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Personality Traits and Substance Abuse - Debashreeta Jena - +3, 2nd yr Ats, Psychology Department.pptx

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Personality Traits and Substance Abuse - Debashreeta Jena - +3, 2nd yr Ats, Psychology Department.pptx

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY A Seminar Paper On:- Personality Traits And Substance Abuse Submitted By: Debashreeta Jena +3, 2nd yr Arts BA 20 306 Psychology Regd No. Under the Guidance of: Lt. Sima Mohanty
  2. 2. Contents  Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract Key Words Introduction Review of Literature Drug Addiction Drug Addiction Among Adolescence Personality Traits Drug Addiction among adolescence & role personality traits Conclusion Reference
  3. 3. Certificate Submitted To Lt. Sima Mohanty This is to certify that Debashreeta Jena a student of +3,2nd yr, Arts of Psychology Department from Kendrapara Autonomous College has successfully completed her seminar report entitled “Personality Traits And Substance Abuse” under my guidance.
  4. 4. Acknowledgement Submitted To Lt. Sima Mohanty In the accomplishment of this seminar report, many people have best owned upon me their blessings and the heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the people who have concerned with this seminar report. Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete this seminar with success. Then I would like to thank my Principal Mr. Rajendra Kumar Tripathy and our lectures Lt. Sima Mohanty, HOD Mr. Debakant Sarangi, Faculty Miss Archana Swain whose valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me patch this report and make it full proof success. Their suggestions and their instructions have served as the major contributors towards the completion of the report. Then I would like to thank my parents who have helped me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has been very helpful in various phases of the completion this report. Last but not the least I would thank my classmates who have helped me a lot for the completion of this report.
  5. 5. ABSTRACT  Statistics are cited indicating that drug addiction in adolescents is not a new problem and moreover the opiate addiction involves primarily adolescents and young adults.  The problem of heroin addiction is complex and multifaceted involving sociologic, economic, and psychiatric determinants. After all other factors are considered there remains a large and constant psychological factor.  A heroin addict personality type among adolescents is delineated and its characteristics are discussed.  Drug addiction in young people is related to the critical problem of adolescence, that of making the transition to adult status and responsibility.
  6. 6. HJ KEY WORDS  Substance Abuse  Personality Traits  Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Addiction Personality
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION People are most likely to begin abusing drugs—including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal and prescription drugs—during adolescence and young adulthood. There are many reasons adolescents use these substances, including the desire for new experiences, an attempt to deal with problems or perform better in school, and simple peer pressure. Adolescents are “biologically wired” to seek new experiences and take risks, as well as to carve out their own identity. Drug use can be part of a pattern of risky behavior including unsafe sex, driving while intoxicated, or other hazardous, unsupervised activities. And in cases when a teen does develop a pattern of repeated use, it can pose serious social and health risks, including:  school failure  problems with family and other relationships  loss of interest in normal healthy activities  impaired memory  increased risk of contracting an infectious disease (like HIV or hepatitis C) via risky sexual behavior or sharing contaminated injection equipment  mental health problems—including substance use disorders of varying severity  the very real risk of overdose death
  8. 8. When substance use disorders are identified and treated in adolescence—especially if they are mild or moderate—they frequently give way to abstinence from drugs with no further problems. Relapse is a possibility, however, as it is with other chronic diseases like diabetes or asthma. Relapse should not be seen as a sign that treatment failed but as an occasion to engage in additional or different treatment. Averting and detecting relapse involves monitoring by the adolescent, parents, and teachers, as well as follow-up by treatment providers. Although recovery support programs are not a substitute for formal evidence-based treatment, they may help some adolescents maintain a positive and productive drug-free lifestyle that promotes meaningful and beneficial relationships and connections to family, peers, and the community both during treatment and after treatment ends. Whatever services or programs are used, an adolescent’s path to recovery will be strengthened by support from family members, non-drug-using peers, the school, and others in his or her life.
  9. 9. Generally, those who use drugs or alcohol are characterized by having high Neuroticism, high Openness to Experience, low Agreeableness, and low Conscientiousness. However, there are individual personality differences between the drugs that are used. For example, heroin and cocaine users are generally lower in Openness to Experience, while Marijuana users are only average in Neuroticism. Extraversion shows no association with drug use. Perhaps obviously, people high in Conscientiousness are more resistant to drug addiction. Therefore, low Neuroticism, low Openness to Experience, high Agreeableness, and high Conscientiousness can all protect someone from drug use, and therefore, subsequent drug abuse. Personality traits are associated with and may predict future and continued drug use. Therefore, environment and personality affect the prevalence of substance use disorders. No matter what personality traits define someone, recovery is possible, and there is hope.
  10. 10. REVIEW OF LITERATURE In the 19th century with the emerge of morphine, cocaine, and laudanum which were extracted to the ingredient of psychoactive drugs. In the US, the morphine was applied onto wound treatment and relieved the pain for veterans during the Civil War. The drugs were popularly sold everywhere in the local areas. The industry of growing morphine became thriving and it was spread out around the United States, (Lambert, 2018). In 1985, the legislator enacted the first law to prohibit the drug abuse after the outlaw was broken out in San Francisco. Until 1914, there were only physicians, pharmacists or who had medical license were legal for cocaine selling. The Supreme Court inhibited the physicians to take the narcotics prescription because this was an addictive treatment. The narcotic substances were officially decreased, (Lambert, 2018). In 1930, the United States Federal began an anti-drug abuse campaign in many schools to educate and raise the young generation’s awareness. Many years later, the invasion of new ingredients: Marijuana, amphetamines, tranquilizer, and hallucinogenic were approaching and increasing drastically. Most of drugs were illegal except some states were discriminated of growing marijuana or cocaine, (Lambert, 2018). The laws tried to diminish the overwhelming of drug user. By 1995, the tobacco and any products contained alcohol were labeled with warnings, especially for pregnant women by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For those who violated or committed crimes relating to drug, they had to receive the penalty. It was mean that the factories of distribution would stand for the penalties if they brake the laws, (Lambert, 2018).
  11. 11. Today, the National survey on Drug Use and Health reported 80% of American people who suffered from alcohol disorder in 2014. There was 7 million people who struggled with drug disorder. It was mean one per eight people who suffered from drug disorder. However, it costed up to 200 billion dollars to spend in healthcare, criminal justice and legal by American society, (Statistic on drug addiction, 2018). There were three typical causes of drug addiction: Inheritance from family, environment factors, and adolescent. Young teenagers have the high potential risks because the earlier drug taking, the more serious health impact. The group of young adults between 18 and 25 had the highest percentage was 16.3 percent. College students dominated 72 percent of substance and drug abuse, mostly alcohol disorder, the second was marijuana at 55.7 percent, and there was 31.6 percent from prescription drugs, (Statistic on drug addiction, 2018). America is one of the countries that has a long history of drug abuse. Although the researchers develop many treatments, but this still be a concern because the increase of abusers. The treatments are used to help people stop taking drugs and integrate back to the society. For example, the treatment including behavior counseling, medication, and medical devices. The treatments are long term or short term which depends on the person’s drug abuse status, (Statistic on drug addiction, 2018).
  12. 12. Substance Abuse What is Substance Abuse? Abuse is defined as a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking, continued use despite harmful consequences, and long-lasting changes in the brain. It is considered both a complex brain disorder and a mental illness. Addiction is the most severe form of a full spectrum of substance use disorders, and is a medical illness caused by repeated misuse of a substance or substances. Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs. The risk of addiction and how fast you become addicted varies by drug.
  13. 13. Drug addiction symptoms or behaviors include, among others:- • Feeling that you have to use the drug regularly — daily or even several times a day. • Having intense urges for the drug that block out any other thoughts. • Over time, needing more of the drug to get the same effect. • Taking larger amounts of the drug over a longer period of time than you intended. • Making certain that you maintain a supply of the drug. • Spending money on the drug, even though you can't afford it. • Not meeting obligations and work responsibilities, or cutting back on social or recreational activities because of drug use. • Continuing to use the drug, even though you know it's causing problems in your life or causing you physical or psychological harm. • Doing things to get the drug that you normally wouldn't do, such as stealing. • Driving or doing other risky activities when you're under the influence of the drug. • Spending a good deal of time getting the drug, using the drug or recovering from the effects of the drug. • Failing in your attempts to stop using the drug. • Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when you attempt to stop taking the drug.
  14. 14. Causes:- Like many mental health disorders, several factors may contribute to development of drug addiction. The main factors are:  • Environment. Environmental factors, including your family's beliefs and attitudes and exposure to a peer group that encourages drug use, seem to play a role in initial drug use.  • Genetics. Once you've started using a drug, the development into addiction may be influenced by inherited (genetic) traits, which may delay or speed up the disease progression.
  15. 15. Complications Drug use can have significant and damaging short-term and long-term effects. Taking some drugs can be particularly risky, especial Complications Drug use can have significant and damaging short-term and long-term effects. Taking some drugs can be particularly risky, especially if you take high doses or combine them with other drugs or alcohol. Here are some examples. •Methamphetamine, opiates and cocaine are highly addictive and cause multiple short-term and long- term health consequences, including psychotic behavior, seizures or death due to overdose. •GHB and flunitrazepam may cause sedation, confusion and memory loss. These so-called "date rape drugs" are known to impair the ability to resist unwanted contact and recollection of the event. At high doses, they can cause seizures, coma and death. The danger increases when these drugs are taken with alcohol. •Ecstasy or molly (MDMA) can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and complications that can include seizures. Long-term, MDMA can damage the brain. •One particular danger of club drugs is that the liquid, pill or powder forms of these drugs available on the street often contain unknown substances that can be harmful, including other illegally manufactured or pharmaceutical drugs. •Due to the toxic nature of inhalants, users may develop brain damage of different levels of severity.
  16. 16. Can addiction be treated successfully? Yes. Addiction is a treatable, chronic disorder that can be managed successfully. Research shows that combining behavioral therapy with medications, if available, is the best way to ensure success for most patients. The combination of medications and behavioral interventions to treat a substance use disorder is known as medication-assisted treatment. Treatment approaches must be tailored to address each patient’s drug use patterns and drug-related medical, psychiatric, environmental, and social problems. Relapse rates for patients with substance use disorders are compared with those suffering from hypertension and asthma. Relapse is common and similar across these illnesses (as is adherence to medication). Thus, drug addiction should be treated like any other chronic illness, with relapse serving as a trigger for renewed intervention.
  17. 17. Prevention The best way to prevent an addiction to a drug is not to take the drug at all. If your doctor prescribes a drug with the potential for addiction, use care when taking the drug and follow the instructions provided by your doctor. Doctors should prescribe these medications at safe doses and amounts and monitor their use so that you're not given too great a dose or for too long a time. If you feel you need to take more than the prescribed dose of a medication, talk to your doctor.
  18. 18. Preventing drug misuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to help prevent drug misuse in your children and teenagers:  Communicate. Talk to your children about the risks of drug use and misuse.  Listen. Be a good listener when your children talk about peer pressure, and be supportive of their efforts to resist it.  Set a good example. Don't misuse alcohol or addictive drugs. Children of parents who misuse drugs are at greater risk of drug addiction.  Strengthen the bond. Work on your relationship with your children. A strong, stable bond between you and your child will reduce your child's risk of using or misusing drugs.
  19. 19. Personality: - The definition of a personality trait is a quality or characteristic that distinguishes the character, action and attitude of a person, animal or geographical location. Personality Traits:- The definition of a personality trait is a quality or characteristic that distinguishes the character, action and attitude of a person, animal or geographical location. These five categories are usually described as follows.
  20. 20. 1. Openness:- This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight. People who are high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. They are curious about the world and other people and eager to learn new things and enjoy new experiences. People who are high in this trait tend to be more adventurous and creative. People low in this trait are often much more traditional and may struggle with abstract thinking.
  21. 21. 2. Conscientiousness:- Standard features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, good impulse control, and goal- directed behaviors. Highly conscientious people tend to be organized and mindful of details. They plan ahead, think about how their behavior affects others, and are mindful of deadlines.
  22. 22. 3. Extraversion:- Extraversion (or extroversion) is characterized by excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. People who are high in extraversion are outgoing and tend to gain energy in social situations. Being around other people helps them feel energized and excited. People who are low in extraversion (or introverted) tend to be more reserved and have less energy to expend in social settings. Social events can feel draining and introverts often require a period of solitude and quiet in order to "recharge."
  23. 23. 4. Agreeableness:- This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors. People who are high in agreeableness tend to be more cooperative while those low in this trait tend to be more competitive and sometimes even manipulative.
  24. 24. 5. Neuroticism:- Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability. Individuals who are high in this trait tend to experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability, and sadness. Those low in this trait tend to be more stable and emotionally resilient.
  25. 25. What Is An Addictive Personality? There’s an image that is often brought to mind when it comes to people who are addicted to drugs or alcohol. In popular culture, this image has become the subconscious image of the “addictive personality” – that is, the individual who is considered all but destined to develop a substance addiction. It’s not a surprise then that people who are worried about developing an addiction to drugs or alcohol often try to find out what the traits of an addictive personality might be. They want to know what to watch for, either to absolve themselves of the “addict” label or to give themselves a reason never to start using drugs or alcohol to begin with. However, the simple fact is that this whole idea is based on a mix of truth and fiction.
  26. 26. Traits of People with High Risk of Developing Addiction:- Nevertheless, there are traits that can be recognized in people who have a higher risk of becoming addicted to psychoactive substances rather than just being able to moderate behavior around these types of substances. People with this higher addiction risk include those who are:  Related to others who have developed addiction  Experiencing other mental health disorders  Adventurous and risk-taking  Disconnected and cautious  Obsessive and compulsive  Apathetic  Unable to self-regulate
  27. 27. Related to Others with Addiction:- There is no question that genetic makeup has at least some effect on a person’s risk of developing addiction. As described by many studies, including one from the journal Psychiatry, having a close family member who is struggling with an addiction can make it more likely that an individual will develop an addiction as well. In fact, certain portions of the human genome have even been identified as having a direct connection to specific addictions, according to a study in Nature. With this knowledge, it may be possible in the future to more accurately identify just how likely a person is to develop addiction. Still, genetic potential is no guarantee that an individual will develop addiction. Other complex, environmental factors also contribute to the potential that a genetic predisposition will become a true substance use disorder. How to Help a Person with High Addiction Risk:- Various forms of behavioral therapies can help individuals struggling with these issues to learn to manage their behaviors and acquire self-regulation skills that can moderate the addictive response. In addition, for those who have already developed substance use problems, treatment programs can incorporate these therapies with other demonstrated treatments. This approach may help the person safely stop using drugs or alcohol and live a sober life as well as gain control over the various traits above. Seeking out research-based, professional care can provide the individual with tools to understand and manage these various traits, making recovery possible.
  28. 28. Limitation:- There are several limitations to consider when interpreting the results. This sample is not representative of the entire US population, but it was drawn from a probability sample that included a wide range of socio-economic conditions. There may be some misclassification with the categories of never, former, and current-users. For example, some individuals might be reluctant to disclose their illicit drug use. Some might not recall use in the distant past. Categorizing current users based on self-reported behavior during the past year might be too broad. There are marked differences in the frequency and quantity of drug use, but the relatively small number of users in the present sample does not allow finer distinctions or the use of stricter criteria of addiction. However, preliminary analyses using different classification criteria produced similar results, and the main findings are mostly consistent with the literature. In addition to self-report ratings, future studies should use multiple methods for assessing drug use and personality traits. Most studies on drug use are conducted in adolescents and young adults, who are at life stages associated with the greater use of drugs. We presented data from an older cohort, which has presumably passed the experimentation age. While this contributes to the scarce literature on drug use in later parts of the lifespan, the advantages of a lifespan perspective come at the cost of having fewer current users in this older cohort. In addition, older cohorts only include the survivors among those who started drug use early in life, which may introduce attrition and other biases. A review of the literature suggested that studies that involve older populations (over the age of 30 years) report weaker association of Conscientiousness-related traits and drug use.
  29. 29. Continued… Finally, some of the findings may be culture-bound. For example, the results for smoking closely replicate the findings we previously reported from another US cohort of similar age but different socio-economic status. However, studies conducted in Europe and Japan have found Extraversion associated with cigarette smoking. Such differences might reflect the different social acceptance of smoking across countries.
  30. 30. CONCLUSION Personality traits are associated with the outcome of therapeutic interventions. For example, several studies found Neuroticism, anxiety, and depressive disorders related to poor treatment outcome for nicotine dependence .Although we found systematic differences between the personality profiles of substance users and non-users, there is substantial variability in both groups (e.g., not all smokers score high on Neuroticism or low on Conscientiousness). Individual differences among substance abusers can play an important role in the choice of treatment options. Recently, more attention has been focused on personality trait effects on the efficacy of different treatment plans to tailor therapeutic interventions to individual needs . More research is needed to fully evaluate how personality assessment can be useful in the choice of treatment plans. Although individual treatments might reduce the rate of drug abuse, public policy is an important tool for cigarette smoking and other drug abuse prevention and cessation. Because of the low conscientiousness, high impulsivity, and high emotional vulnerability of most drug users, relying on an individual's resources, without therapeutic intervention, may produce limited results. Evidence-based interventions such as safer injecting environments are an important adjunct which can reduce drug-related harm. In the case of cigarette smoking, societal pressure in the form of high taxation, restriction in advertising, and interdiction of smoking in public places are cost-effective programs that are reducing the prevalence of smoking.
  31. 31.  https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug- addiction/symptoms-causes/syc-20365112  http://www.ncadv.org/files/SubstanceAbuse.pdf  https://nursinganswers.net/essays/drug-abuse- literature-review-and-treatment-strategies.php?vref  Sarnyai, Z., Shaham, Y., Heinrichs, S.C (2001).  https://thepathwayprogram.com/drug-addiction REFERENCE
  32. 32. THANK YOU

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