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• Its the largest branch of trigeminal nerve. It is a mixed nerve with two
– large sensory root
– small motor root
• The sensory root of the mandibular division originates at the inferior
angle of the trigeminal ganglion
• The motor arises in the motor cells located in the pons & medulla
• The two roots emerge from the cranium separately through the
foramen ovale , the motor root lying medial to sensory .
• They unite just outside the skull and form the main trunk of the third
• This trunk remains undivided for only 2 to 3 mm before it splits into
– a small anterior
– a large posterior division
Root of Cranial Nerves
Mandibular Nerve: Supply
• It supplies
– the teeth and gums of the mandible,
– the skin of the temporal region,
– the auricula,
– the lower lip,
– the lower part of the face,
– muscles of mastication;
– it also supplies the mucous membrane of the
anterior two-thirds of the tongue
Branches from Undivided Nerve
• NERVOUS SPINOSUS
– It arises outside the skull
– then passes into the middle cranial fossa to supply
the dura & mastoid cells.
• NERVE TO MEDIAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE
– A branch of the motor root passes to innervate
the medial pterygoid muscle.
– This branch passes without interruption to
inervate the tensor veli palatini and the tensor
• Nerve to lateral pterygoid muscle:The pterygoid nerve enters
the medial side of the lateral pterygoid muscle to provide its
motor nerve supply.
• Nerve to masseter muscle: the masseter nerve passes
above the lateral pterygoid to transverse the mandibular
• Nerve to temporal muscles : its again divided in 2 branch
– Anterior deep temporal nerve - It supplies deep part of
the temporal the anterior portion of the temporal muscle.
– Posterior deep temporal nerve- It passes upwards to the
deep part of the temporal muscle.
• Long buccal nerve- it passes downward, anteriorly and
laterally between the two heads of lateral pterygoid muscle. It
– Buccinator muscle
– Mucous membrane of cheek
• It is mainly sensory but also carries some
motor components. This division extends
downwards and medially and then branches
– Auriculotemporal nerve
– Lingual nerve
– Inferior alveolar nerve
• it arises by a medial and lateral root.
• These roots embrance the middle meningeal
artery and unite behind the artery just below
the foramen spinosum.
• It passes with superficial temporal artery in its
upward course and divides into numerous
– Tragus of the pinna of external ear ,
– Scalp about the ear
– as far as upward as the vertex of the skull
• It first passes medially to lateral pterygoid muscle
• As it decends , lies between the internal pterygoid
muscle and the ramus of the mandible.
• The nerve lies parallel to the inferior alveolar nerve but
medial and anterior to it .
• It then passes deep to reach the side of the base of the
• At the side of the tongue it lies below the lateral lingual
• It has communications with the chorda tympani of
Inferior alveolar nerve
• It is the largest branch of the posterior division of
mandibular part of the trigeminal nerve.
• It descends with the inferior alveolar artery, at first
beneath the Pterygoideus plexus,
• Then between the sphenomandibular ligament and the
ramus of the mandible to the mandibular foramen.
• It then passes forward in the mandibular canal,
beneath the teeth, as far as the mental foramen, where
it divides into two terminal branches,
– incisive and mental.
• The branches of the inferior alveolar nerve are the
mylohyoid, dental, incisive, and mental.
Inferior alveolar nerve
• Mylohyoid nerve
– derived from the inferior alveolar just before it enters the mandibular
– It descends in a groove on the deep surface of the ramus of the
– Reaching the under surface of the Mylohyoideus supplies this muscle
and the anterior belly of the digastric
• Dental branches
– Supply the molar and premolar teeth.
– They correspond in number to the roots of those teeth;
– each nerve entering the orifice at the point of the root, and supplying
the pulp of the tooth;
– above the alveolar nerve they form an inferior dental plexus.
– This divideds in to 2 branch i.e incisive nerve and mental nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve
• Incisive branch
• Continuation of dental nerve - onward within the bone, and
supplies the canine and incisor teeth
• Mental nerve (n. mentalis)
– Emerges at the mental foramen,
– Divides beneath the Triangularis muscle into three
• one descends to the skin of the chin
• two ascend to the skin and mucous membrane of the lower
– These branches communicate freely with the facial
Otic Ganglion (ganglion oticum)
• The otic ganglion is a small, ovalshaped, flattened
ganglion of a reddish-gray color,
• Situated immediately below the foramen ovale;
• Lies on the medial surface of the mandibular nerve,
and surrounds the origin of the nerve to medial
• It is in relation,
– Laterally, with the trunk of the mandibular nerve at the
point where the motor and sensory roots join;
– Medially, with the cartilaginous part of the auditory tube,
and the origin of the Tensor veli palatini;
– Posteriorly, with the middle meningeal artery.
ganglion which relays
secretomotor fibers to
the parotid gland
• Its topographically
related to mandibular
gland but functionally
part of glossopharyngeal
• Size : 2-3 mm in size
Otic Ganglion : Distribution
• Motor and parasympathetic root
– Formed by petrosal nerve
– Preganglionic fibers – derived from inferior salivary nucleus of
– Postganglionic fibers – pass through auricotemporal nerve to
• Sympathetic root
– Plexus of middle meningeal artery
– It contains postganglionic fibrs arising in the superior cervical
– Fibers pass through the ganglion without relay and reach the
parotid gland via auricotemporal nerve
– They are vasomotor in function
• Sensory root - auricotemporal nerve and its sensory to the
• Parasympathetic root
– Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the
facial nerve (CN VII) travel to the ganglion in the
chorda tympani, facial nerve, and lingual nerve
• Sympathetic root
– Sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical
ganglion ascend (via the internal carotid plexus)
and travel in a plexus on the facial artery
• Grays Anatomy for Students 2nd Edition
• Head and Neck Anatomy for Dental Medicine
• Head, Neck and Dental Anatomy, 4th Edition
• Netter’s Head and Neck Anatomy for
Dentistry, 2nd Edition Neil S norton