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Flip chip
c4b
Introduction
This application note describes the die-driven flow with a peripheral ring I/O
style.
As silicon processes ...
Introduction
Packaging Technology
Integrated circuits are put into protective packages to allow easy handling and
assembly onto printe...
Wirebonding
This conventional technique involves the mounting of a chip onto a substrate,
back-side down. Then, periphera...
Drawbacks of Wirebonding
This high throughput, along with a good record of reliability, have made
wirebonding the mainstr...
C4 Flip-Chip
C4 technology was developed by IBM researchers in the 1960s.
The bonding process is characterized by the so...
C4 Flip-Chip
1) Solder bumps are distributed on metal terminals on the chip itself. These
solder bumps are typically comp...
Advantages of C4 technology
Increased I/O density C4 bumps may be placed over the entire area of the chip
(called area ar...
Drawbacks of C4 technology
The main drawbacks to C4 at this time are that the use of lead in the solder
bumps lead to the...
Flip Chip
Flip chip is the mounting of a chip with its active side facing the substrate.
 This die orientation is “flipp...
Flip-Chip Flows
Package-Driven or Bump driven
Die-Driven or IC-driven Flow
Package-Driven or Bump-Driven Flow
The IC package dictates the bump locations for the IC design.
All of the bump cells a...
Die-Driven or IC-driven Flow
The IC design dictates bump locations for the IC package.
Bump cells are not instantiated n...
Definition of Terms
Peripheral Ring I/O
 Flip-Chip Design Style The peripheral ring I/O flip-chip design style places fl...
Flip-Chip Bump, Flip-Chip Pad, Bump Cell,
A bump structure consists of a solder ball placed on top of a large piece of me...
Automatic Net Assignment
Assignment is to logically connects flip-chip I/O drivers and bump cells in the die-
driven flow...
Automatic Net Assignment
Redistribution Layer (RDL)
Routing redistributes the wire-bonding pads to the bump pads without changing
the placement of...
Flip-chip bump, I/O driver, and core logic
connection
Bump pitch & RDL spacing
1. Spacing: 86.630um available for RDL routing for 4 bumps
2. Max net length is ~800um(taken extr...
flip-chip structures
Multiple flip-chip design styles for perimeter
I/O layouts
Package- and Die-driven design flows
Flow to setup Flip chip
Verilog Netlist Preparation
As a minimum requirement, the input Verilog netlist must include core logic and
flip-chip I/O...
Floorplan Creation
To create the top-level floorplan, read the Verilog netlist using defined reference
and technology lib...
Core area and bumps
Assignment
Flylines showing flip-chip nets
RDL Routing Bump nets
Unique 1-to-1 connections created on VDD
net
Routing utilization
Verify
Connectivity
Length
Width
Resistance
Area
Noise
Power
Thank you
Reference : cadence soc encounter.
Synopsis ICC
solvnet
Flip Chip technology
Flip Chip technology
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Flip Chip technology

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Publicada em

flip chip technology,
C4B,
RDL routing,
solder bump,
bump technology,
IO ring connection with Bump,
Bump to pad routing using redistribution layer.

Publicada em: Engenharia
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Flip Chip technology

  1. 1. Flip chip c4b
  2. 2. Introduction This application note describes the die-driven flow with a peripheral ring I/O style. As silicon processes migrate to 45nm and below, flip-chip designs are becoming more prevalent. In the traditional design style, a designer places all I/Os around the core of a design and bonding wires connect the die to the package. In the flip-chip design style, there are no bonding wires. The flip-chip design style makes it possible to increase the number of I/Os and improve timing between I/O and core logic. Flip-chip design requires a more sophisticated design methodology.
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Packaging Technology Integrated circuits are put into protective packages to allow easy handling and assembly onto printed circuit boards and to protect the devices from damage. Some package types have standardized dimensions and tolerances, and are registered with trade industry associations such as JEDEC and Pro Electron. Other types are proprietary designations that may be made by only one or two manufacturers. Integrated circuit packaging is the last assembly process before testing and shipping devices to customers.
  5. 5. Wirebonding This conventional technique involves the mounting of a chip onto a substrate, back-side down. Then, peripheral pads on the chip are bonded to the substrate via wires. The main advantage of this approach is that it is very cost-effective. Machines have gotten to the point where tens of thousands of wires may be bonded to chips and substrates within an hour.
  6. 6. Drawbacks of Wirebonding This high throughput, along with a good record of reliability, have made wirebonding the mainstream technique in chip-to-package interconnection. However, there are many drawbacks to wirebonding which may prevent its dominance in future designs. These include: Peripheral nature of wirebonding makes it difficult to access internal parts of the chip Difficulty in shrinking pad pitches to < 50 mm Thermal stability difficult to cool high-power chips Susceptibility to simultaneous switching noise (high inductance of bonding wires)
  7. 7. C4 Flip-Chip C4 technology was developed by IBM researchers in the 1960s. The bonding process is characterized by the soldering of silicon devices directly to a substrate (organic, for example). The chip faces the substrate, as opposed to wirebonding, hence the name flip- chip bonding. The salient features of this packaging methodology are as follows:
  8. 8. C4 Flip-Chip 1) Solder bumps are distributed on metal terminals on the chip itself. These solder bumps are typically composed of 97% lead and 3% Tin. The substrate has identically placed metal pads on its surface. 2) The chip is turned over and the metal pads are aligned to solder bumps; metal reflow is used to form connectivity between the substrate and chip.
  9. 9. Advantages of C4 technology Increased I/O density C4 bumps may be placed over the entire area of the chip (called area array) rather than simply the periphery. Self-aligning process step due to surface tension Reduced die size for previously pad limited designs Reduced simultaneous switching noise due to smaller inductance of bumps compared to wire leads Better thermal properties as the backside of the wafer is now available for heatsinking Much better power distribution capabilities as circuits in the middle of the die can now access Vdd/Gnd directly Low cost and high throughput (all connections for one chip are made simultaneously in C4 as opposed to one-by-one in wirebonding) Shorter wirelengths and fewer global wires ease wiring requirements
  10. 10. Drawbacks of C4 technology The main drawbacks to C4 at this time are that the use of lead in the solder bumps lead to the emission of alpha particles which can lead to circuit failure in sensitive circuits such as DRAM s. However, this effect can be minimized by restricting the placement of solder bumps over these sensitive areas. Research is ongoing to find alternate materials for solber bumps as well.  Also, the use of C4 packaging allows designers to do many different things in the floorplanning and routing stages of a design. Commercial tools for place-and-route, etc. are predicated on the use of peripheral wirebonding for I/O pads. New tools need to be in place for designers to take full advantage of flip-chip s advantages.
  11. 11. Flip Chip Flip chip is the mounting of a chip with its active side facing the substrate.  This die orientation is “flipped” from the traditional packaging style, which uses bonding wires to connect the package to the die. In flip chip, the electrical interconnection between the chip and substrate is established by using solder bumps.
  12. 12. Flip-Chip Flows Package-Driven or Bump driven Die-Driven or IC-driven Flow
  13. 13. Package-Driven or Bump-Driven Flow The IC package dictates the bump locations for the IC design. All of the bump cells are instantiated and connected to flip-chip drivers as inputs within the Verilog netlist. The physical locations for the bump cells are predefined by the package designer. Optimal flip-chip I/O driver locations are determined during flip-chip driver placement based on the predefined bump locations.
  14. 14. Die-Driven or IC-driven Flow The IC design dictates bump locations for the IC package. Bump cells are not instantiated nor connected to flip-chip I/O drivers as inputs in the Verilog netlist. Optimal bump connections are determined after flip-chip driver and bump pattern placement.
  15. 15. Definition of Terms Peripheral Ring I/O  Flip-Chip Design Style The peripheral ring I/O flip-chip design style places flip-chip drivers outside the core boundary, similar to the traditional peripheral I/O design style.  Bump cells can be placed on top of I/O drivers, or anywhere in the core.  CLASS PAD = I/O cell with bound pad. Differentiating Area I/O  Area IO should be placed inside the core area  The LEF I/O Driver cells must contain CLASS PAD (for peripheral I/O) or CLASS PAD AREAIO (for area I/O).  CLASS PAD AREAIO = I/O cell without bump. Flip-Chip Driver, I/O Driver, Driver  A flip-chip driver is an I/O circuit that connects to the bump to drive or receive signals.  The I/O driver cell includes a pad pin to connect to the flip-chip bump, and a signal pin to connect to the core logic.
  16. 16. Flip-Chip Bump, Flip-Chip Pad, Bump Cell, A bump structure consists of a solder ball placed on top of a large piece of metal at the top metal layer. The solder ball on the die connects to the solder ball on the package. Standard cells can be placed under bump cells. Bump cells can be placed over I/O drivers, if the I/O driver design supports this application. Signal bump cells connect to I/O driver cells and power bump cells connect to power straps. Bump Net  A bump net is a connection between a flip-chip I/O driver and a bump cell.
  17. 17. Automatic Net Assignment Assignment is to logically connects flip-chip I/O drivers and bump cells in the die- driven flow. The flow requires automatic net assignment because there is no logical connection between the driver and the bump in the Verilog netlist. Automatic net assignment is not applicable for the package-driven flow, since the package-driven flow connects bump cells to flip-chip I/O drivers within the Verilog netlist. Once logical connections are established, bump nets can be routed.
  18. 18. Automatic Net Assignment
  19. 19. Redistribution Layer (RDL) Routing redistributes the wire-bonding pads to the bump pads without changing the placement of the I/O pads. The redistribution layer is the top metal layer of the die. Bump balls are placed on the redistribution layer and use the redistribution layer to connect bump pads to wire-bonding pads.
  20. 20. Flip-chip bump, I/O driver, and core logic connection
  21. 21. Bump pitch & RDL spacing 1. Spacing: 86.630um available for RDL routing for 4 bumps 2. Max net length is ~800um(taken extra ~100), if we take 35X775 (W/L) RDL routing then resistance= 0.5 Ohm 3. Total space occupied by all the 3 bumps, 2 + 35 + 2 + 20 +2 + 20 +2 = 83 # if 3 rows bumps are P/G 1. If one signal comes in the second row then we can get 10um #only 2 rows with P/G and 3rd signal 2. The 1st row from the die should be routed direct within the boundary of the bump
  22. 22. flip-chip structures
  23. 23. Multiple flip-chip design styles for perimeter I/O layouts
  24. 24. Package- and Die-driven design flows
  25. 25. Flow to setup Flip chip
  26. 26. Verilog Netlist Preparation As a minimum requirement, the input Verilog netlist must include core logic and flip-chip I/O drivers instantiated and connected to the core logic. Physical-only cells, such as ESD cells, can be added to the design in the IC Compiler design flow and do not need to be in the Verilog netlist. The die-driven flow does not require signal bump cells in the Verilog netlist. Bump cells can be generated during bump pattern placement.
  27. 27. Floorplan Creation To create the top-level floorplan, read the Verilog netlist using defined reference and technology libraries. Initialize the floorplan boundary, core height and width, utilization and core offset. You can also use the read_def command to read a DEF file that contains placement information.
  28. 28. Core area and bumps
  29. 29. Assignment
  30. 30. Flylines showing flip-chip nets
  31. 31. RDL Routing Bump nets
  32. 32. Unique 1-to-1 connections created on VDD net
  33. 33. Routing utilization
  34. 34. Verify Connectivity Length Width Resistance Area Noise Power
  35. 35. Thank you Reference : cadence soc encounter. Synopsis ICC solvnet

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