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Global Inequality The nature of global inequality – Rural Poverty – Is global inequality getting better or worse? Theories of global inequality – Modernization theory – Dependency Theory
The nature of global inequality• In the world today, the richest 25% of the population receives 75% of the world income.• The richest people of the world live in North America, Europe, and Australia.• The poorest people of the world live in Africa, India and Southeast Asia.
Rural AreaProblems….• People in poor countries have little in the way of possessions• Diets are often poor and lack meat , fruit and vegetables• Medical care is limited• As a result, life expectancy is short
Is global inequalitygetting better or worse?• Depends on how you measure it• By country, it is getting worse• For individuals, it is getting better• Why is this? Because the most populous poor countries, China and India, have rising Gross Domestic Products (GDPs).
Theories of Global Inequality• Modernization theory (Rostow 1960)• Suggested that all countries would inevitably go through the four stages of development :-1. The traditional society2. The preconditions for takeoff3. The drive to maturity4. The age of high mass consumption• Modernization theory has been criticized for being over optimistic• 50 years after it was created, many countries in the world are not developed.
Dependency theory• Dependency theory suggests that the reason why poor countries do not develop is because they are forcibly dependent on rich countries.• Poor countries sell raw materials that are used for the industries of the rich countries.• Means that most of the profits of manufacturing stay in rich world.• No capital to develop industries in poor countries.
Poverty in India: Concepts,Measurement and Trends
Coverage• Introduction• Concepts of Poverty and Poverty Line• Measurement of Poverty• Trends in Poverty over Time• Variations across States and Social Groups• Inequality: Concept and Measurement• Some Policy Issues
IntroductionIndia’s economic structure has changed dramaticallyover last 5-6 decades; among the most dynamiceconomies recently.Benefits of growth not widely spread to varioussections in society, reached only marginally to lowincome groups.Similar experience of other countries too.Question then arose: Can we guarantee to all at least aminimum level of living necessary for physical andsocial development of a person?Absolute poverty literature grew out of this question.
Why estimate poverty?Poverty estimates are vital input to design, monitorand implement appropriate anti-poverty policies.•Analysis of poverty profiles by regions, socio-economic groups•Determinants - factors affecting poverty•Relative effects of factors affecting poverty•Allocation of resources to different regions and tovarious poverty reduction programsPrecise estimates of poverty neither easy noruniversally acceptable. Yet, can act as a broad andreasonably policy guide.
Intellectual genesis of poverty very oldAdam Smith, Ricardo, Marx: subsistence wage conceptAn early empirical work by Dadabhai Naoroji, 1901Estimated an income level “necessary for the bare wants of ahuman being, to keep him in ordinary good health anddecency”. Estimated cost of food, clothing, hut, oil for lamp,barber and domestic utensils to arrive at „subsistence perhead‟.In the absence of income distribution data, Naoroji comparedcomputed subsistence level with per capita production todraw attention to mass poverty.Remarkable work that parallels an early work on Britishpoverty by Rowntree, 1901.
Poverty is multidimensionalDeprivation in income, illiteracy,malnutrition, mortality, morbidity, accessto water and sanitation, vulnerability toeconomic shocks.Income deprivation is linked in many casesto other forms of deprivation, but do notalways move together with others.This discussion focuses on Income poverty.
Measurement of Poverty (Percentage of Poor)• Two basic ingredients in measuring poverty:• (1)Poverty Line: definition of threshold income or consumption level• (2)Data on size distribution of income or consumption (collected by a sample survey representative of the population)
Poverty Line (PL): Absolute vs. RelativeRelative PL defined in relative terms withreference to level of living of another person;or, in relation to an income distributionparameter.Examples: 50% of mean income or median,mean minus one standard deviation.Absolute PL refers to a threshold income(consumption) level defined in absolute terms.Persons below a pre-defined threshold incomeare called poor.
Indian Poverty LineA minimum level of living necessary for physicaland social development of a person.Estimated as: total consumption expenditure levelthat meets energy (calorie) need of an averageperson.•PL comprises of both food and non-foodcomponents of consumption.•Considers non-food expenditure actually incurredcorresponding to this total expenditure.•Difficult to consider minimum non-food needsentirely on an objective basis
Relationship Between Calorie Intake and Per Capita Expenditure 3500Per Capita Calorie Intake per day 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Per Capita Consumption Expenditure per Month (Rupees)
Incidence of poverty Vs. Under- nutrition Classification of Population by Poverty Line and Calorie Norm - Rural India, 1977-78 Below Above Total Poverty Poverty Line LineBelow Calorie 45.32 12.47 57.79NormAbove Calorie 12.31 29.21 42.21NormTotal 57.63 42.37 100.00
% population below PL 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 7019601963196619691972197519781981198419871990199319961999 Rural HCR Urban HCR2002 Poverty in India: Changes over time2005
Comparison of Poverty After Reforms Uniform Recall Period 1993-94 2004-05Rural 37.3 28.3Urban 32.4 25.7Total 36.0 27.5 Mixed Recall Period 1999-2000 2004-05Rural 27.1 21.8Urban 23.6 21.7Total 26.1 21.8
Factors affecting PovertyPoverty depends on per capita household incomewhich in turn affected by employment, wage rate,land productivity, industrialisation, expansion ofservice sector and other general growth anddistribution factorsSpecial role of•per capita agricultural income•Employment and real wage rate•Inflation rate and relative food prices•Government expenditure Per capita development expenditure Social sector expenditure
Indian growth process since 1950s more or less distributionneutral till 1980s.Importance of a critical minimum steady growth in percapita income for poverty reduction.Inequality increased in recent years after reforms.Income elasticity of poverty has fallen.A given growth will be associated with more limited gains forthe poorHigher growth might more than compensate the adverseeffect if fall in elasticity is small.Reasons for weak participation of poor: limited access toeducation, land, credit; low agrl growth, underdevelopedinfrastructure such as irrigation, roads, electricity in poorerstates
Demographic Dividend• AS fertility drops, ratio of workers to non- workers rises.• Provides an window of opportunity provided potential workers acquire skills and find productive employment• About a fourth of poverty reduction could be attributed to demographic factors in India• Right economic policies critical, otherwise the scenario could turn out to be demographic liability• Dividend for 2-3 decades only since proportion of older population would eventually increase increasing dependency ratio again
Gender Equality inEducation: TheRole of Schools
Education for All Goals:1. ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;2. achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;3. eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality;
Gender inequality exists even when there is parity• Gender parity is a limited concept. It is a numerical construct. It tells us nothing about equality in terms of the educational environment, infrastructure, attitudes or attainment. Nor does it necessarily mean high enrolment, either for boys or girls. Nevertheless, it is a step along the long road to gender equality.• Gender Equality in education refers to equality of (and ensuring the desired level of) Entitlements, Opportunities, Experiences and Outcomes in education for both boys and girls.• Gender equality in education is also one of the MDG and EFA commitments; difficult to measure though.• Gender equality in education critical for elimination of other forms gender inequalities.
Countries covered• India: very high Population, high gender disparity in favour of boys except in examinations results; high sub-national differences• Nigeria: high population, high gender disparity in favour of boys• Pakistan: high Population, very high gender disparity in favour of boys• Malaysia: middle population, gender disparity in favour of girls• Trinidad & Tobago: low population, gender disparity in favour of girls, especially at secondary level• Samoa: low population, gender disparity in favour of girls especially at secondary level• Seychelles: low population, gender disparity in favour of girls, especially at secondary level
Textbooks• Visibility of women is very low as compared to men’s appearance in the textbooks. Women and men are identified with stereotypical attributes: brave, heroic, honest, strong are portrayed as male and caring, self scarifying, love and kindness as female attributes (Pak)• Members of textbook review and author are almost all men. In one instance, a team of female authors and reviewers were able to produce comparatively more gender inclusive textbook (Pak)• under representation of women is clearly evident in all the textbooks across subjects. little effort to depict women in non-traditional roles and portray them as capable of making choices (India, Malaysia); Token ‘shifts’ such as a chapter on women’s status added (India)• Most of the textbooks in use are recently published books and gender friendly in Seychelles.
Teachers’ perceptions and expectations• Girls considered more responsible and hard-working, boys considered indifferent and aggressive; But boys still seen as „leaders‟ in most countries and girls though girls taking leadership roles in T&T and Seychelles• Teachers expectations in terms of academic performance higher from girls in Samoa, T&T, Seychelles and Malaysia; not so clearly differentiated in the rest• Girls‟ role in contributing to „care‟ work in school and home viewed as „just‟ and „unavoidable‟ almost everywhere
Students’ aspirations and perceptions• Males believe they will be the main breadwinner everywhere and see girls as “weaker” and in need of protection• Girls less stereotypical in aspirations about career choices: at times inconsistent with their subject choices• Even when girls speak of being „independent‟ they believe in being protected• Parents reinforce gender stereotypes; Gendered difference in parental support• Boys interested in academics seen as „feminine‟ by peer: very strong in T&T, to varying extent everywhere
Action Gender in School: the Follow up Project• Working with small number of schools in selected countries to change them to become more gender responsive institutions• Institutionalising these changes in those schools• Taking the experience beyond in the form of Action Guide• Technical Support in replication of the approach in the initial set of countries• Technical Support to new countries to
Ultimate goal• Education processes to be transformative in terms of preparing students to question existing gender relations and notions of masculinities and being feminine• School as space where students have opportunities for questioning, debating, seeing new perspectives, forming new identities and relations without feeling threatened or weak
SOCIAL INEQUALITY INLAND OWNERSHIP IN INDIAA STUDY WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO WEST BENGAL
Objectives • Assess the inequalities in access to land between the different social groups, especially Dalits and Adivasis in rural India • A case study of the impact of land reforms in West Bengal, a State in Eastern India on the land holding among Dalit and Adivasi households
Secondary data sources on land holdings in India• National Sample Survey Land and Livestock Holdings Surveys48th round (1992)• National Sample Survey Employment Unemployment Surveys50th round (1993-94)61st round (2004-05)
Definitions of land holdings• Land and Livestock Holding surveys Ownership holdings of agricultural land • Employment Unemployment Surveys Land cultivated by households
• Dalits in rural India have far less access to land than any other social group. There is an increase in landlessness among Dalits in India in the previous decade.• Secondary data show the Dalits in West Bengal have better access to land compared to other Indian States. This is indicated by the fact that the proportion of landless Dalit households is lower in West Bengal than the national average and the Index of Access is higher.• The increase in the incidence of landlessness among Dalits in West Bengal in the previous decade is lower than that in India. Also, the increase in the incidence of landlessness in West Bengal is higher for non-Dalits than Dalits.• Village level data show that Dalit, Adivasi and Muslim households have been major beneficiaries of land reforms in West Bengal. These social groups have gained access to agricultural and homestead land through the process of land reforms. The direct policy of land reform implemented by the Government of West Bengal, though in a limited way, have contributed to lowering inequalities among the deprived social groups in the State and that is also reflected in the secondary data.• Increased purchasing power among the poor in Bengal facilitated by land distribution has increased the participation of Dalit and Muslim households in land markets.
brotherhood or humanity Andforgetting about caste . The help we need from government is to not reserve seats or give more help to those
them . Like give special education tothe backward sections and then make the examinations for all merit .
Give some financial help and smalljobs to the poor , this can also help stopping child labour because parents of those children send the for they need money . Just removing the child from the job will not help we also need to givetheir families some financial help .We also have to protest for this and we cant say that any person is having a pleasure full life
stereotypes , discrimination and prejudice can stop us from developing in any WAY .Two more things , donot take it for granted becauseyou are a human belonging to a particular country or our earth because their can be anything you never know or knew
So please do notstop us in our way to development ;DO NOT ENCOURAGE INEQUALITY EVER !