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Face.pptx

  1. 1. - It extends from lower border of mandible to the hair line (forehead is common for face and scalp) - It extends laterally to the ear auricle
  2. 2. 1- skin: it is thick, has rich blood supply (rapid healing) 2- superficial fascia : contains ms, vessels and nerves of the face No deep fascia in most of the face (to allow for facial expression)
  3. 3.  Thin, flat muscles, connected to the dermis of the skin.  Innervated by the facial nerve.  Considerable individual variation.  Often blend into each other.  Relaxed skin tension lines run perpendicular to the direction of muscle fibers.
  4. 4. - Frontalis – elevates brow - Procerus – depresses brow - Corrugator Supercilii – depresses brow - Orbicularis Oculi – closes eye, depresses brow
  5. 5. - Nasalis - compresses/dilates nose - Depressor Septi Nasi - depresses tip - Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi - dilates nostrils and elevates upper lip
  6. 6. Divided into 3 groups: - Group 1 (insert into modiolus) - Orbicularis oris – closes mouth - Buccinator – presses lips and cheeks against the teeth - Risorius – draws commissure laterally - Levator anguli oris – elevates commissure - Depressor anguli oris – depresses and moves laterally commissure - Zygomaticus major – elevates and moves laterally commissure
  7. 7. - Levator labii superioris – elevates the upper lip - Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi – dilates nostrils and elevates upper lip - Zygomaticus minor - elevates and pulls commissure laterally; contributor to nasolabial fold
  8. 8. - Depressor labii inferioris – depresses and pulls lip slightly laterally - Mentalis – elevates lower lip - Platysma - depresses lower lip
  9. 9.  Sensory  Motor
  10. 10.  Facial infections  Trigeminal neuralgia
  11. 11.  DANGEROUS AREA OF FACE  Infection of this area may lead to: 1. Thrombosis of facial vein 2. Infection may be transmitted to cavernous sinus leading to cavernous sinus thrombosis
  12. 12.  Inflammatory condition affecting one or more of the three divisions of trigeminal nerve  Gives rise to severe pain in the area of distribution of the affected nerve  Surgical treatment may involve: 1. Alcohol injection of the trigeminal ganglion 2. Section of the central root of the nerve or of the appropriate division
  13. 13.  UPPER MOTOR NEURONE LESION (SUPRANUCLEAR LESION): e.g. lesion in pyramidal tracts: paralysis of muscles on the lower quadrant of face opposite to the side of lesion (the patient can close his eye but cannot expose his teeth on the affected side)  LOWER MOTOR NEURONE LESION (NUCLEAR OR INFRANUCLEAR LESION): e.g. Bell’s palsy: paralysis of all muscles of face on same side of lesion (the patient cannot close his eye and cannot expose his teeth on the affected side)

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