Nanotechnology In Civil Engineering

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NANOTECHNOLOGY   IN CIVIL   ENGINEERING,[object Object],BY:  ,[object Object],NIRANJANA.S,[object Object]
INTRODUCTION,[object Object],Nanotechnology is not a new science and it is not a new technology.,[object Object],“Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that allows us to develop materials with improved or totally new properties”,[object Object],It is rather an extension of the sciences and technologies already developed for many years ,to examine the nature of our world at an ever smaller scale.,[object Object],Nanotechnology is the use of very small particles of material. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter.,[object Object],The size of the particles, is very important because at the length scale of the nanometer, 10-9m, the properties of the material actually become affected.,[object Object]
Nanotechnology In Construction….,[object Object],The construction business will inevitably be a beneficiary of this nanotechnology.,[object Object],In fact it already is in the fields of concrete, steel and glass,and many more. ,[object Object],Concrete is stronger, more durable and ,[object Object],    more easily placed;,[object Object], steel  is made tougher ;,[object Object], glass  is self-cleaning.,[object Object],Paints  are made more insulating and ,[object Object],    water repelling.,[object Object]
Introduction To Nano Materials,[object Object],Nano particle: It is defined as a particle with at least one dimension less than 200nm.It is quantum dots if they are small enough (typically sub 10nm) such that jumps in energy levels occur.,[object Object],Nano composite : It is produced by adding Nano particle to a bulk material in order to improve the bulk material’s properties.,[object Object]
Carbon Nano Tubes(CNT),[object Object],[object Object]
They can be several millimeters in length
they have 5 times the Young’s modulus and 8 times (theoretically 100 times) the strength of steel whilst being 1/6th the density.
Thermal conduction is also very high along the tube axis,[object Object]
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN     CONCRETE,[object Object]
CONCRETE,[object Object],Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand(fine aggregate), coarse aggregate and water.,[object Object],As concrete is most usable material in construction industry it’s been require to improve its quality. ,[object Object],The mechanical behavior of concrete materials depends on phenomena that occur on a micro and a nano scale.,[object Object]
Nanotechnology in Concrete,[object Object],Nanotechnology can: modify the molecular structure of concrete material to improve the material's properties as shown in the chart.,[object Object],Nano-concrete is defined as “A concrete made with Portland cement particles that are less than 500 Nano-meters as the cementing agent”.,[object Object]
[object Object]
NANO-SILICA: particle packing in concrete can be improved by using nano-silica which leads to a densifying of the micro and nanostructure resulting in improved mechanical properties.
Nano-silica addition to cement based materials can also control the degradation of the fundamental C-S-H (calcium-silicate hydrate) reaction of concrete caused by calcium leaching in water as well as block water penetration and therefore lead to improvements in durability.
Related to improved particle packing, high energy milling of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) clinker and standard sand, produces a greater particle size diminution with respect to conventional OPC and, as a result, the compressive strength of the refined material is also 3 to 6 times higher.,[object Object]
TiO2 In Concrete,[object Object],TiO2 is a white pigment and can be used as an excellent reflective coating.,[object Object],it is hydrophilic and therefore gives self cleaning properties to surfaces to which it is applied. ,[object Object],The process by which this occurs is that rain water is attracted to the surface and forms sheets which collect the pollutants and dirt particles previously broken down and washes them off.,[object Object], The resulting concrete, already used in projects around the world, has a white color that retains its whiteness very effectively unlike the stained buildings of the material’s pioneering past.,[object Object]
CNTs In Concrete,[object Object],The addition of small amounts (1% wt) of CNT’s can improve the mechanical properties of samples consisting of the main Portland cement phase and water.,[object Object],Oxidized multi-walled Nano tubes (MWNT’s) show the best improvements both in compressive strength (+ 25 N/mm2) and flexural strength (+ 8 N/mm2) compared to the samples without the reinforcement.,[object Object],A number of investigations have been carried out for developing smart concrete using carbon fibers. ,[object Object]
NANOTECHNOLOGY  AND STEEL ,[object Object]
Need For Nanotechnology In Steel..,[object Object],Fatigue is a significant issue that can lead to the structural failure of steel subject to cyclic loading, such as in bridges or towers. ,[object Object],This can happen at stresses significantly lower than the yield stress of the material and lead to a significant shortening of useful life of the structure.,[object Object],Stress risers are responsible for initiating cracks from which fatigue failure results and research has shown that the addition of copper Nanoparticle reduces the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers and hence fatigue cracking.,[object Object],Advancements in this technology would lead to increased safety, less need for monitoring and more efficient materials use in construction prone to fatigue issues.,[object Object]
Temperature restriction,[object Object],Above 750 F, regular steel starts to lose its ,[object Object],    structural integrity, and at 1100 F, steel loses 50 percent of its strength.,[object Object],A new formula infuses steel with nanoscale copper particles, this formula could maintain structural integrity at temperatures up to 1000 F.,[object Object],the new steel allows ultra-high strength to be combined with good formability, corrosion resistance and a good surface finish.,[object Object]
High Strength Steel Cables,[object Object],Current research into the refinement of the cementite phase of steel to a Nano-size has produced stronger cables. ,[object Object],A  stronger cable material would reduce the costs and period of construction, especially in suspension bridges .,[object Object],Sustainability is also enhanced by the use of higher cable strength as this leads to a more efficient use of materials.,[object Object],High rise structures require high strength joints and this in turn leads to the need for high strength bolts.,[object Object]
High strength bolts,[object Object],The capacity of high strength bolts is realized generally through quenching and tempering and the microstructures of such products consist of tempered martensite.,[object Object],When the tensile strength of tempered martensite steel exceeds 1,200 MPa even a very small amount of hydrogen embrittles the grain boundaries and the steel material may fail,[object Object],    during use.,[object Object],vanadium and molybdenum Nanoparticle has ,[object Object],     shown that they improve the delayed fracture ,[object Object],     problems associated with high strength bolts, ,[object Object],     improving the steel micro-structure.,[object Object]
Two products in international market,[object Object],Sandvik Nanoflex,[object Object],MMFX2 steel,[object Object],produced by Sandvik Materials Technology(Sweden),[object Object],desirable qualities of a high Young’s Modulus and high strength ,[object Object],resistant to corrosion due to the presence of very hard nanometer-sized particles,[object Object],The use of stainless steel reinforcement in concrete structures is limited as it is cost prohibitive.,[object Object],produced by MMFX Steel Corp,[object Object],     (America),[object Object],has the mechanical properties of conventional steel,[object Object],has a modified nano-structure that makes it corrosion resistant,[object Object],it is an alternative to conventional stainless steel, but at a lower cost.,[object Object]
NANOTECHNOLOGY AND GLASS (SELF CLEANING),[object Object]
Vital role of glass in buildings,[object Object],The current state of the art in cladding is an active system which tracks sun, wind and rain in order to control the building environment and contribute to sustainability ,[object Object],Consequently, there is a lot of research being carried out on the application of nanotechnology to glass,[object Object],Most of glass in construction is, on the exterior surface of buildings and the control of light and heat ,[object Object],    entering through glazing is a major issue. ,[object Object],Research into nanotechnological solutions ,[object Object],    to this centers around four different strategies ,[object Object],    to block light& heat coming through windows.,[object Object]
Self cleaning glass using TiO2,[object Object],Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used,[object Object],in Nanoparticle form to coat glazing since it has sterilizing and anti-fouling properties. ,[object Object],The particles catalyze powerful reactions which breakdown organic pollutants, volatile organic compounds and bacterial membranes. ,[object Object],TiO2 is hydrophilic and this attraction to water forms sheets out of rain drops which then wash off the dirt particles broken down in the previous process. ,[object Object],Glass incorporating this self cleaning technology is available on the market today.,[object Object]
Self cleaning glass ,[object Object]
Fire and heat protection,[object Object],Fire-protective glass is another application of nanotechnology. ,[object Object],This is achieved by using a clear intumescent layer sandwiched between glass panels (an interlayer) formed of fumed silica (SiO2) Nanoparticle which turns into a rigid and opaque fire shield when heated.,[object Object],For heat protection thin film coatings are being developed which are spectrally sensitive surface applications for window glass and filter out unwanted infrared frequencies of light (which heat up a room) and reduce the heat gain in buildings, however, these are effectively a passive solution. ,[object Object],As an active solution, thermo chromic technologies are being studied which react to temperature and provide insulation to give protection from heating whilst maintaining adequate lighting.,[object Object]
Other technologies…,[object Object],A third strategy, that produces a similar outcome by a different process, involves photo chromic technologies which react to changes in light intensity.,[object Object],Electro chromic coatings are being,[object Object],   developed that react to changes in ,[object Object],applied voltage by using tungsten oxide,[object Object],layer; thereby becoming more opaque at,[object Object],the touch of a button. ,[object Object],All these applications are intended to ,[object Object],reduce energy use in cooling buildings.,[object Object]
NANO TECHNOLOGY IN OTHER DISCIPLINES,[object Object]
Nanotechnology and wood,[object Object],Wood is also composed of nanotubes or “nanofibrils”, lignocelluloses are twice as strong as steel. ,[object Object],Nanofibrils would lead to a new paradigm in sustainable construction ,[object Object],Functionality onto lignocelluloses surfaces at the nanoscale could open new opportunities for such things as self-sterilizing surfaces, internal self-repair, and electronic lignocelluloses devices. ,[object Object],Currently, however, research in these areas appears limited.,[object Object],Researchers have developed a highly water repellent coating based on the actions of the lotus leaf as a result of the incorporation of silica and alumina Nanoparticle and hydrophobic polymers.,[object Object]
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Nanotechnology In Civil Engineering

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  • 13. NANO-SILICA: particle packing in concrete can be improved by using nano-silica which leads to a densifying of the micro and nanostructure resulting in improved mechanical properties.
  • 14. Nano-silica addition to cement based materials can also control the degradation of the fundamental C-S-H (calcium-silicate hydrate) reaction of concrete caused by calcium leaching in water as well as block water penetration and therefore lead to improvements in durability.
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