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Environmental Management

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Development Mnagement and related topics

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Environmental Management

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. DevelopmentManagement Presented By, GROUP 1
  3. 3. Introduction• Deals with the coordination and management processes of international development programs and projects.• The dominant paradigm in development management is the intervention in the form of a transfer of aid by an external agency/donor and the oversight of the related project cycle. Dhanya
  4. 4. • The term development management is used in this sense of achievement and objectives with optimum use of limited resources in manpower, finance, material, time and also active contribution to the clarification and reformation of policies and objectives.
  5. 5. Environment Friendly
  6. 6. • Environmentally friendly (also eco-friendly, nature friendly, and green) are ambiguous terms used to refer to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies claimed to inflict minimal or no harm on the environment.• Companies sometimes use these terms to promote goods and services by making environmental marketing claims and with eco-labels.• The term sometimes is used as greenwashing.
  7. 7. • Eco is an abbreviation of ecology, which means the relationship between organisms and their habitats, or humans and their homes in the global sense.• Eco-friendly means a friendly relationship between humans and their habitats. In other words, humans taking good care of the environment in which they live. Eco and Eco-friendly...
  8. 8. EnvironmentallyFriendly Tips for Individuals
  9. 9. First: Reduce• Go Zero Waste• Simplify• Reduce Purchases• Replace Disposables• Buy Used
  10. 10. Second: Reuse• Garage Sales• Reusables• Donations
  11. 11. Third: Recycle• Recycle your Plastic Bottle Tops• Recycle Bins• Recycling Fact Sheet• Recycling Rechargeable Batteries and Cell Phones• Help Launch Sustainable Packaging• Green Paper
  12. 12. The critical first step of waste prevention has beenovershadowed by a focus on recycling. Please help to promote a greater awareness of theimportance of the "Reduce" part of the Reduce-Reuse- Recycle mantra.
  13. 13. Eco-Friendly Tips• Conserve water• Quit smoking• Dont use pesticides/herbicides on your lawn• Keep your cat indoors• Eat less meat/eat more local and organic foods• Lower your thermostat in the winter. Raise it in the summer• Dispose of old paint, chemicals, and oil properly• Consider the environmental costs of major decisions and purchases
  14. 14. Energy and Water Efficiency• Lighting• Heating and Cooling• Equipment• Water
  15. 15. Lighting • Fluorescent lights • Daylight • Turn off lights
  16. 16. Heating and Cooling• Summer• Winter• Programmable thermostat
  17. 17. Equipment• Turn off equipment• Turn off computer monitors• Use a power strip• Unplug chargers and adapters
  18. 18. Water• Don’t let water run• Fix leaks immediately• Install aerators• Run full loads
  19. 19. ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS• Eco-friendly products are products that do not harm the environment, whether in their production, use or disposal.• Some of these going green products when in use, help conserve energy, minimize carbon footprint or the emission of greenhouse gases, and does not lead to substantial toxicity or pollution to the environment.• Other green products are biodegradable, recyclable or compostable. Hence, they do not harm the environment or upset the ecological balance when they are disposed of.
  20. 20. Who produces eco-friendly products?• There are several organizations and companies that are actively developing green products, in the process of actively contributing towards a cleaner, safer, and ecologically more balanced environment for the present and our future generations. – Green Line Paper Company – Seventh Generation – Pacific Gas and Electric Company – The Green Products Company – Green Home – Green Starfish Inc – Aiso.net
  21. 21. • Sun White-Organic Herbal Dyed Towel Se Organic Soap - Vanilla - Lasting Fragrance• Rose & Vetiver Shower Gel Organic Baby Oil - Green Apple
  22. 22. What can we do?• Reduce the amount of waste.• Recycle items into new products through a manufacturing process.• Reuse the product in a different way.MANEESH
  23. 23. Reduce Packaging Toxicity• Compare product • Use least amount packaging necessary• Buy loose items • Use non-hazardous• Buy economy sizes alternatives• Use concentrated product • Follow use and disposal• Buy in bulk directions • Find a hazardous waste collection site
  24. 24. Recycle What Where• Paper • Curbside Collection• Glass • Drop-off Centers• Aluminum • Buy Back Centers• Plastic
  25. 25. Reuse• Consider reusable products.• Maintain and repair durable products.• Reuse bags, containers, and other items.• Borrow, rent, or share items.• Sell or donate goods instead of throwing them out.
  26. 26. Sustainable AgricultureLEKSHMI
  27. 27. Agriculture• Agriculture is farming.• It produces crops and almost everything we eat.• Mostly farmer is raising plant crops, such as fruits, vegetables and animals like cows and pigs.
  28. 28. What is Sustainability?• “ Sustainable design is the careful nesting of human purposes with the larger patterns and flows of the natural world...” David Orr.• “Leave the world better than you found it, take no more than you need, try not to harm life or the environment, make amends if you do.” Paul Hawken• The word "sustain," from the Latin sustinere (sus-,from below and tenere, to hold), to keep in existence or maintain, implies long-term support or permanence.
  29. 29. What is Sustainable Agriculture?• Sustainable Agriculture is a way of raising food that is healthy to people and animals, it does not harm the environment.
  30. 30. • Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.• The phrase was reportedly coined by Australian agricultural scientist Gordon McClymont.
  31. 31. • It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term: – Satisfy human food and fiber needs – Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends – Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls – Sustain the economic viability of farm operations – Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole."
  32. 32. • Reduces inputs.• Uses ecological pest and weed management strategies.• Cycles nutrients back into the soil for fertility and health.• Strengthens rural and urban communities.• Produces viable farm income.• Promotes healthy family and social values.• Brings the consumer back into agriculture.
  33. 33. Integrates three main goals… 1. Environmental health 2. Economic profitability 3. Social & economic equityMANJU
  34. 34. Sustainable Agriculture Movement• Started in 20th century.• At the same time the Green Revolution• The Land Fellowship, establishes agriculture in the early 1950s.• During the 50s and 60s, there were number of academic studies on sustainable issues.
  35. 35. Farming and natural resources• Sustainability can be understood as an ecosystem approach to agriculture.• Practices that can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tillage (leading to erosion) and irrigation without adequate drainage (leading to salinization).• The most important factors for an individual site are sun, air, soil and water.• Of the four, water and soil quality and quantity are most amenable to human intervention through time and labor.
  36. 36. • Although air and sunlight are available everywhere on Earth, crops also depend on soil nutrients and the availability of water.• When farmers grow and harvest crops, they remove some of these nutrients from the soil.• Without replenishment, land suffers from nutrient depletion and becomes either unusable or suffers from reduced yields.• Sustainable agriculture depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use of non-renewable resources, such as natural gas (used in converting atmospheric nitrogen into synthetic fertilizer), or mineral ores (e.g., phosphate). Possible sources of nitrogen that would, in principle, be available indefinitely,
  37. 37. Types of Sustainable Farming • Organic farming • Biodynamic • Perm culture • Agro ecological Systems • Low-inputBISMI
  38. 38. Organic Farming• Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control.• Organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides but excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured (synthetic) fertilizers, pesticides, plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, genetically modified organisms, human sewage sludge, and nano-materials.
  39. 39. Biodynamic• Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming that emphasizes the holistic development and interrelationships of the soil, plants and animals as a self-sustaining system.• One of the first modern ecological farming systems, it emphasizes a sustainable approach to agriculture.• It emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of artificial chemicals on soil and plants
  40. 40. Perm Culture• Perm culture is a branch of ecological design, ecological engineering, and environmental design which develops sustainable architecture/human settlements and self- maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.
  41. 41. Agro Ecological Sytem• It is the system of ecological processes that operate in agricultural production systems.• Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered.• The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, [or] a practice."
  42. 42. Tools of the Sustainable Farmer• Water conservation and protection techniques such as planting riparian buffers along streams and managing irrigation to reduce runoff.• Controlling pests through organic means, including Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices.• Diversification of crops, landscape, livestock, and cultural practices to enhance the biological and economic stability of the farm; avoiding monocrops.• Promoting livestock and herd health through grass pasture feeding thereby using no hormones or antibiotics. ARUN
  43. 43. Sustainable Agriculture Techniques• Crop Rotation• Cover Crops• Soil Enrichment• Natural Pest Predators• Bio intensive Integrated Pest Management
  44. 44. Crop Rotation• Growing different crops in succession in the same field• Key element of the permanent and effective solution to pest problems• Reduces pest pressure on all the crops in the rotation by breaking the pest reproductive cycles.• Example: right now European corn borers are often a significant pest in the United States because most corn is grown in continuous cultivation or in two-year rotations with soybeans
  45. 45. Cover Crops• Preventing soil erosion,• Suppressing weeds, and• Enhancing soil quality.• Reduces the need for chemical inputs like herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizers.
  46. 46. Soil Enrichment• Soil is arguably the single most prized element of agricultural ecosystems.• Healthy soil teems with life, including many beneficial microbes and insects, but these are often killed off by the overuse of pesticides.• Good soils can improve yields and produce robust crops less vulnerable to pests; abused soils often require heavy fertilizer application to produce high yields.• Soil quality can be maintained and enhanced in many ways, including leaving crop residues in the field after harvest, plowing under cover crops, or adding composted plant material or animal manure.
  47. 47. Natural Pest Predators • Understanding a farm as an ecosystem rather than a factory offers exciting opportunities for effective pest control.• For example, many birds, insects, and spiders are natural predators of agricultural pests.• Managing farms so that they harbor populations of pest predators is a sophisticated and effective pest-control technique.• One of the unfortunate consequences of intensive use of chemical pesticides is the indiscriminate killing of birds, bats, and other pest predators.
  48. 48. Biointensive Integrated Pest Management• One of the most promising technologies is the control of pests through integrated pest management (IPM).• This approach relies to the greatest possible extent on biological rather than chemical measures, and emphasizes the prevention of pest problems with crop rotation; the reintroduction of natural, disease-fighting microbes into plants/soil,
  49. 49. A N K HT Y O U