2. Fires in the United States During 2011
Facts - NFPA
• 1,389,500 fires were reported
in the U.S. during 2011.
• 3,005 fire deaths
– One death occurred every two
hours and 55 minutes
• 17,500 fire injuries
– One injury occurred every 30 minutes
• $11.7 billion in property damage
• A fire department responded to a fire every 23
3. Fires in the United States During 2011
Facts - NFPA
• 484,500 structure
fires occurred in the
U.S. during 2011.
• 2,640 fire deaths
• 15,635 fire injuries
• $9.7 billion in property damage
• One structure fire was reported every 65 seconds
4. Fires in the United States During 2011
Facts - NFPA
• 219,000 vehicle fires occurred
in the U.S. during 2011.
• 300 fire deaths
• 1,190 fire injuries
• $1.4 billion in property damage
• One vehicle fire was reported every 144
5. Fires in the United States During 2011
Facts - NFPA
• 686,000 outside and other
fires occurred in the U.S.
• 65 fire deaths
• 675 fire injuries
• $616 million in property
• One outside fire was
reported every 46 seconds
6. Fire Department Responses by Type of
Call, 2011 - NFPA
• Total Incidents 30,098,000
• Medical Aid Responses (Ambulance, EMS, Rescue) 19,803,000
• All Other Responses (smoke scares, lock-outs, etc.) 4,171,500
• False Alarms 2,383,000
• Fire Incidents 1,389,500
• Mutual Aid or Assistance Calls 1,252,000
• Other Hazardous Responses (arcing wires, gas leak etc.) 720,000
• Hazardous Material Responses (Spills, Leaks, etc.) 379,000
• More house fires occur in the winter
months, than at any other time of the year.
• Cooking is the leading cause of home fires in the
• Frying poses a higher risk of fire than other
• Young children and older adults face a higher
risk of death from cooking fires, than any other
(U.S. Fire Administration)
• Heating appliances are the second leading cause
of house fires in the United States.
• Fires confined to chimneys, flues, fuel boxes or
boilers, account for 86% of residential building
• In less than 30 seconds, a small flame can get
completely out of control and turn into a major
• Having a working smoke alarm reduces one's
chance of dying in a fire by nearly one-half.
(U.S. Fire Administration)
10. What We Can Do to Prevent
• Ask your parents where the smoke detectors
are in your house and know what to do if you
hear them beep.
• Make sure there are working smoke
detectors, mounted to the ceilings, on all
levels of the house.
• Do not leave burning candles unattended.
11. What We Can Do to Prevent
• Never walk away from food cooking on the
• A gas range or oven should not be used as a
heater, as this can produce toxic fumes.
13. What We Can Do to Prevent
• Do not use electric space heaters in
bathrooms, kitchens or other rooms, where
they could have contact with water.
• Keep all electric heaters and fuel burning
heaters away from furniture and drapes.
• Keep trash away from all heat sources.
• Don't sit too close to a fireplace. The embers
from the fire can catch on your clothes.
14. What We Can Do to Prevent
• Do not wear loose pajamas or clothing
around electric or gas space heaters. Loose
clothing can catch on the heater and burn.
• Learn how to stop, drop, and roll. This is
important to know. If your clothes are on
fire, it is best to stop, drop to the floor and
roll around on the floor until the fire is put
out instead of running.
15. Preventing House
• Don't play with matches or lighters. These
can hurt you, and they can start a house or
• Make sure to turn off TVs, stereos, lamps and
other equipment before leaving your room
• As a family, devise an escape plan, in case
there is a house fire. Practice the plan.
FIRE - a state, process, or instance of
combustion in which fuel or other material is
ignited and combined with oxygen, giving off
light, heat, and flame.
SMOKE - the visible vapor and gases given off by
a burning or smoldering substance, especially
the gray, brown, or blackish mixture of gases
and suspended carbon particles resulting from
the combustion of wood, peat, coal, or other
HEAT - the state of a body perceived as having
or generating a relatively high degree of
FUEL -combustible matter used to maintain fire,
as coal, wood, oil, or gas, in order to create heat
19. Chemistry of Fire
• In order for fire to occur four things must be
present, Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, and a Chemical Chain
Reaction. This is represented by the Fire
• When any of the four items are
removed, the fire will go out.
• Fire extinguishers function by removing one of the
four components of the Fire Tetrahedron.
20. THE FOUR STAGES OF
Explosions excepted, most fires have quite humble
beginnings and grow through four stages:
Incipient Stage - At this stage, decomposition
is occurring at the surface of the fuel due to the
influence of some form of heat. Products of
combustion given off at this stage are invisible to
Smoldering Stage - At this stage, up to 10% of
the decomposing products released at the
surface of the fuel are visible.
21. THE FOUR STAGES OF
• Flaming Stage - Vapors from the
decomposing fuel have ignited and are at the
stage where flames are self propagating.
• Heat Stage - At this stage the burning has
progressed to the point where the fire is still
small but generating sufficient heat to warm
the air immediately around the fire, sending
warm products of combustion upwards by
22. THE FOUR STAGES OF
• The time required for a fire to develop
through the first two stages is usually quite
long when compared to the last two.
Depending on conditions, the time
involved going through all stages may be
anything from seconds to days.
24. THE CHEMISTRY OF
The principles of fire extinction consist of the elimination or removal
of one or more of the four elements. These principles are:
• The most commonly used fire fighting medium is water. Water
absorbs heat from the fire and cools the fuel to a temperature
where it no longer produces flammable vapors.
• By excluding the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere, the fire
will be extinguished.
25. THE CHEMISTRY OF
• Starvation is achieved by removal of the fuel burning in
the fire. Sometimes combustible material can be
removed such as by shutting off gas valves or fuel flows.
STOP CHAIN REACTION
• Stop or interrupt the chain reaction between the
fuel, heat and oxygen the fire will be extinguished.
• Specific methods of extinguishing fires often involve a
combination of more than one of the four principles
26. Some causes of Fire
Electricity Space Heaters
Improper Storage Cleaning Supplies
Combustible Liquids Flammable Liquids
• Prevention is the best way to
fight a fire!
27. 4 classes of fire:
Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material, such as wood,
paper, cloth, rubber, and some plastics.
Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline,
kerosene, paint, paint thinners and propane.
Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances,
switches, panel boxes and power tools.
Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium,
titanium, potassium, and sodium.
28. 4 classes of fire:
• Electricity presents a special hazard in a fire
situation. Electricity does not burn, it
produces heat which may result in one of the
classes of fire. If the electricity is removed
(e.g. by switching off the power), the heat
source is removed and the remaining fire
should be dealt with according to its class.
• If the source of electricity cannot be
eliminated, a non-conductive extinguishing
agent should be used.
29. Each of these three elements must be present at
the same time to have a fire. A fire will burn until
one or more of the elements is removed.
Any combustible material – solid,
liquid or gas
The air we breathe is The energy necessary
about 21% oxygen – to increase the
fire needs only temperature of fuel to
16% oxygen where sufficient
vapors are given off
for ignition to occur
• Removing Heat
• Removing Fuel
• Reducing Oxygen
• Inhibit Chemical
31. Multi-Class Ratings
Many extinguishers available today can be used on different types
of fires and will be labeled with more than one designator, e.g. A-B,
B-C, or A-B-C.
This label shows that this extinguisher
can be used on ordinary combustibles
(A) or flammable liquids (B). The
New Style of Labeling
red slash through the last symbol
tells you that the extinguisher cannot
be used on electrical fires (C).
Be advised that most fire Old Style of Labeling
extinguishers will function for
less than 40 seconds.
33. You are not
to be firefighters!
Do not take
34. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
1. Install Smoke Detectors
SMOKE DETECTORS should be installed on each level of your home
and outside of each sleeping area.
Test smoke detectors monthly and change the batteries twice a
Never take the batteries out of your smoke detectors.
35. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
2. Plan Your Escape From Fire
Make an escape plan with your family.
Have two ways out of each room.
If you live in an apartment, do not use the elevator.
Have a meeting place.
Once you are outside, do not
go back in for any reason.
Practice your plan.
36. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
3. Keep an Eye on Smokers
CARELESS SMOKING is the leading cause of fire deaths .
Make sure that all smokers use ashtrays.
If someone drops a cigarette, check the area to ensure
that there are no embers left behind.
37. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
NEVER LEAVE COOKING unattended. Keep cooking
areas clear of combustibles and wear clothes with short
or tight-fitting sleeves when you cook. Turn pot handles
inward on the stove, where you can’t bump them and
children can’t grab them. If grease catches fire in a pan,
slide a lid over the pan to smother the flames and turn
off the heat source.
Keep lid on until pan is
39. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
5.Give Space Heaters Space
KEEP PORTABLE AND SPACE heaters at least three feet
away from anything that can burn. Keep children and
pets away from heaters and never leave heaters on
when you leave home or go to bed.
40. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
6. Matches and Lighters -
Tools, Not Toys
IN A CHILD’S HAND matches and lighters can be deadly.
Matches and lighters are tools, not toys, and should be
used only by adults or with adult supervision. Teach
small children to tell a grownup if they find matches or
lighters; older children should bring matches and lighters
to an adult immediately.
41. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
7. Cool a Burn
RUN COOL WATER over a burn for 10 to 15 minutes. If
the burned skin blisters or is charred, see a doctor
42. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
8.Use Electricity Safely
IF AN ELECTRIC APPLIANCE smokes or has an unusual
smell, unplug it immediately, then have it serviced
before using it again Replace any electrical cord that is
cracked or frayed. Don’t overload extension cords or run
them under rugs.
43. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
9. Crawl Low Under Smoke
DURING A FIRE, smoke and poisonous gases rise with
the heat. The air is cleaner near the floor. If you must
escape through smoke, crawl on your hands and knees
to the nearest exit, keeping your head 12 to 24 inches
above the floor.
44. 10 Tips for Fire Safety
10. Stop, Drop, and Roll
IF YOUR CLOTHES CATCH FIRE, don’t run. Stop where
you are, drop to the ground, cover your face with your
hands, and roll over and over to smother the flames.
45. If you have a fire…
Leave, close the door, and call 9-1-1 from outside.
Report ALL fires to the fire department,
even if you think you put them out!
Don’t ignore alarms!
Even if your building has frequent alarms, you need to leave
when they go off.
Once you’re out, STAY OUT!
Don’t go back inside for possessions or pets.
Notify the fire department if anyone is unaccounted for.
You never know when it could be a real fire.
46. Escape Routes
When the smoke alarm
sounds, you may only have
seconds or minutes to
Have a meeting place for
everyone to gather outside.
Plan two ways out, in case
one way is filled with smoke
Know your escape Once you are outside, do not
routes and practice go back in for any reason.
There are many ways to reduce your risk of fire:
Stay focused when you’re cooking.
Use candles responsibly, or not at all.
Don’t overload electrical sockets or misuse extension
If someone is smoking in or near your home, check to
make sure that all smoking materials are properly
Have a fire safety plan and practice it!
Have working smoke and CO alarms.