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  2. 2. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) “Act of the people, by the people, and for the people”
  3. 3. What Is it ? Scheme Provides at least 100 days of work at not less than Rs 60/day which varies by state. 36.7 Million rural Households have benefitted so far in 2012-13, while 49.8 million rural household benefitted in 2011-12 Implemented in 645 districts across the country
  4. 4. Introduction The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian legislation enacted on 7th September 2005 and launched on Feb 2,2006 from Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh ,that aims to guarantee the 'right to work' and ensure livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
  5. 5. Objectives of NREGA • Augmenting wage employment. • Strengthening natural resource management through works that address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and so encourage sustainable development. • Strengthening grassroots processes of democracy. • Infusing transparency and accountability in governance. • Strengthening decentralization and deepening processes of democracy by giving a pivotal role to the Panchayati Raj Institutions in planning, monitoring and implementation.
  6. 6. Wage Employment Programs 1980’s • National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) launched to use unemployed and underemployed workers to build community assets • Rural Landless Employment Guarantee (RLEG) launched to provide 100 days of guaranteed employment to 1 member from each rural, landless household • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana launched, combining NREP and RLEG 1990’s • Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) launched to provide employment during the lean agricultural season • Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) launched; dedicated to development of demand driven rural Infrastructure 2000’s • Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)launched, merging EAS and JGSY • Food for Work Programme (NFFWP) launched to generate additional supplementary wage employment and create assets • National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) launched to provide 100 days of guaranteed employment to one member from each rural household and create community assets
  7. 7. SALIENT FEATURES OF MGNREGA • i) Adult members of a rural household willing to participate, have to apply for registration, either orally or in written, to Gram Panchayat; they will be provided with a Job Card within 15 days after verification, with proper photographs of the members willing, free of cost! • ii) Employment will be given within 15 days of application for work; if not ,daily unemployment allowance as per the Act, has to be paid; liability of payment of unemployment allowance is of the State. • iii) Work should ordinarily be provided within 5 km radius of the village. In case work is provided beyond 5 km, extra wages of 10% are payable to meet additional transportation and living expenses. • iv) Wages are to be paid according to the Minimum Wages Act 1948 for agricultural laborers in the State, unless the Centre notifies a wage rate which will not be less than Rs. 60/ per day. Equal wages will be provided to both men and women. • v) Disbursement of wages has to be done on weekly basis and not beyond a fortnight in any case.
  8. 8. • vi) At least one-third beneficiaries shall be women who have registered and requested work under the scheme. • vii) Work site facilities such as crèche, drinking water and shade have to be provided. • viii) Permissible works predominantly include water and soil conservation, afforestation and land development works. Contractors and machinery are not allowed. • ix) A 60:40 wage and material ratio has to be maintained. • x) The Central Government bears the 100 percent wage cost of unskilled manual labor and 75 percent of the material cost including the wages of skilled and semi skilled workers
  9. 9. Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with photo to the Gram Panchayat. The Gram panchayat registers households after making enquiry and issues a job card. The job card contains the details of adult member enrolled and his /her photo. Registered person can submit an application for work in writing (for at least fourteen days of continuous work) either to panchayat or to Programme Officer. The panchayat/programme officer will accept the valid application and issue dated receipt of application; Letter providing work will be sent to the applicant and also displayed at panchayat office. Registration will be made for five years and may be renewed from time to time. EMPLOYMENT CARD
  10. 10. Phase I NREGA(200) (Backward Districts ranked on basis of agricultural wages, output per agricultural worker and SCT/ST population of the district) Phase II NREGA(130) Phase III NREGA(266) NREGA COVERAGE (1st Nationwide employment scheme )
  11. 11. Implementation Status  The scheme was introduced in 200 districts during financial year 2006- 07 and 130 districts during the financial year 2007-08.  In April 2008 NREGA expanded to entire rural area of the country covering 34 States and Union Territories, 614 Districts, 6,096 blocks and 2.65 lakh Gram Panchayats.  The scheme covered 644 districts , 6,576 blocks and 7.78 lakh villages in the financial year 2013-14.
  12. 12. Fund & Accounts Management Fund Allocation Note Wage Gram Panchayat MCC Wage Seekers Material Suppliers Payment for material delivered Work Startup Order Fund Status Report Fund receipt, transfer Advances Claims Savings Account Mgt Maint of ledgers Period financial reports
  13. 13. Activities… Sl.No. Activity Time Schedule 1 Closing of Muster Roll 6th day after start of work 2 Bringing of muster roll & measurement book 8th day 3 1. Entry of muster rolls in MIS 2. Generation of pay order 9th & 10th day 4 1. Submission of pay order at block post office/bank 2. Generation of wage slip 3. Transfer of pay order at village post office/bank 11th & 12th day 5 Deposit of wages in the a/c of wage earners (electronic fund transfer) 13th day
  14. 14. Management Information System (MIS) A web enabled MIS www.nrega.nic.in has been developed. This makes data transparent and available in the public domain to be equally accessed by all. Benefits availed through NREGA MIS: E-Governance for Masses: • Computerisation of all NREGA activities • All information available for public access • Accuracy ensured in payment of wages to workers • Lodging of complaints through Grievance Redressal System Assists Gram Panchayats in NREGA Implementation :  Tracking of 100 days of employment to a household  Generates documents as per NREGA guidelines  Tracking of funds from the Ministry to the worker
  15. 15. i .Water Conservation and water harvesting including contour trenches, contour bunds, boulder checks, gabion structures, underground dykes, earthen dams, stop dams and springshed development; ii. Drought Proofing including plantation and afforestation; iii. Irrigation canals including micro and minor irrigation works; iv. Provision of irrigation facility, dug out farm pond, horticulture, plantation, farm bunding and land development; v. Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of tanks; vi. Land Development; vii. Flood control and protection works including drainage in water logged areas, deepening and repairing of flood channels, chaur renovation, construction of storm water drains for coastal protection; viii. Rural connectivity to provide all weather access, including culverts and roads within a village, wherever necessary;
  16. 16. ix. Construction of Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendra as Knowledge Resource Centre at the Block level and as Gram Panchayat Bhawan at the Gram Panchayat level; x. Agriculture related works, such as, NADEP composting, vermi-composting, liquid biomanures; xi. Livestock related works, such as, poultry shelter, goat shelter, construction of pucca floor, urine tank and fodder trough for cattle, azolla as cattle-feed supplement; xii. Fisheries related works, such as, fisheries in seasonal water bodies on public land; xiii. Works in coastal areas, such as, fish drying yards, belt vegetation; xiv. Rural drinking water related works, such as, soak pits, recharge pits; xv. Rural sanitation related works, such as, individual household latrines, school toilet units, anganwadi toilets, solid and liquid waste management; xv(a) Construction of anganwadi centres. xv(b) Construction of play fields. xvi. Any other work which may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government.
  17. 17. Nature of MGNREGA works are such that they augment productivity Community Lands  Water conservation  Water harvesting  Irrigation  Drought proofing  Plantation & Afforestation  Renovation of water bodies  Desilting of tanks & canals  Flood control measures  Rural connectivity Private Lands of SC/ST/IAY/Land Reform beneficiaries/BPL/small and marginal farmers Small & marginal farmers account for 80% of land- holdings & operate 40% of cultivated land  Land Development  Irrigation facilities  Horticulture Plantation
  18. 18. 1% 8% 6% 9% 16% 13% 3% 16% 27% Flood Control and Protection Water Conservation and Water Harvesting Provision of Irrigation facility to Land Owned by SC/ST/BPL/ IAY Beneficiaries Rural Connectivity Land Development Others Drought Proofing (Afforestation & Plantation) Micro Irrigation Works Renovation of Traditional Water bodies Highest Priority to Water Conservation
  19. 19. Flood control and protection works including drainage in water logged areas TYPES OF WORK UNDER THE SCHEME:
  20. 20. Plantation Works
  21. 21. Water Conservation
  22. 22. FY 2014-2015 FY 2013-2014 FY 2012-2013 FY 2011-2012 645 644 636 635 6601 6576 6568 6378 247643 247643 247643 247643 778134 778134 778134 778133 13.1 14 13.2 12.6 29 31.1 29.3 27.8 84787 34387 26190 25389 73.2 79.3 79.1 53.2 76.1 102.7 104.6 80.8 Wages(Rs. In Cr.) 8063.6 23289.4 27152.8 24306.2 Material and skilled Wages(Rs. In Cr.) 2298.7 8261.9 10430 10650.5 GP Level 20.3 226 307.6 301.8 Block Level 267.1 1335 1330.1 1191.7 District Level 106.7 594.5 482 514.4 State Level 59.32 200.961 32.936 108.055 Total Adm Expenditure 453.5 2356.4 2152.7 2116 Total Exp(Rs. in Cr.) 10815.7 33907.7 39735.4 37072.7 Labour Vs Material(%) 77.8 73.8 72.2 69.5 Admin Exp(%) 4.2 6.9 5.4 5.7 Households 223.1 484.9 498.9 506.4 Individuals 327.6 746.5 797.3 820 Men 148.3 387.7 422.1 446.6 Women 179.3 358.9 375.3 373.3 SCs 73.7 169.6 181.7 185 STs 60.2 131.7 142.9 147.4 Persons with Disability 2.6 4.9 4.6 4 Total as per LB 227 258.6 278.7 199.6 Persondays Generated so far 56.7 220.7 230.5 218.8 % of Total LB 25 85.4 82.7 109.6 % as per Proportionate LB 61 SC persondays 12.5 49.8 51.2 48.5 ST persondays 10 38.2 41 40.9 133.2 132.6 121.4 114.5 25.4 45.5 46.2 43.2 2.1 46.5 51.7 41.7 33.9 43.1 63 57.8 49.7 30 0.9 0% of payments Disbursed through EFMS Performance since inception: Persondays Generated (In Cr.): 1717.75 Total expenditure(Rs.In Cr.): 250744.35 Today 6809902 workers are expected on 275707 worksites (as per e-MustRoll) Mahatma Gandhi NREGA at a Glance Wage Employment Provided(in lakhs) Person days(In Cr) Average Wage rate per day per person Average days of employment provided per Household Total No of HHs completed 100 Days of Wage Employment(In Lakhs) % payments gererated within 15 days Total No. of Workers in Job Card(In Cr) Number of GPs with NIL exp Number of Ongoing Works(In Lakhs) Total No. of Works Takenup (New+Spill Over)(In lakhs) Total Exp(In Cr) Adm Exp: Total no of Districts Total No. of Blocks Total No. of GPs Total no of Villages Total No. of HH Registered(In Cr)
  23. 23. •OUTCOME  (Achievements of NREGA)
  24. 24. 1. Maximizing Work Opportunities: Livelihood Security Under NREGA , in FY 2012-13, 50 million households were provided employment and 230.5 crore person days were generated. In FY 2013-14, 48 million households were provided work and 220.7 crore person days were generated.
  25. 25. 2.Inclusive Growth: NREGA has provided employment particularly for marginalized groups. The participation percentages were 55% (SC/ST) in 2008-09 and 53% (SC/ST) upto July, 2009. Women workforce participation has also surpassed the statutory minimum requirement of 33 per cent. In FY 08-09, women participation was 48%, which increased to 52% in 2009-10 (upto July, 09). Women participation during the scheme execution in Kerala has been very high. (Kudumbashree movement).Out of total employment generated in the State, the women beneficiaries were included 65.8 percent in 2006-07 increased to 85.01 percent in 2008-09, 88.19 percent in 2009-10 and 90.36 percent 2010-11. Empowerment of rural women has emerged as an unintended consequence of NREGS. Women have benefited more as workers than as a community. Women as individuals have gained because of their ability to earn independently, made possible due to the paid employment opportunity under NREGS.
  26. 26. Women participation in NREGA in major states during 2010-11 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
  27. 27. 3.Augmenting household income, savings and investment: Post-NREGA, there has been a revision of minimum wages across the country ; in the last three years, average daily wage rate has increased from Rs. 114 in 2011-12 to Rs 133 in 2014-15.
  28. 28. 236 155
  29. 29. 4.Financial Inclusion: • Over 7.33 crore NREGA bank and post office accounts have been opened so far. These accounts have helped bring the rural poor under the organized banking sector. • This will not only infuse integrity in wage payment, but also bring the most vulnerable people in rural India into formal banking and credit system. 5.Regenerating Natural Resources: • Under NREGA water and soil conservation, plantation and afforestation has been given priority. • Works relating to drought proofing and flood protection are aimed to provide resistance to climate shocks and natural disasters.
  30. 30. Funds NREGA 2014 Budget Allocation -34,000 Cr. Central Govt. provides only 75% of the material costs, promoting labour intensive works in NREGA
  31. 31. State and Local Government State Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (REGS) • 25 per cent of the cost of material and wages for semi- skilled/ skilled workers • Unemployment allowance if the state is unable to provide employment within 15 days • Administrative expenses of the State Employment Guarantee Council
  32. 32. Component of expenditure  Material cost  Expenditure on wage  Administrative cost NREGA’14-34000 cr. Material Wages 52% 14% 17% 14% 3% Water conservati on 52% Land developm ent Rural connectivi ty provision of irrigation
  33. 33. Funding * The Central Government bears the costs on the following items: • The entire cost of wages of unskilled manual workers. • 75% of the cost of material, wages of skilled and semi-skilled workers. • Administrative expenses as may be determined by the Central Government, which will include, inter alia, the salary and the allowances of the Programme Officer and his supporting staff and work site facilities. • Expenses of the Central Employment Guarantee Council. The State Government bears the costs on the following items: • 25% of the cost of material, wages of skilled and semi-skilled workers. Unemployment allowance payable in case the State Government cannot provide wage employment on time. • Administrative expenses of the State Employment Guarantee Council. State Employment Guarantee Fund (SEGF) The Ministry has stressed on the formation of State Employment Guarantee Funds (SEGF). Eighteen States have constituted SEGF and have dedicated account for Mahatma Gandhi NREGA. In remaining States where SEGF has not been constituted, each District has a dedicated account for Mahatma Gandhi NREGA funds. Proposals are submitted based on clearly delineated guidelines so that funds may be distributed efficiently at each level, and adequate funds may be available to respond to demand. Under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA, fund releases are based on an appraisal of both financial and physical indicators of outcomes.
  34. 34. 4/3/2017 39  If any person employed under the scheme is or child accompanying any person injured ; he/she shall be entitled to free of charge medical treatment  During the period of hospitalization of injured worker  Accommodation, treatment and medicines  Half of the wage per day to be paid to injured person  If a person employed under a scheme  dies or  becomes permanently disabled by the accident at site The legal heirs of the deceased or the disabled shall be paid an ex gratia payment at the rate of Rs.25000 By the Central government.
  35. 35. 40 Details of Institutions related to NREGA Indian Institute of Women’s Studies Centre for Budget & Governance Accountability IIM Bangalore Institute of Human Development Centre for Development Alternatives Objective Analyse women access to NREGA, assess State Schemes, document labour market conditions, assist design gender sensitive works. Monitor implementation of NREGA, identify implementation challenges faced by State Gov, Local admn and PRIs, increase awareness of NREGA, Identify Practical issues of implementation, management and coordination through quick surveys at the worksites, village, conformity with Act & Guidelines Process documentation; assess impact of NREGA on wages, employment, durable assets;policy, recommendations; sensitise stakeholders Suggestive corrective measures, assess strengths and weaknesses in Schemes Coverage 2 distts of Orissa,Maharashtra, TN, WB 1 distt. In AP, 2 each in Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, MP 1 in AP and 1 in Karnataka 6 districts of Bihar 6 districts of Gujarat
  36. 36. Amendments in NREGA  (7th Jan,2010) NREGA was renamed to MGNREGA  (14th May,2010) Old Logo New Logo
  37. 37. Advantage from MGNREGA Environmental Benefits and Vulnerability Reduction Every 5th rural Indian household benefits from MGNREGA Agricultural Sustainability Women empowerment
  38. 38. NREGS: Success Story of Hardoi(UP)  Name of Work – Renovation of Kakhraiya Pond ,Year – 2006-07  Cost of the work – Rs.1.126 lakh  Man days Created- 1300  Benefit of the Project – It is useful for recharging the ground water, for drinking water for animals, for irrigation purpose as well as it has provided the employment to the local labourers.
  39. 39. LIMITATIONS   Registration problems in terms of caste discrimination.  Uniform distribution of job cards is a time consuming process and leads to dissatisfaction.  Only 19% of the 8.5 lakh differently able people registered for the scheme have got work under NREGA.  Illegal charges levied on people for application forms.  Non-issuance of receipts to applicants.  Unavailability of necessary facilities at the work places.  Improper maintenance of attendance of the workers.  Payments of wages delayed.  Measurement of work done by the workers a major problem.  Inadequate number of officials for the scheme.  Delay in appointments of officials in the villages.  Another issue is that of fake muster rolls & bills being generated
  40. 40. In Bundelkhand, M.P, the scheme is plagued by corruption and delayed payment of wages. In the last three years, the State government has spent over 1.1 lakh crores on the scheme. However, results remain unsatisfactory. The Union government recently increased the number of job days from 100 to 200, but people here are not celebrating and would prefer migrating to Delhi. “We have to pay bribes, face intimidation and still wages are never paid on time. Private employers pay less, but at least we get paid at the end of the day”, says Bootha Ahirwar, a farmer from Majhora village. Empty document: Gurba Ahirwar of Akona village in Madhya Pradesh showing his NREGA job card, with no entries made in it. .
  41. 41. Way Ahead Monitor the programme effectively Village level resource planning and development Other development programs like Bharat Nirman should sync with NREGA From quantitative employment generation to sustainable development through asset building Representatives Proper election and training More power to Panchayat Raj
  42. 42. References [1]. UNDERSTANDING NREGA: A SIMPLE THEORY AND SOME FACTS, Diganta Mukherjee, Uday Bhanu Sinha; Working Paper No. 196; Centre for Development Economics Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics [2]. An Assessment of the Performance of The National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme in Terms of its Potential for Creation of Natural Wealth in India’s Villages, Centre for Science and Environment Report Prepared for the Ministry of Rural Development Government of India, September 2008 [3] Internet

Notas do Editor

  • 20
  • Lowest Arunachal Pradesh
    Highest Haryana