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Berliner Philharmonie - Hans Scharoun

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Presentation by Francia Salazar

Publicada em: Arte e fotografia

Berliner Philharmonie - Hans Scharoun

  1. 1. Berliner Philharmonie By Hans Scharoun Music in the Center
  2. 2. Location 1 Herbert-von-Karajan-Straße, Berlin, BE 10785, Germany
  3. 3. About •  Located in Berlin, Germany. •  The philharmonic building that was previously located in this site was destroyed during World War II. •  Built in 1963 by German architect Hans Scharoun, exponent of expressionist group Die Brücke and organic architecture. •  The Berliner Philharmonie was one of the first concert buildings to be designed with a central stage, surrounded by audience seating on all four sides. •  Is one of the world's major symphony halls.
  4. 4. Berlin Philharmonic
  5. 5. About The building of the Philharmonic has become one of the most emblematic and characteristic of the city although the reception of Berliners after construction was not exactly enthusiastic due to its eccentric forms and shape. The iconic building is asymmetrical in shape appearing like a golden, draped tent. The concert hall is still highly regarded for its original design and acoustic qualities. It is located in the heart of reunified Berlin and it was opened in 1963 by Herbert von Karajan. Used to be called “Karajan’s Circus.”
  6. 6. Cultural Influence Is a physical manifestation of the social and cultural context that Scharoun was constrained to during the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945. By understanding the political-architectural struggle, through the lens of architectural theory on form and body, the Berlin Philharmonic can not only be appreciated for its amazing acoustic environment, but also for its architectural and social creativity. Scharoun’s intent for the concert hall was to create a space of economic and social equality. Through the manipulation of the traditional rectilinear or circular-crescent shaped performance spaces of the past, the resulting hybrid concert hall intended to eliminate or reduce, the economic hierarchy that would be expected.
  7. 7. Seating Orientation
  8. 8. Design Capacity The Philharmonie is composed of two venues with a connecting lobby, including a large auditorium with 2,218 seats + 120 chorus for orchestral concerts and a slightly smaller chamber- music hall, with 1,180 seats. The smaller venue was added in the 1980's.
  9. 9. "A typical product of the Expressionist movement and of organic architecture, this concert hall in which the audience is seated around the orchestra was worked out in accordance with the laws of acoustics."
  10. 10. Floor Plans Ground and 2nd level
  11. 11. Floor Plans Levels 3 and 4
  12. 12. Positive and Negative Spaces
  13. 13. Circulation Diagram Scharoun deliberately chose to offset the entrance from the auditorium’s axis of symmetry so as to enhance the sense of excitement so often associated with a concert visit. The polygonal geometry of both the exterior and the interior gives few clues regarding the direction of movement. 
  14. 14. Longitudinal Section
  15. 15. Stage Suspended Acoustical Panels Seating Blocks
  16. 16. Exterior Elevation
  17. 17. Architectural and Structural Details •  Ceiling: three layer – roof, intermediate plate and actual ceiling chalk gypsum plaster on expanded metal, suspended by vibration- isolated metal rods from walkways. •  Suspended Stage Panels: 10 trapezoidal polyester panels, each 81ft2 in area. •  50% open space between – Variable height 32-40 ft above the stage. •  Ceiling Sound absorbing units: 136 pyramidal-shaped, combination sound-diffusing, low frequency Helmholtz resonator type absorbing units are provided. •  Side walls: thin wood over airspace. •  Stage side walls: arranged to reflect sound back to the musicians. •  Stage height: 30in. •  General Dimensions: H=42ft W=140ft L=95ft D=98ft •  Orchestra area: 2,200 ft2
  18. 18. Architectural and Structural Details •  Stage Floor: wooden floor on planks over airspace •  Audience Floor: oak parquet in asphalt base over precast slabs which cover the air handling plenum. •  Seating: seatback, molded veneered plywood, the upper part bent vertical so that the maximum sound reflection occurs when occupied. •  Cushions: on front of seatback, does not extend to top. •  Seat-bottom is upholstered on top and the underside is covered with cloth and and it is perforated. •  Armrest are wooden.
  19. 19. Acoustical Data o  The Berlin Philharmonic has become one of the most successful acoustical designs pioneering the concept of the “vineyard” style hall (where the seating surrounds the stage). o  Breaking the audience into blocks allowed for the first row to receive unimpeded direct sound. o  The seats in many of the blocks receive early lateral reflections from the sound walls that surround them. o  The front of the terrace blocks provide early reflections for both the musicians and the audience seating in the middle hall. o  Additional early reflections are provided to the orchestra and audience by ten large suspended panels hung above the stage. o  The upper block seating receive additional early reflections from the convex, tent shaped ceiling. “Angle of incidence same as angel of reflection”
  20. 20. Acoustical Data o  In the front of the orchestra, the audience can perceive a clear, balanced and beautiful sound that completely surrounds one. o  One of the disadvantages is that those seating to the rear of the stage, hear a different sound. o  The mid-frequency reverberating time, fully occupied, is 1.9 sec. o  By clothing the and upholstered seats, the lower frequencies were balanced. o  By adjusting the 136 pyramid-shaped low frequency resonators in the ceiling, the bass is controllable. “Angle of incidence same as angel of reflection”
  21. 21. … “… The design of the auditorium started out Hans Scharoun's way. Scharoun's Berlin Philharmonic Hall (1963), gave Mr. Gehry and Mr. Salonen the idea of presenting the orchestra in the round. The elimination of the proscenium arch fuses musicians and listeners into a single spatial event.” - The New York Times Walt Disney Concert Hall Los Angeles
  22. 22. The  Berliner  Philarmonie  is  one  of  the  most  important   symphony  halls  in  the  world  because  it  introduced  a  new   way  of  “organizing”  the  sea<ng  arrangements  through  the   concept  of  social  equality.    Scharoun  had  the  ability  and   was  able  to  ar<culate  this  space  based  on  the  no<on  of   equality  and  social  ideas.  It  is  one  of  the  first  in  the  world   to  have  a  central  stage,  “Music  in  the  center,”  therefore   crea<ng  a  series  of  sea<ng  blocks  defined  by  the  shape  of   it.    This  iconic  building  is  asymmetrical,  crea<ng  a  sense  of   suspense  while  walking  inside,  and  although  the  shape  of   the  structure  did  not  aFract  the  aFen<on  of  the   community  at  first,  its  acous<cs  did.   Due  to  its  uncommon  shape  and  the  loca<on  of  the  stage,   several  factors  were  taken  into  account  when  dealing  with   the  acous<cs  of  the  building.    The  sea<ng  arrangement   and  different  changes  in  levels  help  diffuse  the  sound.     Even  though  the  people  sea<ng  right  in  front  of  the  stage   do  not  collect  the  best  sound  quality,  the  fact  that  you  are   sea<ng  in  front  of  the  orchestra,  fortunately  helps  shape   the  judgment  of  the  acous<cs.  Materials  also  played  an   important  role  to  balance  the  frequencies  as  well  as  the   acous<cal  panels  located  mainly  above  the  stage.   The  Berliner  Philarmonie  has  now  been  used  as  a   precedent  for  other  symphony  or  concert  halls.    One  of   them  is  the  Walk  Disney  Concert  Hall,  by  Frank  Gehry.    He   also  wanted  to  locate  the  stage  at  the  center  as  well  to   provide  a  more  direct  and  equal  experience  for  everybody.  
  23. 23. Bibliography "Berlin Philharmonic Hall by Hans Scharoun at GreatBuildings."GreatBuildings. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2016. "Berlin Philarmonic."en.wikiarquitectura. N.p., n.d. Web. <https:// en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Berlin_Philharmonic#History>. "Concert Hall Acoustics: Art and Science." Concert Hall Acoustics Tutorial. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2016. <http://www.acoustics.salford.ac.uk/ acoustics_info/concert_hall_acoustics/?content=shape>. "Berlin Philharmonic Hall." Berlin Philharmonic Hall. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2016. <http://architectuul.com/architecture/berlin-philharmonic-hall>. Beranek, Leo Leroy. "Germany 40 Berlin Berlin Philarmonie." <i>Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound</i>. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1996. 245-48. Print.