2. Definitions of System
• A system is a set of interacting or interdependent
components forming an integrated whole.(Wikipedia)
• An assembly of components or elements connected
together in an organized way to produce outputs; the
components of the assembly are affected by being in
the system and the behavior of the system is changed if
any component leaves it.(Oxford Business Dictionary)
3. Fields That Study The General Properties
Of Systems Include
• Systems Science
• Systems Theory
• Systems Modeling
• Systems Engineering
• Dynamical Systems
• Complex Systems
• System Analysis And Design
• Systems Architecture
4. System Concepts
Environment And Boundaries
• Systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected
parts. We scope a system by defining its boundary; this means choosing
which entities are inside the system and which are outside – part of the
environment. We then make simplified representations (models) of the
system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior.
These models may define the structure and/or the behavior of the system.
5. System Concepts
Natural and human-made systems
• There are natural and human-made (designed) systems. Natural systems may
not have an apparent objective but their outputs can be interpreted as
purposes. Human-made systems are made with purposes that are achieved by
the delivery of outputs. Their parts must be related; they must be “designed
to work as a coherent entity” – else they would be two or more distinct
6. System Concepts
• An open system exchanges matter and energy with
its surroundings. Most systems are open systems;
like a car, coffeemaker, or computer. A closed
system exchanges energy, but not matter, with its
environment; like Earth or the project Biosphere2
or 3. An isolated system exchanges neither matter
nor energy with its environment. A theoretical
example of such system is the Universe.
7. System Concepts
Process and transformation process
• An open system can also be viewed as a bounded transformation process,
that is, a black box that is a process or collection of processes that
transforms inputs into outputs. Inputs are consumed; outputs are produced.
The concept of input and output here is very broad. E.g., an output of a
passenger ship is the movement of people from departure to destination.
8. System Concepts
• A subsystem is a set of elements, which is a system itself, and a component of a larger
• A system comprises multiple views. For the man-made systems it may be such views as
concept, analysis, design, implementation, deployment, structure, behavior, input data, and
output data views. A system model is required to describe and represent all these multiple
9. System Concepts
• A systems architecture, using one single integrated model for the description
of multiple views such as concept, analysis, design, implementation,
deployment, structure, behavior, input data, and output data views, is a kind
of system model.
10. Elements of a system
• Following are considered as the
elements of a system in terms of
Information systems: –
• Boundary and interface
11. Elements of a system
• 1. INPUT: Input involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the
system to be processed.
• OUTPUT: Those elements that exists in the system due to the processing of
the inputs is known as output.
• PROCESSOR(S): The processor is the element of a system that involves the
actual transformation of input into output.
12. Elements of a system
• 4. CONTROL: The control element guides the system. It is the decision-
making sub-system that controls the pattern of activities governing input,
processing and output. It also keeps the system within the boundary set.
• 5. FEEDBACK: Control in a dynamic system is achieved by feedback.
Feedback measures output against a standard input in some form of
cybernetic procedure that includes communication and control. The
feedback may generally be of three types 1)POSITIVE, 2)NEGATIVE and
13. Elements of a system
• 6. BOUNDARY AND INTERFACE: A system should be defined by its
boundaries-the limits that identify its components, processes and
interrelationships when it interfaces with another system.
• 7. ENVIRONMENT: The environment is the 'super system' within which an
organization operates. It excludes input, processes and outputs. It is the
source of external elements that impinge on the system.
14. Types of systems
Systems are classified in
• Physical or abstract systems.
• Open or closed systems.
• 'Man-made' information systems.
• Formal information systems.
• Informal information systems.
• Computer-based information
• Real-time system.
15. Types of systems
Physical or abstract systems.
Physical systems are tangible entities that may be static or dynamic in operation.
Open or closed systems.
An open system has many interfaces with its environment. i.e. system that interacts
freely with its environment, taking input and returning output.
A closed system
A closed system does not interact with the environment; changes in the environment
and adaptability are not issues for closed system.
16. Types of systems
Man-made Information System
• A man-made information system will be any collective circuit or system that
collects, processes, stores and maintains information for a particular use.
These information systems will be made up of hardware, software,
technology and people.
17. Types of systems
Formal information system
A formal information system is based on
the organization represented by the
organization chart. The chart is a map of
position and their authority relationship,
indicated by boxes and connected by
straight lines. it is concerned with the
pattern of authority, communication and
The informal information system
The informal information system is employee
based system design to meet personnel and
vocational needs and to help in the solution of
work-related problems. it also funnels
information upward through indirect channels.
In this way, it is considered to be a useful system
because it works within the framework of the
business and its stated policies.
18. Types of systems
• A computer(-based) information system is essentially an IS using
computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks.
• Real-time programs/Systems must guarantee response within specified
time constraints, often referred to as "deadlines". Real-time responses are
often understood to be in the order of milliseconds, and sometimes
19. Application of the system concept
Systems modeling is generally a basic principle in engineering and in social
sciences. The system is the representation of the entities under concern.
• Systems in information and computer science
In computer science and information science, system is a software system
which has components as its structure and observable inter-process
communications as its behavior.
20. Application Of The System Concept
• Systems in engineering and physics
In engineering and physics, a physical system is the portion of the universe that is
being studied (of which a thermodynamic system is one major example).
• Systems in social and cognitive sciences and management
Social and cognitive sciences recognize systems in human person models and in
human societies. They include human brain functions and human mental processes
as well as normative ethics systems and social/cultural behavioral patterns
21. Application of the system concept
• Pure logical systems
There is also such a thing as a logical system. The most obvious example is
George Boole's Boolean operators. Other examples have related specifically to
philosophy, biology, or cognitive science. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs applies
psychology to biology by using pure logic.