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Discourse markers

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Discourse markers

  1. 1. Discourse MarkersTOEFL classesGlória Frazão29.04.08
  2. 2. Discourse Markers These are words like ‘however’, ‘although’, ‘nevertheless’. Referred to more commonly as ‘linking words and linking phrases’, or ‘sentence connectors’.
  3. 3. Discourse Markers They may be described as the ‘glue’ that binds together a piece of writing, making the different parts of the text ‘stick together’. They are used less frequently in speech, unless the speech is very formal.
  4. 4. What are the different discoursemarkers that can be used? There are many discourse markers that express different relationships between ideas. The most common types of relationship between ideas, and the sentence connectors that are most often used to express these relationships, are given in the table below.
  5. 5. Discourse MarkersThe discourse markers in the table aregenerally used at the start of a phrase orclause. (a clause is a minimal grammaticalstructure that has meaning in its own right,and consists of a subject and verb, and oftenan object too).Sentence connectors do not always begin acompletely new sentence; they may beseparated from the previous idea with asemi-colon.
  6. 6. Type of Sentence connectors Position relationship within clause/ sentenceAdding Moreover; In addition; Initial positionsomething Additionally; Further; Further to this; Also; Besides; What is more.Making a contrast However; On the other Initial positionbetween two hand; In contrast; Yet.separate things,people, ideas, etc.
  7. 7. Type of Sentence Position relationship connectors within clause/ sentenceMaking an Although; Even though; Initial positionunexpected Despite the fact that; In Starts acontrast spite of the fact that; second/ subordinat(concession) Regardless of the fact e clause that.Saying why Because; Since; As; In Initial positionsomething is the so far as. Starts acase second/ subordinat e clause
  8. 8. Type of relationship Sentence connectors Position within clause/sentenceExpressing a If; In the event of; As Initial positioncondition long as...; So long as...; Starts a Provided that...; second/ subordinat Assuming that...; Given e clause that....Making what you On the contrary; As a Initial positionsay stronger matter of fact; In fact; Indeed.
  9. 9. There are two particular features of the sentence connectors indicated above :1. Sentence connectors can be used to begin a new sentence or a new clause that follows a semi-colon.2. Some sentence connectors can be placed in different positions within the sentence a) ‘initial position’ (e.g. Because he is ill, he needs to rest’) b) and ‘mid-way position at the start of another clause (e.g. He must rest, because he is ill).
  10. 10. How are paragraphs linkedtogether?  In much the same way that ideas within a paragraph are linked, a new paragraph must be linked in some way with the previous one. This, too, needs the use of discourse markers.
  11. 11. How are paragraphs linked together?  Here are some different ways in which the opening of a paragraph can link back to what has happened before. The three basic types of paragraph-paragraph relationship are :  reinforcement of idea;  contrast of idea;  and concession. Indicating these relationships builds a bridge between paragraphs and makes reading the text easier.
  12. 12. Relationship Possible linguistic formulawith previous paragraphReinforcement of a) A further example of this phenomenon can be idea seen in Foucaults work. b) Jones (1999) further demonstrates this point in his most recent research.Contrast of ideas a) Jones, meanwhile/on the other hand, expresses this notion as self-defence. b) This argument is not, however, accepted by all critics. For instance, Smith (1999) holds that....
  13. 13. Relationshi Possible linguistic formula p with previousparagraphConcession a) Although the ideas of Jones (1999) are interesting and useful, they do not take account of the growing problems of identity theft. b) While Roberts (2006) emphasises the importance of Foucaults notion of the panopticon, the opposite view is held by other commentators. For example,... The end