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EN102 (Communication Arts 2)

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EN102 (Communication Arts 2)

  2. 2. Noun  name of a person, place, thing or idea  Kinds of Noun: 1. Proper Nouns – begin with capital letter 2. Common Nouns – general nouns 3. Collective Nouns – group that contains numbers 4. Mass Nouns – cannot be counted
  3. 3. Mass Nouns (cont’d)  Nouns are countable if: They can be preceded by a. They can be both singular and plural They can be counted  Nouns are uncountable if: They are preceded by some
  4. 4. Noun (cont’d) 5. Concrete Nouns – exist in the physical world 6. Abstract Nouns – refer to ideas and feelings
  5. 5. Cases of Noun  Nominative – used as the subject, predicate noun or appositive Danica looks pretty in her red dress. Dr. Lopez, our new professor, discusses the lesson well.  Objective – used as direct object, indirect object or object of the preposition Charles sent Lourdes a love letter.
  6. 6. Cases of Noun  Possessive – shows ownership or possession Marie’s bag is new.
  7. 7. Pronoun  Substitute for nouns  Antecedent – the noun to which a pronoun refers. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender, person and number.  Examples: Ms. Joy is my teacher. She is beautiful. The flowers grew beautifully. I gathered them last week.
  8. 8. PRONOUN TYPE Personal I, you, he, she, it, they, we, us, him, her, them, they Possessive Mine, yours, his, hers, ours theirs Reflexive Myself, yourself, himself, herself Reciprocal Each other, one another Demonstrative This, that, those, these Interrogative Who, whom, whose which, what Intensive I, myself Relative Who, whom, whose, which, that
  9. 9. Pronoun  First Person – I, me, mine, my, myself (singular) - we, us, ours, our, ourselves (plural)  Second Person – you, yours, your, yourself (singular) - you, yours, your, yourselves (plural)  Third Person – (singular)
  10. 10. Verb  Denotes an action or state of being  Types of Verb: Intransitive Verbs – do not take a direct object Flowers bloom. Transitive Verbs – require an object Flowers need water and sunlight. Ditransitive Verbs – take indirect and direct object Alex gave his girlfriend three red roses.
  11. 11. Types of Verb (cont’d)  Linking/Copula Verbs – where what follows the verb relates back to the subject (subject complement – a predicate noun or a predicate adjective) Roses are lovely Valentine’s Day gifts. She is beautiful.  Complex Transitive Verbs – where what follows the direct object relates to the object They chose Mae, muse of the team.
  12. 12. Types of Verb (cont’d)  Prepositional Verbs – requires a prepositional phrase to be complete We looked at the pictures taken during our graduation.
  13. 13. Verb Tenses  Simple Aspect – complete wholes; unchanging Simple Present – the present in general He looks excited. Simple Past – stating a definite time in the past We made cupcakes last week. Simple Future – an expression of what we think might happen or what we intend to happen
  14. 14. Verb Tenses  Perfect Aspect – prior Present Perfect – the past in relation to the present I have read the book several times. Past Perfect – events before a particular time in the past By noon, students had gathered at the quadrangle.
  15. 15. Perfect Aspect (cont’d)  Future Perfect – to refer to something that has not happened yet, but will happen before a particular time in the future By the time he graduates, his parents will already have left for New Zealand.
  16. 16. Verb Tenses  Progressive Aspect – incomplete action; changing  Present Progressive – accent on the present She’s spending a lot of on clothes these days. I’m already feeling bored and hungry.  Past Progressive – accent on the past His body was trembling; his fever was rising. We were dancing the whole night.  Future Progressive – accent on the future They will be coming soon.
  17. 17. Verb Tenses  Perfect-Progressive Aspect  Present Perfect Progressive – talks about an activity that started at some time in the past, continued, and is still happening now The economy has been declining in many parts of the world.  Past Perfect Progressive – continuous activity which took place before a particular time in the past The old woman had been living alone in that house.
  18. 18. Verb Tenses  Future Perfect Progressive – emphasizes the duration to an event at a specific time in the future By January 2016, she will have been serving this university for 38 years.
  19. 19. Voice  Pertains to who or what serves as the subject in a clause.  Active Voice – the subject of a clause is most often the agent, or doer of some action. The lifeguard saved the child.  Passive Voice – the subject of a clause is the receiver or undergoer of the action. The child was saved by the lifeguard.
  20. 20. Phrasal Verbs  Verbs which consist of two or three words A verb followed by an adverb: go up, spill over, push through A verb followed by a preposition: come upon, reckon with, bank on A verb followed by an adverb and a preposition: break out of, look forward to, go along with
  21. 21. Adjective  A word that describes the qualities of something  Commonly occurs between a determiner and a noun, or after be or other linking verbs or immediately following the intensifier very The cute baby seems very hungry.  Has comparative and superlative forms pretty prettier prettiest
  22. 22. Adjective  It modifies or complements nouns The honest man (modifier) The man is honest. (complement)  Has various types in terms of characteristic positions: Attributive – precedes nouns The diligent students pass the tough exam. Predicative – follows linking verbs They are happy with their high scores.
  23. 23. Order of Adjectives in Noun Groups DET Opinion size shape Condition age color origin noun many pretty small round chippe d antique blue Chines e vases
  24. 24. Kinds of Adjective  Indefinite Adjective – some, many, several, few, a little  Numerals – one, two, three  Descriptive Adjective – beautiful, tall, new  Proper Adjectives – Filipino flag, American dog  Nouns that Modify Noun – oak, paper  Phrases that modify noun – The girl standing there is my sister.
  25. 25. Adverb  Modifies or changes the meaning of other words such as verbs, adjectives, another adverb, or even a whole sentence  Adverbs can be readily recognized through certain affixes.  Suffix –ly hopefully, popularly  Prefix a- aloud, adrift, anew  Suffix –wise lengthwise, clockwise  Suffix wards backward(s), forward(s)
  26. 26. Kinds of Adverbs  Adverbs of Frequency – how often? (always, never, usually, rarely)  Adverbs of Relative Time – can be used with all tenses as meaning permits (just, still, already, lately)  Adverbs of Manner – how? How well? (carefully, eagerly, clearly, quickly)  Adverbs of Place – where? (here, in the city)  Adverbs of Time – when? (today, on April)  Adverbs that emphasize – only and even
  27. 27. Conjunction  Connects words or group of words
  28. 28. Coordinating Conjunctions  the process of combining ideas; compounding Compound Sentence: The boys sang and the girls danced last night. Compound Subject: The teacher and her students will join the parade. Compound Verb: The children play and eat during recess. Compound Object: We boiled corn and cassava.
  29. 29. Coordinating Conjunctions Conjunction Meaning for Because and plus nor Conjoins two negative sentences, both of which are true but Shows contrasts or One or the other two alternatives is true yet But at the same time so therefore
  30. 30. Subordination  Putting less important ideas in less important grammatical structures like dependent clauses  Sentence Combining Melissa topped the test. Melissa was late by twenty minutes. Although late by twenty minutes, Melissa topped the test.  Reducing Although late, Melissa topped the test.
  31. 31. Subordinating Conjunctions  Connects dependent clauses to independent clauses Type Conjunction Type Conjunction time When, before, after, since, while, until, as Conditional If, unless Purpose In order to, so that Reason Because, since, as Result So that Concessive Although, though, while, despite Where,
  32. 32. Prepositions  Shows the relation between a word and a noun or pronoun that follows. It indicates: Place and position – at, in, across Direction and motion – in, towards, out, about, Time – at, before, after, during, since, until
  34. 34. Sentence and Fragment  A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate and expressing a complete thought.  A fragment is a group of words that does not have both subject and predicate and does not express a complete thought.
  35. 35. Sentence and Fragment Fragment : in your books and maps Sentence : The world is not in your books and maps.
  36. 36. Sentence and Fragment  Two types of fragments that are often used and understood in speech and written dialogue:  Interjection – word/ words that express strong feeling Oh, no!  Answer to a question - Who was with you last night? - This girl.
  37. 37. Sentence and Fragment  A beautiful creature appeared.  On April 25, 2006, the Sandovals  Swim to the center.  Rough road.
  38. 38. Kinds of Sentences Declarative Makes a statement; begins with a capital letter; ends with a period I find it attractive when you let people know I’m yours. Interrogati ve Asks a question; begins with a capital letter; ends with a question mark What can I do to make you love me?
  39. 39. Kinds of Sentences Exclamator y Expresses strong feelings; begins with a capital letter; ends with an exclamation mark Happy birthday! Imperative Gives a command or makes a polite request; begins with a capital letter; ends with a period or exclamation mark Give your all to me.
  40. 40. Subjects and Predicates  A sentence has a subject and a predicate.  The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.  The predicate tells what the subject does, is or has. Example:  The busy man works all day.
  41. 41. Subjects and Predicates  The complete subject in the sentence is the busy man.  Each complete subject has one word that is the most important, or main word. It is a noun or a pronoun and is called the simple subject.
  42. 42. Subjects and Predicates  The complete predicate in the sentence is works all day.  Like the complete subject, the complete predicate all has one word that is the most important. It is called the simple predicate, and it is always a verb.
  43. 43. Find the simple subject and predicate in each sentence:  Some people maintain the rose garden.  The government policy on botanical parks seems impressive.  Several tourists visit the park in this city.
  44. 44. Subjects and Predicates  A compound subject contains two or more subjects that share the same verb. Example: Flowers and trees beautify our surroundings.  A compound predicate contains two or more verbs that share the same subject. Example: The farmers spray and fertilize their plants.
  45. 45. Name the compound parts:  Some flowers and plants depend on insects for growth.  Flowers attract and keep bees in them.  Adults or children pick flowers from the garden.
  46. 46. Rules - Compound Subjects  A compound subject consisting of two or more nouns, or pronouns joined by and is plural requires a plural verb.  Richard and Lucy agree that you and I are capable of doing the work.  (not agrees) (not am or is)
  47. 47. Rules - Compound Subjects  However, when the parts of a compound subject refer to one person or thing, the subject requires a singular verb – even though the parts of the subject are joined by and.  The president and chief executive officer is Olivia Pope.  (not are)
  48. 48. Rules - Compound Subjects  When the parts of a compound subject are joined by and and the subject is preceded by each, every, or many a, the subject is singular and requires a singular verb.  Each letter, memo, and report requires careful proofreading.  (not require)
  49. 49. Rules - Compound Subjects  Every radio and television was on sale at less than half the regular price.  (not were)  Many a man, woman, and child uses public transportation everyday.  (not use)
  50. 50. Rules - Compound Subjects  When the parts of a compound subject are joined by or or nor and each of the parts is singular, use a singular verb that agrees in person with the subject immediately preceding the verb.
  51. 51. Rules - Compound Subjects  Jane or I am likely to be asked to assist them.  (not is)  Neither the catalog nor the price list contains an order form.  (not contain)
  52. 52. Rules - Compound Subjects  However, when a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the plural subject should immediately precede the verb and a plural verb should be used.  Neither the defendant nor the witnesses have testified yet.  (not the witnesses nor the defendant has)
  53. 53. Rules - Compound Subjects  We do not know whether the owner or the tenants are responsible.  (not the tenants or the owner is)
  54. 54. Compound Sentence  Contains two complete thoughts joined by the conjunction and, but, for, or, nor, yet, so.  The reforestation began in 1995, and it still continues today.
  55. 55. Combine each pair into a compound sentence:  The overtime play exhausts them. They continue.  Lydia cheers for her favorite player. She creates a loud noise.
  56. 56. Complex Sentence  Contains one independent (main clause) and one dependent (subordinate clause)  A main clause has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence.  A subordinate clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate that does not express a complete thought.
  57. 57. Complex Sentence  When the sun sets, the carabaos go to the barn.  Joy studies hard in order to get high grades.  If this is to end in fire, then we should all burn together.
  59. 59. S – IV (Subject – Intransitive Verb)  He left. S IV  They cheered loudly. S IV
  60. 60. S-TV-DO (Subject-Transitive Verb- Direct Object)  Joy passed the examination. S TV DO  I bought a new car. S TV DO
  61. 61. S-TV-IO-DO (Subject-Transitive Verb-Indirect Object-Direct Object)  My boyfriend gave me a bouquet of flowers. S TV IO DO  The professor gave his students high grades. S TV IO DO
  62. 62. S-TV-DO-OC (Subject-Transitive Verb-Direct Object-Objective Complement)  I consider the doctor a generous man. S TV DO OC  Joy made her mom happy because of the gift. S TV DO OC
  63. 63. S-LV-C (Subject-Linking Verb- Complement)  The teacher is intelligent. S LV C  My father is a lawyer. S LV C