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Nursing Management (1).ppt

  2. ADMINISTRATION  The word “administer” is derived from Latin word “ad+ministraire”, means to care for or to look after people to manage affairs.  Administraire means “Serve”. The meaning itself reflect that the administrator regards himself as servant, not that the master to look after, perform all the functions. It is a cooperative effort, directed towards the realization of a consciously laid down objectives.
  3. ADMINISTRATION  Definition  “Administration is the organization and direction of human and material resources to achieve desired ends.” - Pfiffner and Presthus  “Administration has to do with getting things done, with accomplishment of defined objectives.” - Luther Gullick  “Administration is the direction, coordination and control of many persons to achieve some purposes or objectives.” - LD White  “Administration is the activities of groups cooperating to accomplish common goals.” - Herbert A Simon
  4. NATURE OF ADMINISTRATION Universal Holistic Intangible Dynamic Goal oriented Continuous Social and Human Creative
  5. PHILOSOPHY OF ADMINISTRATION  Cost effectiveness  Execution and control of work plans  Delegation of Responsibility and authority  Human relations and Good Morale  Effective communication  Flexibility in certain situations.
  6. INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT  Management is a general term which is described in various ways, with significantly different meaning.  For eg: sociologist, treated it as a class or group of persons  Practitioners, a process comprising different activities  Traditional authors, it is a art of getting things done  Modern authors, it is a process to achieve certain objectives through utilization of human and other resources
  7.  Management is commonly termed as functioning with and through the personnel, individually or in group, to manage the resources to the maximum to achieve the objectives  Management techniques are significantly relevant to those who control the behavior of those under them to accomplish the goals.
  8.  Four main components of management process:  framing strategies of planning management  Systemizing the work process  Reinforcing or motivating the workers  Supervising to achieve the goals of the management
  9. CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT  Traditional concept  It is viewed as an art of getting things done  Mary Parker Folett defines ‘management is the art of getting things done through people’  ‘management consist of getting things done through others’
  10. MODERN CONCEPT  Managing not only limited to directing the efforts to others to accomplish the goals of organization but also involves creating an environment or climate in the organization whereby the individuals are motivated to work efficiently to achieve specific objectives of organization
  11.  Koontz Harold and Cyril O’Donnell defines  “ management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working in groups, can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals.”
  12.  Taking all the emerging concepts in view, the management can be used in the following four ways:  management as a discipline  Management as an activity  Management as a group of people  Management a process
  13.  According to these concepts management is viewed in the direction of people with defined activities towards organizational objectives.  Weilrichs and Koontz(1994) stated “management is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which the individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims.”  The managers are to carry out managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.
  14.  FINALLY  Management is the process of achieving its objectives by utilizing and controlling the group of appointed candidates in order to complete the management task  Providing good work environment ensures that the workers perform well,  Ultimately, the group performance removes the hurdles and provides ways for maximizing the skill in attaining the objectives of the management.
  15.  Management involves a set of activities directed at the efficient and effective utilization of resources- human, financial and physical – through planning, organizing, leading and controlling functions  It is based on economic resources, goals, processes and authority
  16. CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT  Raymond Gi Leon in his famous book has written “manage more by doing less” which explains the following concepts of management;  Communication  System  Results  Participation  Motivation  Exception  Objectives
  17.  According to Dr. C.B. Gupta concepts of management are:  Management as an economic resource  Management as a team  Management as an academic discipline  Management as a process  Management as a human process  Management is concerned with ideas, things and people  Management is the effective utilization of human and material resources to achieve the enterprise objectives
  18. DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT  Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups. Koontz  Management is the function of getting things done through people and directing efforts of individuals towards a common objective. Theo Haimann
  19.  Management can be defined as the art of applying the environment principles that underline the control of men and material in the enterprise under consideration. Kimball and Kimball  “Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum results with the minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service.” John Mee
  20. DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT  Management is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected items.  Management has been defined as the creation and maintenance of internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups, can perform efficiently and towards the attainment of group goals. Koontz and O’Donell
  23. DIFFERENCES IN ADMINISTRATION & MANAGEMENT Bases Management Administration Main focus Getting the work done Formulation of policies, objectives, plans, programmes Function Execution of decisions Decision making Concern Implementation of policies laid down by administration Determination of major policies Authority Operational authority to implement administrative decisions Authority to take up strategic and policy decisions Level in the organizati on Applicable at lower levels of management Refers to higher levels of management Decision making Decision is made who will execute the policies etc Determine what is to be done and when it is
  24. Bases Management Administration Applicability Applicable in private sector Applicable in government sector Directive activities Concerned with direction of human efforts at the operational level Not directly concerned with operational level officials
  25. ELEMENTS/ FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION Professor Luther Gullick (1937) has summed up the elements of administration in the word, “POSDCORB”
  26.  P-PLANNING:  It refers to working out a broad outline, the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprises or of the purpose in hand.
  27.  Planning is Preparing a blue print.  It is a continuous , Intellectual process of determining philosophy ,Objectives, Policies, procedures and rules and standards, long and short term projected out comes and fiscal course of actions and managing planned change. This is the preliminary and most important step of management process.
  28.  PLANNING  According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”.  A plan is a future course of actions.  Planning is a process of determining the objectives effort and devising the means calculated to achieve them. - Millet
  29. ADVANTAGES OF PLANNING Planning facilitates management by objectives Planning minimizes uncertainties Planning facilitates co-ordination Planning improves employee’s morale Planning helps in achieving economies Planning facilitates controlling Planning encourages innovations
  30.  O-ORGANISING:  It refers to the establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work of subdivisions are arranged, defined and coordinated for the defined objective.  Building up the structure of authority through which the entire work to be done is arranged into well defined subdivisions and coordination's.
  31.  It is establishing the structure to carry out plans. Determining the most appropriate type of patient care delivery in a health agency. Or educational programs in an institution. Grouping the activities to meet its goals,  Other functions involve;  working within the structure of an organization and  understanding and  using power and authority appropriately.
  32.  ORGANIZING  Organization is the form of every human association for the attainment of common purpose and the process of relating specific duties or function in a whole. - J.D.Mooney.
  33.  S-STAFFING:  The whole personnel function of bringing and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work  Appointing suitable persons to the various posts under the organization and the whole of personnel management
  34.  STAFFING  According to Koontz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves managing the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed and the structure”.  Staffing involves: Manpower planning Recruitment, selection & placement. Training & development. Remuneration. Performance appraisal. Promotions & transfer.
  35.  It is a process of assigning competent people to fill the appropriate nursing roles in a an institution , designated for the organizational structure through;  Recruitment & Selection of staff  Hiring and Orienting staff ,  Staff scheduling and  Staff development activities,.  staffing often becomes part of organizing. Example : Appointment of a Dean for the college of nursing, nursing superintendent for a hospital or a head nurse for a surgical unit etc.
  36.  D-DIRECTING:  Continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as leader of the enterprise.  Making decisions and issuing orders and instructions embodying them for the guidance of the staff.
  37.  Is a process of involving many human resource management responsibilities such as ;  Motivating  Managing a conflict,  Communicating and  Facilitating Collaboration and Coordination.
  38.  CO-COORDINATING:  Interrelating various parts of the work and eliminating of overlapping and conflict
  39.  CO-ORDINATING  It is the act of synchronising people and activities so that they function smoothly in the attainment of organization objectives.  Co-ordination is the integrating process in an orderly pattern of group efforts in an organization towards the accomplishment of a common objective. - Terry
  40.  R-REPORTING:  Keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research and inspection
  41.  REPORTING & RECORDING  Reports are oral or written exchanges of information shared between caregivers or workers in a number of ways.  A report summarizes the services of the person, personnel and of the agency.  Reports are written usually daily, weekly, monthly or yearly.
  42.  B-BUDGETING:  Budget is the whole of financial administration.  Budget is mainly in the form of fiscal planning, accounting and control.
  43.  BUDGETING  It is expressed in financial terms and based on expected income and expenditure. It is the form of fiscal planning, accounting and controlling of financial resources. It served as a powerful tool of coordination and negatively an effective device of eliminating duplicating and wastage.
  44. FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION  Henri Fayol (1925) first identified the functions of Administration. They are  Planning  Organization  Command  Coordination  Control
  45.  These functions are revised and are now taught as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling (Kannan)  These functions appears to be independent, they are really interactive and make up the management process.
  46. PLANNING  Determines  Mission/ Philosphy  Goals/ Objectives  Policies/ Rules  Procedures  Scheduled changes  Fiscal/ budget actions
  47. ORGANIZING It provides the structure required to execute the plan. Organizing includes everything needed to:  Carry out plans  Assign the duties and activities to specific positions and people to provide client care  Group activities to meet goals  Delegate authority  Establish horizontal and vertical authority- responsibility relationships  Work within the system
  48. STAFFING  Involves selecting the right person to execute each planned task. Staffing transforms a plan into action. It includes  Recruiting  Interviewing  Hiring  Orientation  Staff development
  49. DIRECTING  It includes  Motivate  Manage conflict  Delegate  Communicate  Collaborate  Functions of directing includes giving orders and instructions, supervising the people at work, enhancing motivation by creating a willingness in others to work towards specific objectives etc
  50. CONTROLLING  It includes  Performance appraisals  Fiscal accountability  Quality control  Legal and ethical issues  Professional and collegial control
  51.  Later Luther Gullick (1937) expanded the functions in the term of POSDCORB  Planning  Organizing  Staffing  Directing  Coordinating  Reporting  Budgeting
  52. PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION  According to Finer, following are the principles of administration:  1. Principle of Oneness  2. Principle of Specialism and the Whole  3. Principle of Hierarchy and Regimentation  4. Principle of Morale  5. Principle of Bureaucracy  6. Principle of Self Administration.
  53. PRINCIPLE OF ONENESS  From the apprehension of purpose, from its absorption, flows directly the oneness of leadership that gives form to the whole aggregate of people whose skills are needed for its fulfillment  Oneness implies that all the personnel are members.  The first requirement is that the right of people to have positions of authority
  54. PRINCIPLE OF SPECIALISM AND THE WHOLE  In the administration, each one should become an expert.  The contribution that expertness make to a whole organization is the sure mastery of part of clinical or administrative practice, a mastery that others need as an ingredient of their service, and must take on authority of the person who is expert.  Failure to do this means either a loss of effectiveness or the need to neglect other work in order to immense oneself in the specialism  Eg; expert in sweeping, so the expertness of the specialist is indispensable and must be preserved and encouraged
  55. PRINCIPLE OF HIERARCHY AND REGIMENTATION  Administration has accepted the idea of hierarchy to denote authority coming downward from above, but not in the sense of chastising dogmatic rule.  When the administrative scientist talk of hierarchy, they mean not regimentation but the pervasion of whole organization with a notion of its oneness and fitting together of all members vertically(downward) in the line of authority and horizontally(across) of teams and colleagues in specialist skill.
  56. PRINCIPLE OF MORALE  Morale is the spirit of active devotion to the persons working together for a common purpose.  When it is high, subjective burdens of the work, its hours, its routines, the patience it demands, the submissions of personal interesting and values are lightly carried and there is an easy and cheerful demeanor on the part of those who take and give order.  When it is low, the work and purpose lose value and personality frustrates them. When against, personal tensions, individual and interpersonal, rise in high and rebelliously more endangered.  To buy morale, all aspects of employees are taken into confidence at all levels
  57. PRINCIPLE OF BUREAUCRACY  Bureaucracy is diseased administration, the disease may be defined as deficiency in the spirit that created its purpose that caused organization to be created, so that either cooperation has fallen apart or activities are executed without any interest in the object originally assigned to them.  Bureaucracy is administration without purpose, ethos, oneness or morale; it is the organizational form of personality equal to the individual person called ‘Hollowmen’.
  58. PRINCIPLE OF SELF ADMINISTRATION  Administration begins with self in relationship to the fulfillment of a purpose. The administrator begins with self administration, the adaptation of his own stubborn, passive, incompetent or dissentient self to the purpose, even if no one else is at work with him on the job  Every professional worker is obliged to administer himself/ herself, they must retain their caprices, harness their energies and abate spiritual and mental rebellion in their natures for the successful and most economical mastery of purpose.
  60. 1. DIVISON OF WORK:  The work in organisation must be divided among individuals and departments.  It leads to specialisation.  improvement in quality, quantity, and reduction in cost
  61. 2. AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY  Authority is the right to give orders and obtain obedience, and responsibility is the corollary of authority.
  62. 3. DISCIPLINE  Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization.  Good discipline is the result of effective leadership, regulation.
  63. 4. UNITY OF COMMAND  Every employee should receive orders from only one superior or behalf of the superior.  Every employee should follow orders from superior as per the instructions.
  64. 5. UNITY OF DIRECTION  directed by one manager using one plan for achievement of one common goal.  Particular activity must be directed with single plan
  65. 6. SUBORDINATION OF INTEREST  Every employee or a group  should work in the interest  of the organisation.  They should not work for  their own self interest.
  66. 7. REMUNERATION  All Workers must be paid a  fair wage for their services.  Value of the employee.
  67. 8. CENTRALISATION  degree to which  subordinates are involved  in decision making.  There should be a central  power to guide and take  decisions.
  68. 9. SCALAR CHAIN  Communications should  follow this chain.  Chain can be broken as per  the situation or demand in  interest of the organisation.
  69. 10. ORDER  This principle is concerned  with systematic  arrangement of men,  machine, material etc.  There should be a specific  place for every employee  in an organization.
  70. 11. EQUITY  Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.  There must not be partiality in transfers, promotions etc.
  71. 12. STABILITY OF TENURE  Employee should not be temporary for long period of time.  Employee should be made permanent so that they do not leave the organisation
  72. 13. INITIATIVE  Superior must sacrifice his own vanity to encourage and inspire those under him to show initiative.  Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort.
  73. 14. ESPRIT DE CORPS  Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.  Loyalty, dedication and commitment.
  74. NURSING ADMINISTRATION AND NURSING MANAGEMENT  Nursing administration is above nursing management  “Nursing Administration is primarily the process and agency used to establish the nursing objectives or purposes, which an undertaking or staffs are to achieve. It also has to plan and to stabilize, the broad lines or principles that will govern nursing action. These broad lines are usually called policies. Whereas the nursing management is the process and agency through which execution of nursing policy is planned and supervised.” Milward GE
  75. NURSING MANAGEMENT  Nursing management as ‘the process of working through nursing staff members to provide care, cure and comfort to patients’ Gillies DA  Nursing management is defined as the process of planning, organizing, activating and controlling the managerial functions of nursing in order to determine and accomplish the objectives of nursing care  Nursing management is the art of getting work done through and with nursing staff by nurse manager. It is a cooperative effort aimed at providing high quality care to the patient
  77. PERSONNAL MANAGEMENT  It is the part of the management function, which is primarily concerned with the human relationship within the organization.  Elements  Recruiting employee  Retaining employee  Maintaining good interpersonal employee, employer relationships  Ensuring that the employees aware of the objectives
  78.  Aims :  To attract and retain competent professional nurses and other personnel  To achieve effective nursing service  To provide nursing service which contribute to health, development of efficiency and contentment of the personnel
  79. MATERIAL MANAGEMENT  It is an important and integral component of resource mangement covering both human and materials management.  It is concerned with 5M’s  Men  Money  Material  Machines  Moral
  80. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT  It is concerned with management of money and expenditure, through raising funds profitably and ensuring its control  Importance  Building and maintaining the infrastructure  Procuring drugs, supplies and equipment  Undertaking medical laboratory services, radiographic services, blood banking services, pharmacy services, laundry services, CSSD services and so on
  81.  Top level management  Responsible for planning. It lays down the polices and programmes for the enterprise. It thus, provides a framework within which the entire enterprise works. Top management is responsible for providing leadership, guidance and supervision.
  82.  The middle order management  Responsible for executive work at the second tier which certainly functions as the second order to the top management.  The lowest level management  Like the middle order responsible for the execution for the plans, polices and programmes. This level is directly involved in the operation of job while the middle order management, the second tier, is indirectly responsible for execution.
  84. Board of director Managing director TOP LEVEL General manager Dept manager Deputy manager MIDDLE LEVEL Asst manager Forman Supervisor firstline LOWER LEVEL Workers
  85. MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TECHNIQUES Detection Evaluation Improving performance Optimising performance Specification of a desired value of situation or action Control Communication Demonstration
  86.  Detection  To find out what is happening or discover something, eg. What is wrong.  Techniques: Input-output analysis, attitude survey, production study, activity sampling, critical examination and break even analysis.
  87.  Evaluation  To measure or estimate the value of an item  Techniques: job evaluation, work measurement, work estimation, performance, appraisal, cost benefit analysis and network analysis  Improving performance  Techniques: management by objective, method study, value analysis, management by exception
  88.  Optimizing performance  Techniques: linear programming ergonomics, operational research  Specification of a desired value of situation or action  Techniques: layout planning for offices and plants etc  Control  Techniques: cost control, credit control, labour control, inventory control, production control and budget control
  89.  Communication:  Techniques: visual aids, suggestion schemes, report writing, communication theory, information theory, management information etc  Demonstration :  Techniques: programmed learning, job instruction, management development and training etc