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India art and architecture ppt(1)

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India art and architecture ppt(1)

  1. 1. Hindu Art and Architecture Sarah Modi, Sarah Mupo, Katie Murphy, Mary Petersen IB World Religions: Blue 4
  2. 2. Art
  3. 3. “The man who knows nothing of music, literature, or art is no better than a beast.” •Warning of ancient Hindu wisdom •Hindus think highly of art •Art = the key to salvation of the ultimate release sought by all good Hindus •Art is a unity of many forms and artistic experiences very holistic
  4. 4. Yoga •Indian art in its purest form •A disciplined style of self-restraint and worship •India’s oldest indigenous “science” •spiritual exercise leading to the beatific vision -also a psychological process of drawing oneself into the dynamics which control the universe -and to ready oneself for all kinds of mental and physical activity
  5. 5. Yoga and Artists • give the craftsman his creative skill • inspire the artist, poet, and musician who sought spiritual enlightenment
  6. 6. The Art • Hindu/ Indian artists have celebrated/ immortalized the beauty of human bodies in bronze and stone for more than 5,000 yrs • Art is most often associated with Hindu religion and philosophy -difficult to appreciate fully unless one has knowledge of Hindu ideals -religious urge, a looking beyond -attempt to bring down the beauty of the things above
  7. 7. Art Con’t • Art is essentially idealistic, mystic, symbolic, and transcendental - Mere bodily strength and mundane perfections of form are never glorified in Indian art. • Artist is both priest and poet • Only by meditating on the Ultimate Perfection could the artist perceive the beauty of the Godhead
  8. 8. •Hindu poetry, art, and mythology, depict the sublime nature of the Himalayas -regarded as special revelation of divine beauty -seen as fitting shrine for all the gods The Himalayas
  9. 9. •Hindu philosophy recognizes the impossibility of human art capturing the form of God •Creates in Indian painting and sculpture a symbolical representation of milder, humanized (but still superhuman), divine appearances which mortal eyes can bear Philosophy of Art
  10. 10. Purpose of Art • To suggest divine attributes to Indian people is the purpose of Hindu art • True Indian art is stripped of the superfluities and vulgarities which delight the uneducated eye - believe that Hindu art requires a higher degree of artistic understanding
  11. 11. Bhakti •the moving spirit of all great religious art •keeps Indian art alive •Indians believe lack of it Bhakti is what makes modern Western art so lifeless
  12. 12. Ganesha • the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles • worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth • one of the five prime Hindu deities
  13. 13. Shiva •The “Great God” of yogic practice •Visually represented as “King of Dance” •most remarkable single symbol of divine powers
  14. 14. The Lotus Brahma on the lotus flower which sprang from Vishnu’s naval •Even in earliest art, lotus is fashioned as a seat or as a pedestal on which divine or sacred beings rest in a sitting or standing posture •Symbol of divinity of major Hindu gods
  15. 15. Snakes • important images in Hindu art • Sacred to Hindus • seen as protectors and often featured in Hindu art as wrapped around a god
  16. 16. Architecture
  17. 17. Overview •Not meant for congregational worship •Concentrate on religious and spiritual •Made from rock •Conservative
  18. 18. Overview Cont’d • Vimana • Shikhara • Garba-griba • Sanctum sanctorum • Mandapa • Ardh-mandapa • Mandala
  19. 19. Temple Architecture •Religious – Astronomy – Sacred geometry •Representation of macrocosm and microcosm •Has an inner sanctum: garba girha •Sanctum crowned by a shikara – Distinguishes the Nagra and Dravida styles
  20. 20. North Indian Styles
  21. 21. North Indian Styles • Nagara style • From Himalayas to the Deccan • Shikhara – beehive shaped – Capotas and gavakas – amalaka • Shrine is square at center • Bell-shaped structure on main shrine
  22. 22. Lingaraja Temple Rajarani Temple Jagannath Temple
  23. 23. South Indian Styles
  24. 24. South Indian Style •Dravida Style •Shikhara – pyramid shaped •Have different: ground plan; position of stone deities; decorative elements •Walls around whole building •Different types: Pallava, Chola, Pandya, Vijayanagar, Nayak
  25. 25. Pallava – Shore Temple Chola - Brihdiswara Temple Pandya - Chidambaram Nayak – Rameswaram Temple
  26. 26. Historical Development • The earliest worship centers – Abu Simpbel – Elephanta – Ellora • Horse shoe shaped window • Originally inspired by the Buddhist Stupa • The Great Stupa
  27. 27. Historical Development cont’d • The Stupa – Addition to the temple from Buddism • Shilpa Shastra – Point of reference for architects • Hindu temples – Large temples vs. mandirs:
  28. 28. Historical Development cont’d • Shwe Dagon temple • Temples Today – Fundamentally the same as the 6th century – Richly decorated
  29. 29. Works Cited "Art and Architecture" http://hinduism.iskcon.com/index.htm. The Heart of Hinduism Project. 2004. 1 section. 3 Nov 2006. ISKCON Educational Services <http://hinduism.iskcon.com/lifestyle/805.htm> "Architectural Mosaic" http://www.hinduonline.com/. The Hindu. 12 May 2002. 5 sections. 2002 1 Nov 2006 < http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mag/2002/05/12/stories/200205120045 > Batchelor, Anthony. “Indian Temple Architecture.” TempleNet. 13 Nov. 2006. <http://www.indiantemples.com/temparc.html> “Ganesha: The Elephant God.” About. 13 November 2006. <http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/aa083000a.htm>. Havell, Ernest Binfield. The Art heritage of India. Dutton, 1911. Hindu Architecture. Indiasite.com. 10 November 2006. <http://www.indiasite.com/architecture/hindu.html>.
  30. 30. Works Cited Con’t "Hindu Architecture" 10 Aug 2004, 7 paragraphs. Project India. 11 Nov 2006 < http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/student_work/global_programme/indiaweb/PI2/hindu >. Hindu Art. 15 August 2006. Hindu Wisdom. 13 November 2006. <http://www.hinduwisdom.info/Hindu_Art.htm#h%20i%20n%20d%20u %20%20%20%20a%20r%20t>. Hindu Temple Architecture. Answers Corporation. 15 November 2006. <http://www.answers.com/topic/hindu-temple-architecture>. Kumar, Nitin. “The Hindu Temple: Where Man Becomes God.” May 2006. Exotic India. 12 Nov. 2006. <http://www.exoticindiaart.com/read/hindu_temple.htm>. Nangia, Ashish. “Poetry in Stone: Crystallization of the Hindu Temple.” 15 Nov. 2001. Boloji.com. 13 Nov. 2006. <http://www.boloji.com/architecture/00006.htm>. Temples. Indian Heritage. 10 Nov. 2006. <http://www.saigan.com/heritage/tindex.html>.

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