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The health belief model

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The health belief model

  1. 1. The Health Belief Model
  2. 2. Historical Origins of the Model  Lewin’s Field Theory (1935)  Introduced the concept of barriers to and facilitators of behavior change  U.S. Public Health Service (1950’s)  Group of social psychologists trying to explain why people did not participate in prevention and screening programs.  Two major influences from learning theory:  Stimulus Response Theory  Cognitive Theory
  3. 3. Stimulus Response Theory  Learning results from events which reduce the psychological drives that cause behavior (reinforcers)  In other words, we learn to enact new behaviors, change existing behaviors, and reduce or eliminate behaviors because of the consequences of our actions.  Reinforcers, punishments, rewards
  4. 4. Cognitive Theory  Emphasize the role of subjective hypotheses and expectations held by the individual.  Beliefs, attitudes, desires, expectations, etc.  Influencing beliefs and expectations about the situation can drive behavior change, rather than trying to influence the behavior directly.
  5. 5. Value-Expectancy Theory  Expectancy: person believes that increased effort leads to improved performance  Instrumentality: person believes that improved performance leads to a certain outcome or reward  Outcomes: person values that reward or outcome
  6. 6. HBM  HBM is a value-expectancy theory  Based on these assumptions:  People desire to avoid illness or get well  People believe that a specific health action that is available to him or her will prevent illness  Initial development based on probability- based studies of 1200 adults  People who believed they were susceptible AND believed in the benefits of early detection were much more likely to be screened for TB.
  7. 7. Components of HBM  Perceived Susceptibility: how likely do you think you are to have this health issue?  Perceived Severity: how serious a problem do you believe this health issue is?  Perceived Benefits: how well does the recommended behavior reduce the risk(s) associated with this health issue?  Perceived Barriers: what are the potential negative aspects of doing this recommended behavior?
  8. 8. Additional Components of HBM  Cues to Action: factors which cause you to change, or want to change. (not systematically studied)  Self-Efficacy: one’s “conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes” (Bandura, 1977).  As the health concerns of the nation have shifted to lifestyle-related conditions, self-efficacy has taken on greater importance, both as an independent construct, and as a component of HBM
  9. 9. Individual Perceptions Modifying Factors Likelihood of Action •Demographics •Personality •SES •Knowledge Perceived threat Cues to Action •Education •Symptoms •Media •Perceived Susceptibility •Perceived Severity Perceived Benefits minus Perceived Barriers Likelihood of Behavior change