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OB chapter 1 ppt.ppt

  2. Meaning of organization An organization is a group of people working together in a coordinated and structured fashion to achieve one or more goals. 1–2
  3. What are organisations? Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose – structured patterns of interaction – coordinated tasks – work toward some purpose Courtesy of Computershare Ltd 3
  4. Organizations and Management  Organizations use management to accomplish the work that is required to achieve the goals.  Management is a process of planning, decision making, organizing, leading, motivation and controlling the human resources, financial, physical, and information resources of an organization to reach its goals efficiently and effectively.  Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. 1–4
  5. Management and organization Managerial Activities • Make decisions • Allocate resources • Direct activities of others to attain goals to attain goals of organizations 1–5
  6. 1–6 Levels of management First-line Managers  Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. Middle Managers  Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Top Managers  Individuals who are responsible for making organization- wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
  7. 1–7 Managerial Levels
  8. Levels of management 1–8
  9. Management Functions Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling 1–9
  10. Management Functions (cont’d) 1–10
  11. Management Functions (cont’d) 1–11
  12. Management Functions (cont’d) 1–12
  13. Management Functions (cont’d) 1–13
  14. Managerial Roles 1–14  Are specific behaviors associated with the task of management  Managers adopt the roles to accomplish the functions of mgmt.
  15. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
  16. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)
  17. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)
  18. Management Skills 1–18 Management skills are qualities or abilities that mangers should possess in order to fulfill specific tasks in an organization
  19. Levels of management and skills needed
  20. Effective V/s Successful Managerial Activities Luthans (1988), on the basis of his study, found that all managers engage in four managerial activities. 1. Traditional management • Decision making, planning, and controlling 2. Communications • Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork 3. Human resource management • Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training 4. Networking • Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others 1–20
  21. Allocation of Activities by Time
  22. The Meaning of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) is  The study of human behavior in the workplace  The interaction between people and the organization  The organization itself.  It studies three determinants of behavior in organizations: individuals, groups, and structure.  OB is the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organization’s performance  Organizational behavior’s major goals are to  explain, predict, and control behavior. 1–22
  23. Nature of OB  Focuses on understanding and explaining individual and group behaviors in organisations  It is concerned with what people do in an organisation and how that behavior affects performance  The understanding, prediction and management of human behavior in the organisations  OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover, and increasing employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment 1–23
  24. Enter Organizational Behavior  The field of OB seeks to replace intuitive explanations with systematic study /EBM Evidence-based management (EBM) the basing of managerial 1–24
  25.  Why Do We Study OB?  To learn about yourself and others  To understand how the many organizations you encounter work.  To become familiar with team work  To help you think about the people issues faced by managers and entrepreneurs 1–25
  26. OB includes Core topics in OB  Motivation  Leader behavior and power  Interpersonal communication  Group structure and processes  Learning  Attitude development and perception  Change processes  Conflict  Work design  Work stress 1–26
  27. Benefits of Studying Organizational Behavior  Develop skills to function effectively in the workplace.  Grow personally through insight into human behavior.  Enhance overall organizational effectiveness  Sharpen and refine common sense. 1–27
  28. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
  29. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture. 1–29
  30. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) 1–30
  31. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) 1–31
  32. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1-3f 1–32
  33. Principles in OB  Impossible to make simple and accurate generalizations  Human beings are complex and diverse  OB concepts must reflect situational conditions: Contingency variables 1–34
  34. There Are Few Absolutes in OB Contingency variables: Situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change—e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition but not another In Ethiopian culture Understood as Congratulating In Australian culture Understood as insulting
  35. Dependent and independent variables in OB 1–36  A dependent variable is the key factor that is explained or predicted by some other (independent) factor.  The key dependent variables in the model of organizational behaviour are • Productivity • Absenteeism • Turnover • Deviant workplace behaviour • Organizational citizenship behaviour, and • Job satisfaction.  Independent variables are those factors that are directly related to the organization and determine its overall success.  Independent variables occur at the level of • Individual • Group, And • Organization
  36. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Productivity Productivity measures how efficiently and effectively an organization or its employees convert inputs(labor and capital) into outputs(goods or services) Effectiveness Achievement of goals Efficiency Meeting goals at a low cost
  37. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Absenteeism Failure of individuals to report for work, primarily unscheduled or unanticipated absence Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization
  38. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Deviant Workplace Behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members
  39. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization
  40. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Job Satisfaction A general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
  41. The Independent Variables Independent Variables Can Be Individual-Level Variables Organization System-Level Variables Group-Level Variables Independent Variable • The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable; major determinants of a dependent variable
  42. Individual level variables Most familiar examples are demographic characteristics like • Age • Ethnicity • Formal education level • Marital status • Religion, and Sex Other examples are an employee’s existing • Personality traits • Emotional patterns • Values • Attitudes, and • Basic abilities like physical dexterity and cognitive skills
  43. Group-Level Variables  Group purpose, duration, and stakeholders  Intra- and inter-group communication patterns  Leadership and leadership styles  Authority, power, and group politics  Intra- and inter-group relations (interactions)  Intra- and inter-group conflict
  44. Organization -Level Variables  Organizational structure  Organizational culture  Leadership
  45. Basic OB Model Independent Variables Dependent Variables  Productivity  Deviant Workplace Behavior  Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)  Absenteeism  Turnover  Job satisfaction Organizational Level Group Level Individual Level 1–46 Organizational behavior model is a basic structure that shows the relations between variables at different levels in the organization