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Sustainable building design

Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space.
Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the design of the built environment.
The idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations.

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Sustainable building design

  1. 1. Literature Study PLANNING AND DESIGN PASSIVE STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILDING DESIGN Presented By: Ar. Deepika Verma, Ar. Mehak M.Arch 1st Semester, Batch 2015. Department of Architecture & Planning
  2. 2. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES INTRODUCTION Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the design of the built environment. The importance of the subject is increasing everyday; while the world population is increasing and the overall quantity of natural resources is decreasing . The conflict of this century is an increase in peoples’ life quality while a decrease in the overall consumption of natural resources. Ecological and green design ideologies are significant titles that are directly related in within the concept of sustainability in the built environments. The idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations.
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  6. 6. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES 3 TIER APPROACH TO DESIGN
  7. 7. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Some common design elements that directly or indirectly affects thermal comfort conditions and thereby the energy consumption in a building are:- Site Planning Plan /form of building Building envelope and fenestration Landscaping DESIGN ELEMENTS
  8. 8. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES SITE PLANNING A sustainably planned site needs to have the following features :-  Proper orientation of the building as per sun direction and wind movement.  High quality day lighting  Storm water runoff  Protect open space  Reduce the risk of soil erosion  Reduce the hard paved areas  Retain the mature trees  Use of low energy or passive heating or cooling  Reduce vehicular use for circulation from one building block to another.
  9. 9. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES ORIENTATION Orientation is the positioning of a building in relation to seasonal variations in the sun’s path as well as prevailing wind patterns. Good orientation can increase the energy efficiency of your home, making it more comfortable to live in and cheaper to run. In sustainable design features, orientation is a major design consideration, mainly with regard to:- Solar Radiation Daylight Wind
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  11. 11. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Daylighting is the controlled admission of natural lightmdash;direct sunlight and diffuse skylight—into a building to reduce electric lighting and saving energy. By providing a direct link to the dynamic and perpetually evolving patterns of outdoor illumination, daylighting helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants, while reducing as much as one-third of total building energy costs. BUILDING DESIGN AND DAYLIGHT Total solar radiation incident = total direct+total diffuse+ground reflected It can be very difficult to get consistent daylight and control glare from east and west windows. However, the side of the building facing the sun's path (the equator- facing side) can generally be easily shaded with overhangs, light shelves, or louvers, and the side of the building facing away from the sun's path gets little or no glare.
  12. 12. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES  High quality day lighting  Protect open space  Reduce the hard paved areas  Retain the mature trees  Use of low energy or passive heating or cooling  Reduce vehicular use for circulation from one building block to another.
  13. 13. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Building form can affect solar access and wind exposure as well as the rate of heat loss or heat gain through the external envelope. The volume of space inside a building that needs to be heated or cooled and its relationship with the area of the envelope enclosing the volume affect the thermal performance of the building. The general design objectives are:- •Use sheltering and buffering •Contain the exposure of external elements by means of compact building envelope and careful consideration of the treatment of different elevations Sheltering or self-shading: •Built form, which is designed such that it is self-shaded through massing or articulation results in sheltered built forms, and cuts off a large amount of direct solar radiation. •In composite climate, the envelope should be designed so that it remains shaded for the greater part of the day; the external walls should be so planned that they shade each other. BUILDING FORM
  14. 14. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Compactness: •The building form also determines the air flow pattern around the building directly affecting its ventilation. •The compactness of the building is measured using the ratio of surface area to volume (S/V). •The depth of a building also determines the requirement for artificial lighting. The greater the depth, higher is the need for artificial lighting. •The circular geometry has the lowest S/+ ratio thus the conduction gains from the building envelope as well as solar gains from windows are least, in circular geometry in comparison to other building geometries which is most energy efficient in composite climate.
  15. 15. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES WIND EFFECTS Natural ventilation and air change effectiveness is an important concept in the interior architecture. The cross ventilation system proposed relies on cooled filtered air being provided by surrounding vegetation and landscaping. This cooled and filtered area is then drawn through the apartments via convection. The facade openings would be small, top-hung and set low in sets of two or three to draw in the low lying cooler air. Purpose designed vents, high level louvers, or ventilating skylights can be used to exhaust warm air at the top of the spaces, creating outlets for the thermal flues that are formed by the stairwells, thermal chimneys or centralised ducts. Surrounding vegetation would improve the effect of natural ventilation especially during summer time
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  18. 18. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Design Strategies in Composite Climate  Plan the building around the courtyard.  Reduce heat gain in the building through building envelope  Plan water bodies  Cavity walls, terrace gardens, light shelves.
  19. 19. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES COURTYARD PLANNING:
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  22. 22. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES BUILDING ENVELOPE AND FENESTRATION A) Building Skin Effect : Single Skin Effect
  23. 23. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Double Skin Effect
  24. 24. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES TROMBE WALL  Vent added to outside at the top can drive warm air out in the summer and bring cooler air from a north vent  Trombe wall can be used as part of a south-facing greenhouse  Trombe wall concept may be retrofitted to existing houses with brick or stone construction.
  25. 25. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES TROMBE WALL VENTING IN SUMMER Sun hitting the bottom drives the hot air up to the open vent
  26. 26. PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES THERMAL STORAGE WALLS OR TROMBE WALLS Advantages:  Eliminates glare  Lowers temperature swings in room  Vents allow partition of energy into daytime and nighttime heating  Sun hits entire mass Precautions:  More expensive and less efficient than DG  More difficult to reduce nighttime losses  Best for sunnier climates  Occupies valuable space in building
  27. 27. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES B) Building Fenestrations:
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  29. 29. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES BENEFITS OF DAYLIGHTING Day lighting requires an integrated design approach to be successful, because it can involve decisions about the building form, siting, climate, building components (such as windows and skylights), lighting controls, and lighting design criteria. 1. Improved Life‐Cycle Cost 2. Increased User Productivity 3. Reduced Emissions 4. Reduced Operating Costs Section showing the 2.5 rule of thumb which assumes that adequate daylight for office tasks will penetrate to a depth of 2 5 2.5 x the height of the window head above the workplane. (After Robbins, 1986) Increase perimeter daylight zones—extend the perimeter footprint to maximize the usable daylighting area.
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  35. 35. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES What Is Passive Cooling?
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  38. 38. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES WING WALLS Wing walls project outward next to a window, so that even a slight breeze against the wall creates a high pressure zone on one side and low on the other.The pressure differential draws outdoor air in through one open window and out the adjacent one. Wing walls are especially effective on sites with low outdoor air velocity and variable wind directions.
  39. 39. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Applicable up to the depth of 6 M Applicable up to the depth of 10‐12 M SINGLE SIDED VENTILATION CROSS VENTILATION STRATEGIES
  40. 40. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES STACK VENTILATION COOLING/WIND TOWER EARTH AIR TUNNELNIGHT VENTILATION OF THE THERMAL MASS
  41. 41. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES STACK SYSTEM
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  43. 43. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES PASSIVE DOWNNDRAUGHT COOLING : In this system, wind catchers guide outside air over water-filled pots, inducing evaporation and causing a significant drop in temperature before the air enters the interior. Such wind cathers become primary elements of the architectural form also.
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  45. 45. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES LANDSCAPE Landscaping is an important element in altering the micro-climate of a place. Proper landscaping reduced direct sun from striking and heating up building surfaces. It is the best way to provide a buffer for heat, sun, noise, traffic, and airflow or for diverting airflow or exchanging heat in a solar-passive design. It prevents reflected light carrying heat into a building from the ground or other surfaces. Additionally, the shade created by trees, reduces air temperature of the micro climate around the building through evapo- transpiration. Properly designed roof gardens help to reduce heat loads in a building. Planting of deciduous trees on the southern side of a building to cut direct sunlight in summer. Location of landscape to cut direct sunlight and shade buildings
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  47. 47. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Sustainable landscape architecture  is a category of sustainable design concerned with the planning and design of outdoor space. This can include ecological, politically correct, social and economic aspects of sustainability. For example, the design of a sustainable urban drainage system can: improve habitats for fauna and flora; improve recreational facilities, because people love to be beside water; save money, because building culverts is expensive and floods cause severe financial harm. The design of a green roof or a roof garden can also contribute to the sustainability of a landscape architecture project. The roof will help manage surface water, provide for wildlife and provide for recreation. Location of trees to protect from winds Natural cooling without air-conditioning can be enhanced by locating trees to channel south-easterly summer breezes in tropical climates like India. Cooling breezes will be able to pass through the trunks of trees placed for shading. Shade can also be created by using a combination of landscape features, such as shrubs and vines on arbors or trellises. Trees also provide visual relief and a psychological barrier from traffic and thus reduce pollution on the site.
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  49. 49. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Energy-efficient landscaping is a type of landscaping designed for the purpose of conserving energy. There is a distinction between the embedded energy of materials and constructing the landscape, and the energy consumed by the maintenance and operations of a landscape. Design techniques include: Planting trees for the purpose of providing shade, which reduces cooling costs. Planting or building windbreaks to slow winds near buildings, which reduces heat loss. Wall sheltering, where shrubbery or vines are used to create a windbreak directly against a wall. Earth sheltering and positioning buildings to take advantage of natural landforms as windbreaks. Green roofs that cool buildings with extra thermal mass and evapotranspiration. Reducing the heat island effect with pervious paving, high albedo paving, shade, and minimizing paved areas. Site lighting with full cut off fixtures, light level sensors, and high efficiency fixtures. Energy-efficient landscaping techniques include using local materials, on-site composting and chipping to reduce greenwaste hauling, hand tools instead of gasoline-powered, and also may involve using drought-resistant plantings in arid areas, buying stock from local growers to avoid energy in transportation, and similar techniques.
  50. 50. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES Dense tree planting deflects breeze through building.
  51. 51. Literature Study PLANNINGANDDESIGNSTRATEGIES The roof garden of the Rockefeller Center  in Manhattan

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