak or stillborn pigs• Zoonotic
  19. 19. • Erysipelas (diamond skin disease) Symptoms raised red patches, sudden death Possibly zoonotic Long lived in soil Survivors are carriers Vaccine available
  20. 20. Viral Diseases• Virus Pneumonia Common – Symptoms, cough, diarrhea, fever. Prevention – good parasite control• Hog Cholera – rare in US but reportable Control – diagnose and slaughter• TGE – Transmissible gastroenteritis Corona virus, highly contagious, short incubation period, vaccine available
  21. 21. Causes of Young Pig Mortality• E. coli – three D’s – diarrhea, dehydration and death!!• Starvation• Hypothermia• Trauma

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