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  2. Concept of Inquiry  "Inquiry" is defined as "a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge – seeking information by questioning."  The process of asking a question or asking for information about someone or something.  The process of inquiring begins with gathering information and data through applying the human senses -- seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.
  3. INQUIRY METHOD  The inquiry method is a student-centered learning approach with the concept of students who are actively involved in the teaching and learning activity under the monitoring and supervision of teachers.  The inquiry method requires higher-order thinking skills and critical thinking to make conclusions
  4. Inquiry Approach  The inquiry approach is more focused on using and learning content as a means to develop information-processing and problem-solving skills. The system is more students centered, with the teacher as a facilitator of learning. There is more emphasis on "how we come to know" and less on "what we know." Students are more involved in the construction of knowledge through active involvement. The more interested and engaged students are by a subject or project, the easier it will be for them to construct in-depth knowledge of it. Learning becomes almost unproblematic when something fascinates students and reflects their interests and goals.
  5. Inquiry Based Learning  Inquiry based learning is student centered learning and is a paradigm shift from passive to active learning process. Therefore inquiry based learning can be perceived as broader term that involves:  Range of teaching learning approaches  Process of guidance by supportive inquiry  Active involvement of the learner to foster critical thinking
  6. Inquiry Classroom  An inquiry classroom is quite different from a traditional classroom. These differences become increasingly obvious as the teacher and students become more comfortable and experienced with inquiry learning. It can often be difficult to locate the teacher in an inquiry classroom, because she is rarely found in the traditional spot: behind the teacher's desk. Students also move around the classroom as they interact with others and locate the appropriate materials and resources for their work.
  7. Deductive Method  Deduction is the process by which a particular fact is derived from some general known truth. Thus, in the deductive method of teaching learner proceeds from general to particular, abstract to concrete and from formula to examples.  Here a pre-established rule or formula is given to the learners and they are asked to solve the related problems by using that formula. Therefore, in this method, the learner has to perform only calculation or to simplify the substituted known values in the given formula to get the solution of the problem.
  8. Definition  According to Joseph London, “Deductive teaching secures first the learning of definition or law or rule, then carefully explains its meaning and lastly illustrates it fully by applying to fact.”
  9. Examples of Deductive Reasoning Example 1:  Major premise: All philosophy students are intelligent .  Minor premise: Mr. Amin is a philosophy student.  Conclusion: Therefore, Mr. Amin is intelligent. Example 2:  Major premise: All birds lay eggs.  Minor premise: Dove is a bird.  Conclusion: Therefore dove lays eggs.
  10. Inductive Method  Inductive Method is based on principle of induction.  Induction means to establish a universal truth by showing that if it is true for a particular case and is further true for a reasonably adequate number of cases then it is true for all such cases. Thus, in this method, at first stage a problem is solved on the basis of previous knowledge, thinking, reasoning and insight of the learner. At this stage he does not know about any formula, principle or method for the solving the given problem.
  11. Cont.  When adequate number of similar examples, facts or objects is presented to the learners, they try themselves to arrive at a conclusion for all those. Thus, they arrive at a generalization or derive a formula through a convincing process of reasoning and solving of various similar problems. Thus, in this method rules and formulas are not supplied by the teachers to the students. Here only various facts and examples are presented to the learners and from where they have to find out rules or establish a general formula.
  12. Cont.  Therefore, it is a method of constructing a formula with the help of adequate number of concrete examples. Thus, inductive method of teaching leads us from known to unknown, particular to general or example to general rule and from concrete to abstract. When a number of concrete cases have been understood, the learner himself is able to attempt for generalization.
  13. Examples of Inductive Reasoning  Example 1:  Ali is mortal, Alia is mortal, Adil is mortal,…  Therefore, all men are mortal.  Example 2:  Pigeon has wings, hawk has wings, crow has wings.  Therefore all birds have wings.
  14. Scientific Method  A logical, orderly approach that involves gathering data, formulating and testing hypotheses, and proposing theories.  The procedure adopted by the scientists to find out the facts and scientific truths is called Scientific Method.
  15. Steps Involved in The Scientific Method  The following are the compulsory steps involved in the scientific method. The elaboration of these steps as: 1. Realizing the problem 2. Defining the problem 3. Analyzing the problem 4. Collecting data / information 5. Analyzing the information 6. Framing hypothesis 7. Verifying the hypothesis 8. Finding the solution 9. Applying the solutions in the life situations.
  16. 1. Realizing the problem  The urge to find out the truth for any scientific happening, is the first step which helps to solve the problem in scientific method. Each and every happening of nature catches the students’ attention and they wonder about the basic cause and its effects upon the nature. The students plunge in wonder. While using scientific method the prime duty of the teacher is to introduce a concept in the form of problem and motivate the students to find out solutions for the same.
  17. 2. Defining the problem  After sensing the problem clearly, it should be defined clearly so that the problem could be solved. This is the next step in Scientific Method. Only after defining the problem clearly, it is possible to plan methods and strategies to solve the problem. Students themselves can find out and write clear definitions using relevant words with the help of the teacher. Suitable definition can be selected from them.
  18. 3. Analyzing the Problem  This is the third step in Scientific method which classifies and arranges the problem and its components. The learner should analyze the problem in parts to find out the details of each part to understand the actual dimensions of the problem.
  19. 4. Collecting Data/Information  Designing the Methods using available resources and techniques to solve the problem and collecting data accordingly is the important step in the scientific method. Data related to the problem can be collected under the following ways: 1. Collection of data through observation 2. Collection of data through experiments 3. Collection of data by surveying literature 4. Discussion with experts
  20. 5. Analyzing the Data/Information  Analysis of Information collected develops the scientific attitude among the learners. The collecting of information can reveal the uniqueness and the diversity of the problem and its dimensions. Only on the basis of analysis of information formulating the hypothesis can be done. The irrelevant data and information can be discarded by this method. The teacher should support the learner for analysis of information. By this skills of classification and comparison can be developed among the learners.
  21. 6. Framing Hypothesis  Formulation of hypothesis or tentative solutions (Framing hypothesis) is the important step in the scientific method. Tentative solutions are derived from analyzing various data on the basis of organizing and grouping the data according to their similarities and dissimilarities. In this way, many tentative solutions can be obtained to the given problem. They are called hypotheses. All hypotheses cannot be the solutions to a problem. One among them will be the suitable solution to the problem. Students can be encouraged to formulate hypothesis on the basis of collected data by observation or by experiments.
  22. 7. Verifying the hypothesis  Evaluation of hypothesis or verification of hypothesis is essential to find out the appropriate one which is most likely to be correct. On the basis of hypotheses, further data collected through the repeated experiments are analyzed and the most appropriate hypothesis need be selected. The tentative solutions may be discarded when there is lack of validity and experimental proof.
  23. 8. Finding the solution  A hypothesis must be tested in variety of environments and from the results of the tests and experiments a valid hypothesis is selected. Selected and confirmed hypothesis is tested again and again. According to its consistency it becomes final solution to the problem and it can be announced as the result.
  24. 9. Applying the solutions in the life situations  The derived results must be generalized. The generalized result can be utilized whenever the situations happened alike. The learner can apply the same or similar type of methods for problem solving.
  25. Role of the Teacher in Scientific Method  The scientific method can be used by the learner to understand the objects, activities and acquire the skills decision making and problem solving. The solutions or results derived through this method can be applied to the living environment. In order to apply the solutions in life solutions the teacher should:
  26. Cont.  Arrange a necessary environment to understand the problem.  Guide the learner to collect the data or information.  Help in classification and arrangement of data or information in a desired order.  Formulate the hypothesis and test the same.  Help to prepare a report on tested hypothesis.  Give a life situation and enable the student to utilize the solution to find the result.
  27. Advantages of Inquiry Method  The following are the major advantages of the inquiry approach.  Be interested and enthusiastic  Get students talking to each other and learning from the peers  Promote the use of accurate current information resources as students research their learning issues
  28. Cont.  Establish a good learning environment for the group Students develop skills in: • Critical and creative thinking • Communication • Self-directed learning • Team-work • Project management • Problem-solving and • Students get to know one another better and make friends
  29. LIMITATIONS OF INQUIRY METHOD  The scope of the inquiry method is limited in terms of contents also the effective applications of this approach requires motivated and mature students. The teachers also need to be well competent in planning, designing, conducting and monitoring the inquiry based learning.
  30. What is?
  31.  Students are presented with problems which require them to find either a scientific or technological solution.  It is a student-centered strategy which require students to become active participants in the learning process. Problem-solving
  32.  Problem solving is a teaching strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for information. Problem solving as teaching strategy
  33. Five basic steps of the scientific method 1.Sensing and defining the problem 2.Formulating hypothesis 3.Testing the likely hypothesis 4.Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence 5.Formulating conclusions
  34.  This approach is used most often in science and mathematics classes. The students are trained to be sensitive to any puzzling situation or to any difficult situation that needs to be solved.  Having defined the problem clearly, a tentative solution is solicited.  The closest scientific guess is then pursued by undertaking an appropriative investigative technique such as performing an experiment or gathering data through directed observations. Finally they are led to formulate conclusions.
  35.  This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes.  The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science subjects. It is a general procedure in finding solutions to daily occurrences that urgently need to be addressed. ADVANTAGES
  36.  The student’s active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertakings.  Problem-solving develops higher level thinking skills.  A keen sense of responsibility, originality and resourcefulness are developed, which are much-needed ingredients for independent study. ADVANTAGES
  37. The students become appreciative and grateful for the achievement of scientists. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others. ADVANTAGES