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  3. 3. WHAT IS GIS? It is short for Geographic Information System And it is a system of computer hardware and software designed to allow users to collect, manage, analyze, and retrieve large volumes of spatially referenced data and associate attributes collected from variety of sources 3
  4. 4. BRIEF HISTORY OF GIS 1. The history can be traced back to 1950s 2. First GIS software only came in late 1970s, attributed to the development of complex and fast-computing computers 3. Much of the work pioneered in the development of GIS was credited to Roger Tomlinson, an English geographer, whom many have called the Father of GIS 4. His works laid the foundation in the creation of an integrated and coordinated spatial information system that later became as the present GIS 4
  5. 5. GIS HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE GIS-based softwares and hardwares are produced by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), an international supplier of GIS software, web GIS and geodatabase management applications based in California, USA 5
  6. 6. NEEDS FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN FORESTRY 1. Geospatial data are poorly maintained 2. Maps and statistics are out of date 3. Data and information 4. There is no data retrieval service 5. There is no data sharing 6
  7. 7. BENEFITS OF GIS 1. Geospatial data are better maintained in a standard format 2. Revision and updating are easier 3. Geospatial data and information are easier to search, analyze and represent 4. Geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely 5. Productivity of the staff is improved and become more efficient 6. Better decisions can be made 7
  9. 9. IT IS A COMPUTING SYSTEM CONSISTING OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE A GIS system integrates collection system and data analysis system, which works as complimentary of each other 9
  10. 10. IT CAN COPE WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA The computerized nature of GIS allows large amounts of data to be processed simultaneously, thus taking away the data analysis from human work 10
  11. 11. IT IS DESIGNED FOR UNLIMITED AND FREQUENT DATA EDITS GIS data are stored in a cloud-based platform, making access with such ease. From time to time, personnel can create edits of their previously uploaded work, even if it is months or years ago. 11
  12. 12. MORE ROBUST AND RESISTANT TO DAMAGE GIS system is designed to be robust in functionality, which means that data are not prone to damage. 12
  13. 13. FASTER AND MORE EFFICIENT GIS is designed to do just that. Unlike its humans equivalent, a GIS system process and interprets data within just minutes or hours, whereas humans could go days with data analysis if unassisted by a computer 13
  14. 14. IT REQUIRES LESS PERSON, TIME, AND MONEY GIS system is designed to be self-sufficient. Less personnel may only be needed to input data and leave the system to run the analysis. This way, resources and time are greatly saved. 14
  15. 15. MAP MAKING USING QUANTUM GIS 1. A free and open-source GIS software called Quantum GIS is available for download in the internet 2. Due to the free for download nature of the app, several features are not available compared to paid softwares like ArcGIS 3. In map making, users are allowed to add layers that may contain information about the topography, land classification, boundaries, forest cover, and even the weather, and produce only 1 copy of the data with the combination of information 15
  16. 16. EXAMPLES 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. As shown in the previous image, geo-referenced data can be collected from third party apps like Google Earth The points, represented in red colors, contain coordinates When imported to GIS, the application automatically locates the area based on the point coordinates 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. In the previous image, the GIS processed the data obtained from Google Earth, according to the parameters I set The parameters was to show the contour lines or topography of that particular area The yellow lines represent the elevations of the land 20
  21. 21. Other features that GIS allows its users to integrate may include forest cover distribution, tree species distribution, age distribution, land classifications and boundaries, weather elements, roads, scale, waterbodies, and other land features 21
  22. 22. REMOTE SENSING 22
  23. 23. WHAT IS REMOTE SENSING? 1. Defined as the science of collecting data regarding an object or phenomenon without any physical contact with the object 2. The collection of data is done through the use of satellites suspended hundreds of kilometers from the earth’ surface to take pictures of a particular area of interest 3. Aerial photography is another type of remote sensing, which involves a specialized camera mounted on an airplane to capture images of the ground from a relatively low altitude 23
  25. 25. IT IS A SURVEYING AND DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE Remote sensing gathers data through geo-referencing, which takes the grid coordinates of a selected region. The remotely sensed data is then processed in a separate computer program for analysis. 25
  26. 26. IT CAN RETRIEVE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA IN A SHORT TIME Remote sensing is specifically designed to gather data of a huge area in a matter of hours. Data collection is through the use of satellites and airplanes. 26
  27. 27. IT REDUCES MANUAL FIELD WORK DRAMATICALLY Since personnel does not need to be on the field to gather data, manual labor are usually done in the comforts of offices 27
  28. 28. IT ALLOWS RETRIEVAL OF DATA IN REGIONS DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE TO ACCESS Due to the rugged terrain of some forests, human access is almost impossible. Remote sensing technology like the use of drones, effectively replaces human intervention. 28
  29. 29. LESS ROBUST Remotely sensed data does not provide specific and definitive information of the lands 29
  30. 30. LESS IDEAL TO USE AS THE SYSTEM FOR CENTRALIZED DATABASE Remote sensing is not designed to be used as an integrated system where a vast amount of information is stored and shared 30
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES OF REMOTE SENSING 1. Massive forest fires can be mapped from a higher distance, allowing authorities to predict the movement of the fire to prevent it from blazing the whole forest. 2. Tracking of wildlife movement. 3. Accurate mapping of rugged forest terrains. 4. Tracking forest growth or degradation with years of monitoring. 5. Planning and management of the forests. 6. Conduct land surveys on forest lands 31
  33. 33. FOREST MANAGEMENT GIS provides forest authorities the planning and managing tools to manage the forests. It provides a detailed mapping of the spatial distribution of forest ecosystem. It allows authorities to identify location, monitor condition, create modeling systems to accurately predict future forest trends that may one day be of importance to decision and policy-making. 33
  34. 34. FOREST INVENTORY GIS comes in handy in managing and planning an assessment of forest resources. A GIS-produced map helps authority to pinpoint locations where a large potential timber harvest is located. This helps predict the future sale value of harvestable timber in a particular region or area. 34
  35. 35. RECONNAISSANCE Use to study the vegetative state and built of the forest. This way, one can easily plan and integrate new developments or interventions in a certain forest population without disturbing the whole forest ecosystem. 35
  36. 36. FOREST FIRES GIS helps in planning to prevent forest fires. Careful data analysis using GIS program will tell the authorities about strategic locations on where to establish mechanical or natural means to stop a raging forest fire from igniting a whole forest. 36
  37. 37. DEFORESTATION Determine exact locations where vast amount of forest lands are cleared in a monthly or annual basis. Using series of images 37
  38. 38. REFORESTATION GIS data helps in the formulation of a good project approach in reforestation projects 38
  39. 39. FOREST HEIGHTS GIS-based system provides essential information about the vertical structures and diameters of trees. This information can estimate timber volume total of a certain harvestable forest stand. 39
  40. 40. FOREST CARBON RESERVES Carbon reserves in forestlands are very important to prevent the release of carbon into the atmosphere If forests containing rich carbon reserves were to be cut down, the carbon reserves will be released into the atmosphere, drastically increasing carbon levels. 40
  41. 41. VEGETATION POTENTIAL Analyzing and researching on growth and distribution of trees is important for the preservation of the environment and human life. GIS has made it easier for foresters and experts to understand vegetation potential clearly. 41
  42. 42. AGE OF TREES Manually obtained data on the age of trees can be integrated into a GIS system to create an approximation or estimation on the distribution of the age of trees in a particular area or region 42
  43. 43. FOREST DISEASE Based on the previous outbreaks of destructive forest diseases, authorities can integrate the geographic information of the outbreak into a GIS-map to have an accurate and scientific analysis on the scale of damage of the disease outbreak. This information can be later on used to create model or predict where it might happen next, so that authorities will have advance knowledge to prevent those outbreaks from ever happening again. 43
  44. 44. WILDFIRE SIMULATION Virtual wildfire simulation can be created to have a GIS- guided scenario of what a future forest fire would look like, giving the authorities ideas to setup preventive measures, and plan better approach to tackle it. 44
  45. 45. WETLAND INVENTORY Wetlands are important due to their water storage capacity. GIS helps create monitoring tool to protect our wetlands. 45
  46. 46. DEAD ZONES There are parts in the world where forest life is not supported. Integrating these areas in a GIS map will guide authority up to where they can only reforest a certain area 46
  47. 47. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT GIS provides important data that will help in the evaluation of proposed projects which carries significant impact to the environment. 47
  48. 48. END 48
  49. 49. TEXT QUESTIONS ▸ Is GIS a standalone system? ▸ Does the mastery of GIS technology needed for future foresters? ▸ How can we use GIS and remote sensing to our advantage? 49