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2.abnormal psychology
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  1. 1. Psychological Disorders
  2. 2. Psychological Disorders  Psychological Disorder  a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be:  atypical--not enough in itself  disturbing--varies with time and culture  maladaptive--harmful  unjustifiable--sometimes there’s a good reason
  3. 3. Historical vs Modern Perspective  Perceived Causes  movements of sun or moon  evil spirits  Medical Model  concept that diseases have physical causes  can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured
  4. 4. Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective
  5. 5. Psychological Disorders--Etiology  DSM-IV-TR  American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)  Approximately 400 disorders  17 categories
  6. 6. Two Major Classifications in the DSM Neurotic Disorders • Distressing and can impair functioning in society; yet can act rationally. Psychotic Disorders • Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions. John Wayne Gacy
  7. 7. Anxiety Disorders • a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. • the patient fears something awful will happen to them. • They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear.
  8. 8. Anxiety Disorders  PET Scan of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorder  High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention
  9. 9. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event. • Memories of the event cause anxiety. • Exposure Therapy
  10. 10. Mood Disorders • Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion.
  11. 11. Depression
  12. 12. Mood Disorders- Suicide
  13. 13. Seasonal Affective Disorder • Experience depression during the winter months. • Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight. • Treated with light therapy.
  14. 14. Bipolar Disorder • Formally manic depression. • Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy – Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.
  15. 15. Personality Disorders • Well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function. • Dominates their personality.
  16. 16. Psychopathy and Empathy
  17. 17. Dissociative Disorders • These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process.
  18. 18. Psychogenic Amnesia • A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory. – Retrograde Amnesia • NOT organic amnesia. – Organic amnesia can be retrograde or anterograde.
  19. 19. Dissociative Fugue • People in a psychogenic fugue can find themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
  20. 20. Dissociative Identity Disorder • A person has several rather than one integrated personality. • People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma.
  21. 21. Schizophrenic Disorders Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1. Disorganized thinking. 2. Disturbed Perceptions 3. Inappropriate Emotions and Actions • About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  22. 22. Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Positive and negative symptoms exist in schizophrenia – Positive: increase in behaviors (i.e.unusual perceptions, thoughts, behaviors) – Negative: loss of behaviors (i.e. motor movements, social withdrawal, etc.) • Some schizophrenics show both positive and negative • Better outcome for treatment in cases where predominantly positive symptoms
  23. 23. Disorganized Thinking • Fragmented and bizarre thinking, distorted with false beliefs. • Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention.- they cannot filter out information.
  24. 24. Delusions (false beliefs) • Delusions of Persecution • Delusions of Grandeur
  25. 25. Disturbed Perceptions • hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation. – Usually auditory Louis Wain (1860-1939) Anthropomorphic cats
  26. 26. Inappropriate Emotions and Actions • Laugh at inappropriate times • Flat Effect – Reduced facial expression • Senseless, compulsive acts. • Catatonic / Cataleptic- motionless / waxy flexibility
  27. 27. Types of Schizophrenia
  28. 28. Disorganized Schizophrenia • Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion • Clang associations – Like rhyming words
  29. 29. Paranoid Schizophrenia • Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations. • Somebody is out to get me!!!!
  30. 30. Catatonic Schizophrenia • Flat effect • Waxy Flexibility • Parrot like repeating of another’s speech and movements
  31. 31. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia • Many and varied Symptoms.
  32. 32. Explaining Schizophrenia: The Brain • Possible role of NTs – Dopamine – Glutamate • Brain abnormalities – Enlarged ventricles – Brain dysfunction in temporal and frontal lobes – Hippocampus & amygdala smaller in twin with schizophrenia
  33. 33. Genetics and Schizophrenia
  34. 34. The Role of Family and Environment • Family support – Quality of family communication and interaction • may encourage/discourage development of disorder, also trigger future episodes • Exposure to chronic stress – High-risk, low-income lifestyle may increase susceptibility
  35. 35. The Rosenhan Study • Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices. • They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia. • None were exposed as imposters. • They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission.

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