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Civil rights movement

  1. 1. Civil Rights Movement
  2. 2. Civil Rights Movement  WWII opened the door for the civil rights movement.  In 1941, Roosevelt banned discrimination in defense industries, and in 1948, Truman desegregated the military. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  3. 3. Civil Rights Movement  De jure segregation , or imposed by law, existed in the South.  De facto segregation , or resulting by custom or tradition, existed in the North.  African Americans were denied housing in neighborhoods and only offered low-paying jobs.  DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  4. 4. Civil Rights Movement  In 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major league baseball. DO UBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  5. 5. Civil Rights Movement  The NAACP became the most powerful civil rights organization in the U.S. and wanted to challenge segregation in the courts.  Thurgood Marshall NAACP lawyer who became the first African-American Supreme Court justice. DO UBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../ Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  6. 6. Civil Rights Movement  Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional; overturned “separate but equal.” DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  7. 7. Civil Rights Movement  Southern states resisted integration and the KKK re-emerged.  In 1957, the Little Rock Nine were not allowed to enter Central High School.  President Eisenhower sent FEDERAL troops to protect students and enforce the Court’s ruling.  DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  8. 8. Civil Rights Movement DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  9. 9. Civil Rights Movement  In 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, AL.  This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott . “ It was time for someone to stand up – or in my case, sit down.” DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement+VD.ppt
  10. 10. Civil Rights Movement  The boycott was led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr .  He only supported nonviolent protests!!! DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas- ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  11. 11. Civil Rights Movement  By the 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement had gained broad support and momentum!!!  In 1960, four college students from NCA&T protested against discrimination at lunch counters in the Greensboro Sit-in .  Also formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) for college students. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  12. 12. DOUBLE V CAMPAIG Ncasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  13. 13. Civil Rights Movement  In 1961, CORE staged a “freedom ride ” through the South to challenge segregation on interstate buses.  In Alabama, the bus was firebombed and a white mob attacked the riders.  DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas- ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  14. 14. Civil Rights Movement  TV news coverage compelled the FEDERAL government to get involved!!!  In 1962, James Meredith became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi (escorted by Federal Marshalls). DO UBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  15. 15. Civil Rights Movement  Birmingham, AL was known as the most segregated city in the South!!!  Nonviolent protesters faced armed police, high-pressure fire hoses, and attack dogs. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas- ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  16. 16. Civil Rights Movement  In 1963, King joined the protests and was arrested.  He wrote the famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.”  President Kennedy pushed for a new civil rights law. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  17. 17. Civil Rights Movement  In 1963, more than 200,000 people gathered at the March on Washington to pressure Congress to pass the law.  King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” Speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt
  18. 18. Civil Rights Movement  President Kennedy was assassinated, but Lyndon B. Johnson continued the fight.  CivilRights Act of 1964 – outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  19. 19. Civil Rights Movement  Southern states had used the literacy test, poll tax, and grandfather clause to keep African Americans from voting.  In 1964, SNCC organizedFreedom Summer to help register African Americans to vote.  Three volunteers disappeared, and their bodies were found weeks later. DOUBLE V CAMPAIG Ncasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  20. 20. DOUBLE V CAMPAIG Ncasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  21. 21. Civil Rights Movement  In 1965, King organized a major campaign to pressure the FEDERAL government to pass a voting rights law.  Police became violent with protesters!!! DOUBLE V CAMPAIG Ncasillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement +VD.ppt
  22. 22. Civil Rights Movement  Voting Rights Act of 1965 – banned the literacy test and gave FEDERAL authorities the right to oversee voting registration and elections in southern states.  24 th Amendment – abolished the poll tax.  African American participation in politics (voting and running for office) increased!!! D
  23. 23. Civil Rights Movement  Malcolm X converted to the Nation of Islam and appealed to many urban young people.  He promoted more militant tactics. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement+VD.ppt
  24. 24. Civil Rights Movement  Stokely Carmichael was the first to use the term “Black Power .”  Black Panthers was founded in Oakland, CA and often faced violent confrontations with police. DOUBLE V CAMPAIGNcasillas-
  25. 25. Civil Rights Movement  King was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis, TN, and riots broke out in hundreds of cities in the U.S.!!!  U.S. slowly began a policy of affirmative action , or giving special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination.  Some called it “reverse discrimination .”  casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil +Rights +Movement +VD.ppt casillas-ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil
  26. 26. Latino Rights  César Estrada Chávez was an American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers.  he used boycott as a method of non violent protest DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN casillas- ushistory.wikispaces.com/.../Civil+Rights+Movement+VD.ppt
  27. 27. Women’s Movement of 1960s and 1970s  Feminism – Theory of political, social and economic equality of men and women  Known as Women’s Liberation Movement  Gloria Steinem was a nationally known leader for this movement

Notas do Editor

  • Civil Rights Movement
  • After World War II, minorities became very vocal and started to demand equality here in America. The civil rights era had begun. In 1941, Roosevelt banned discrimination in defense industries, and in 1948, Truman desegregated the military.
  • There are two types of segregation going on in the United States during this time. De Jure and De Facto segregation. De jure segregation , or imposed by law, existed in the South. And De facto segregation , or resulting by custom or tradition, existed in the North. African Americans were denied housing in neighborhoods and only offered low-paying jobs.
  • Integration in professional sports began in 1947 when Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major league baseball.
  • Powerful organizations became involved in the civil rights movement. The NAACP became the most powerful civil rights organization in the U.S. and wanted to challenge segregation in the courts. Thurgood Marshall was a lawyer with the NAACP who became the first African-American Supreme Court justice. He laid the legal foundation for the end of segregation in the South. With the legislative and executive branches of government largely indifferent to racial discrimination, Thurgood Marshall turned to the courts to prove that separate facilities for blacks and whites were inherently unequal.
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) was a Supreme Court case that ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional. This case overturned the “separate but equal.” doctrine that was established in 1896 with “Plessy v. Ferguson.”
  • There was a lot of resistance to the civil rights movement. Southern states resisted integration and the KKK re-emerged. In 1957, the Little Rock Nine were not allowed to enter Central High School. President Eisenhower sent FEDERAL troops to protect students and enforce the Court’s ruling.
  • You can see from this photograph how determined the African American students were and also the opposition to integration by the white students.
  • December 1, 1955, our freedom movement came alive! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, AL. This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • The economic boycott of the buses in Montgomery was led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His strategy was nonviolent protest. He believed this was a much more effective strategy than violence.
  • By the 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement had gained broad support and momentum. The "sit-in" movement begins when four African American studies sit down at a Greensboro, N.C. Woolworth's to protest segregated lunch counters. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) for college students was formed to train protesters how to effectively get their message across without using violence.
  • The "Freedom Riders" leave Washington, D.C. to desegregate public transportation facilities in the South. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) staged a “ freedom ride ” through the South to challenge segregation on interstate buses. In Alabama, the bus was firebombed and a white mob attacked the riders.
  • Americans were watching all this unfold on TV and many were horrified at what was happening in our country. Pressure was strong for the federal government to take action. President Kennedy sends troops to the South to stop the violence. James Meredith becomes the first African American student at the University of Mississippi. An ensuing riots leaves two dead and 375 injured.
  • Birmingham, AL was known as the most segregated city in the South. Nonviolent protesters faced armed police, high-pressure fire hoses, and attack dogs. The pressure from these fire hoses was enough to potentially tear the bark from a tree.
  • In 1963, King joined the protests and was arrested. While in jail, he wrote the famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” This letter was an eye opener to many Americans and as a result President Kennedy pushed for a new civil rights law.
  • In 1963, more than 200,000 civil rights demonstrators in Washington, marching in support of the Civil Rights Act, hear the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., deliver his "I Have a Dream" speech. This speech outlined the goals of the movement to stop segregation.
  • President Kennedy did not get to see desegregation. He was assassinated in 1963, but his vice president, Lyndon Johnson continued his goals of equality in America. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin.
  • Southern states continued to resist. Literacy test, poll tax, and grandfather clause to keep African Americans from voting. Freedom Summer came around in 1964 and the goal was to help African Americans to vote. This was very successful. Also in the summer of 1964, three volunteers disappeared, and their bodies were found weeks later.
  • In 1965, King organized a major campaign to pressure the FEDERAL government to pass a voting rights law. Again, this was not received well in the South. There was a lot of violence and police became violent with the protesters.
  • The second major piece of legislation for the civil rights movement occurred in 1965 with the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 – banned the literacy test and gave FEDERAL authorities the right to oversee voting registration and elections in southern states. Poll taxes were abolished with the passage of the 24 th amendment. As a result, African American participation in politics (voting and running for office) increased.
  • Not everyone advocating civil rights believed in the strategy of non-violence. Malcolm X was a proponent of militant tactics. Malcolm X converted to the Nation of Islam and appealed to many urban young people.
  • Along the same lines as Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael was the first to use the term “Black Power.” His organization, the Black Panthers encouraged violence and often faced violent confrontations with law enforcement.
  • In 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, TN. As a result, riots occurred all over the United States. Also during this time, the U.S. slowly began a policy of affirmative action, or giving special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination. Some called it “reverse discrimination.”
  • Mexican Americans protested discrimination in voting, education, and employment. César Estrada Chávez was an American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. Chavez modeled Dr. King in his non-violent strategies to promote equality.
  • Feminists demanded equal job opportunities and an end to sexual discrimination. This is known as “Feminism”. The theory of political, social and economic equality of men and women. The Women’s Liberation movement was born and their dynamic leader was Gloria Steinem.
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