1. A seminar on: - Cloud Computing Application
CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIO
Architecture of cloud computing
Application of cloud computing
Mobile cloud computing
IBM cloud computing
Niwa cloud computing
IEEE cloud computing
Example of cloud computing
Advantages of cloud computing
Disadvantages of cloud computing
Computing means that instead of all the computer hardware and software you're using
sitting on your desktop, or somewhere inside your company's network, it's provided for you as
a service by another company Cloud and accessed over the Internet, usually in a completely
seamless way. Exactly where the hardware and software is located and how it all works
doesn't matter to you, the user—it's just somewhere up in the nebulous "cloud" that the
Cloud computing is a buzzword that means different things to different people. For
some, it's just another way of describing IT (information technology) "outsourcing"; others use
it to mean any computing service provided over the Internet or a similar network; and some
define it as any bought-in computer service you use that sits outside your firewall. However
we define cloud computing, there's no doubt it makes most sense when we stop talking about
abstract definitions and look at some simple, real examples—so let's do just that.
4. What is Cloud Computing Application
Is an application program that functions in the cloud, with some characteristics of a pure
desktop app and some characteristics of a pure Web application.
Definition of cloud computing:-
Cloud computing is a new form of Internet-based computing that provides shared
computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for
enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g.,
computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services)
During the 1960s, the initial concepts of time-sharing became popularized via RJE (Remote
Job Entry); this terminology was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC.
Full time-sharing solutions were available by the early 1970s on such platforms as Multics (on
GE hardware), Cambridge CTSS, and the earliest UNIX ports (on DEC hardware). Yet, the
"data center" model where users submitted jobs to operators to run on IBM mainframes was
In the 1990s, telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated
point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with
comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By switching traffic as they saw fit to
balance server use, they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively. They began to
use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was
responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cloud computing extended this boundary
to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure. As computers became more diffused,
scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to
more users through time-sharing.They experimented with algorithms to optimize the
infrastructure, platform, and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end
Since 2000, cloud computing has come into existence. In early 2008, NASA's Open Nebula,
enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-
source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds. In
the same year, efforts were focused on providing quality of service guarantees (as required by
real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures, in the framework of the
IRMOS European Commission-funded project, resulting in a real-time cloud environment. By
mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among
consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them “and observed
that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-
use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to computing ... will result in dramatic
growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas.
In August 2006 Amazon introduced its Elastic Compute Cloud.Microsoft Azure was
announced as "Azure" in October 2008 and was released on 1 February 2010 as Windows
Azure, before being renamed to Microsoft Azure on 25 March 2014. For a time, Azure was on
the TOP500 supercomputer list, before it dropped off it. In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and
NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as open Stack. The
open Stack project intended to help organizations offering cloud-computing services running
on standard hardware. The early code came from NASA's Nebula platform as well as from
Rackspace's Cloud Files platform. As an open source offering and along with other open-
source solutions such as Cloud Stack, Genetic and Open Nebula, it has attracted attention by
several key communities. Several studies aim at comparing these open sources offerings based
on a set of criteria.
On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM Smart Cloud framework to support
Smarter Planet.Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, cloud
computing is a critical part. On June 7, 2012, Oracle announced the Oracle Cloud. While
aspects of the Oracle Cloud are still in development, this cloud offering is poised to be the first
to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions, including the Applications
(SaaS), Platform (PaaS), and Infrastructure (IaaS) layers
In April of 2008, Google released Google App Engine in beta.In May of 2012, Google
Compute Engine was released in preview, before being rolled out into General Availability in
December of 2013
6. Goal of cloud computing:
The goal of cloud computing is to allow users to take beneﬁt from all of these technologies,
without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each one of them. The cloud aims to cut
costs, and helps the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles. The
main enabling technology for cloud computing is virtualization. Virtualization software separates a
physical computing device into one or more "virtual" devices, each of which can be easily used and
managed to perform computing tasks.
Reduced Spending on Technology Infrastructure:
Moving to cloud computing may reduce the cost of managing and maintaining your IT
systems. Rather than purchasing expensive systems and equipment for your business, you can reduce
your costs by using the resources of your cloud computing service provider. You may be able to
reduce your operating costs because
the cost of system upgrades, new hardware and software may be included in your
you no longer need to pay wages for expert staff
your energy consumption costs may be reduced
There are fewer time delays.
Globalizing Workspace/ Easy Accessibility:
Globalizing your workspace or system may add additional agility and effectiveness to your
system. For example, you have the ability to access data from home, on holiday, or via the commute
to and from work (providing you have an Internet connection). If you need access to your data while
you are off-site, you can connect to your virtual office, quickly and easily.
Improve Flexibility and Scalability:
Your business can scale up or scale down your operation and storage needs quickly to suit
your situation, allowing flexibility as your needs change. Rather than purchasing and installing
expensive upgrades yourself, your cloud computer service provider can handle this for you. Using the
cloud frees up your time so you can get on with running your business.
7. Better Resource Utilization:
Using technologies such as virtualization and distributed computing, computing resources can
be used fully up to their potentials. In cloud model, you can pay whatever you use for your
Cloud computing architecture:
The systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing,
typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling
mechanism such as a messaging queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or
loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.
Cloud computing sample architecture
Is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It brings a systematic
approach to the high-level concerns of commercialization, standardization, and governance in
conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary
method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance,
information, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering.
8. Service models:
Software as a Service (SaaS):
The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a
cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin
client interface, such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email), or a program interface. The consumer
does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating
systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited
user-specific application configuration settings.
Platform as a Service (PaaS):
The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-
created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools
supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud
infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the
deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):
The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and
other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary
software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or
control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, and
deployed applications; and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host
Cloud computing service model
9. Applicationsof cloud computing:-
Mobile Cloud Computing:
(MCC) is the combination of cloud computing, mobile computing and wireless networks to
bring rich computational resources to mobile users, network operators, as well as cloud computing
providers.The ultimate goal of MCC is to enable execution of rich mobile applications on a plethora of
mobile devices, with a rich user experience. MCC provides business opportunities for mobile network
operators as well as cloud providers. More comprehensively, MCC can be defined as "a rich mobile
computing technology that leverages uniﬁed elastic resources of varied clouds and network
technologies toward unrestricted functionality, storage, and mobility to serve a multitude of mobile
devices anywhere, anytime through the channel of Ethernet or Internet regardless of heterogeneous
environments and platforms based on the pay-as-you-use principle.
Mobile cloud architecture
MCC uses computational augmentation approaches (computations are executed remotely
instead of on the device) by which resource-constraint mobile devices can utilize computational
resources of varied cloud-based resources. In MCC, there are four types of cloud-based resources,
namely distant immobile clouds, proximate immobile computing entities, proximate mobile computing
entities, and hybrid (combination of the other three model).Giant clouds such as Amazon EC2 are in
the distant immobile groups whereas cloudlet or surrogates are member of proximate immobile
computing entities. Smartphones, tablets, handheld devices, and wearable computing devices are part
of the third group of cloud-based resources which is proximate mobile computing entities.
Vodafone,Orange and Verizon have started to offer cloud computing services for companies.
10. IBM cloud computing:
IBM cloud computing is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the
information technology company IBM. IBM cloud includes infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software
as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) offered through public, private and hybrid cloud
delivery models, in addition to the components that make up those clouds.
IBM cloud computing emerged from the union of its mainframe computing and virtualization
technologies.Known as the original virtualization company. IBM’s first experiments in virtualization
occurred in the 1960s with the development of the virtual machine (VM) on CP-40 and CP-67
operating systems. CP-67, a hypervisor used for software testing and development, enabled memory
sharing across VMs while giving each user their own virtual memory space. IBM began selling VM
technology for the mainframe in 1972
IBM began to develop a strategy for cloud computing in 2007. In October 2007, IBM announced a
partnership with Google to promote cloud computing in universities.
IBM claimed in April 2011 that 80% of Fortune 500 companies were using IBM cloud, and that their
software and services were used by more than 20 million end-user customers, with clients including
American Airlines, Aviva, Carfax, Frito-Lay, India First Life Insurance Company, and 7-Eleven.On 4
June 2013 IBM announced its acquisition of Soft Layer, to form an IBM Cloud Services Division
Public, private and hybrid cloud models
cloud, owned and operated by the customer
cloud, owned by the customer, but operated by IBM (or another provider)
cloud, owned and operated by IBM (or another provider)
private cloud services (based on multi-tenanted support for individual enterprises)
cloud services (based on the provision of functions to individuals)
11. NIWA Cloud Application Platform:
NIWA Cloud Application Platformis a platform as a service (PaaS) cloud computing platform
for developing and hosting web application. Web applications run in several containers in the cloud.
This allows you to scale applications automatically: while the number of requests to the application
grows, resources are allocated automatically.
12. IEEE Cloud Computing:
IEEE Cloud Computing is a global initiative launched by IEEE to promote cloud computing,
big data and related technologies, and to provide expertise and resources to individuals and
enterprises involved in cloud computing
In 2010, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) sponsored two cloud
computing–specific conferences: IEEE CLOUD and IEEE CloudCom. With the success of the two
conferences, IEEE Senior Member and IEEE Computer Society past president Steve Diamond, began
urging the organization to take an active role in the development of cloud computing standards
IEEE Cloud Computing continues to pursue efforts to provide cloud computing standards,
advancement of cloud computing technologies, and to educate users on the benefits of cloud
computing. As part of this ongoing effort, it offers a variety of activities, products, and services,
including the IEEE Cloud Computing portal, conferences and events, continuing education courses,
publications, standards, and the IEEE Intercloud Testbed platform for testing cloud computing
13. Simple examples of cloud computing:-
Most of us use cloud computing all day long without realizing it. When you sit at your
PC and type a query into Google, the computer on your desk isn't playing much part in finding
the answers you need: it's no more than a messenger. The words you type are swiftly shuttled
over the Net to one of Google's hundreds of thousands of clustered PCs, which dig out your
results and send them promptly back to you. When you do a Google search, the real work in
finding your answers might be done by a computer sitting in California, Dublin, Tokyo, or
Beijing; you don't know—and most likely you don't care!
The same applies to Web-based email. Once upon a time, email was something you
could only send and receive using a program running on your PC (sometimes called a mail
client). But then Web-based services such as Hotmail came along and carried email off into
the cloud. Now we're all used to the idea that emails can be stored and processed through a
server in some remote part of the world, easily accessible from a Web browser, wherever we
happen to be. Pushing email off into the cloud makes it supremely convenient for busy people,
constantly on the move.
Preparing documents over the Net is a newer example of cloud computing. Simply log
on to a web-based service such as Google Documents and you can create a document,
spreadsheet, presentation, or whatever you like using Web-based software. Instead of typing
your words into a program like Microsoft Word or Open Office, running on your computer,
you're using similar software running on a PC at one of Google's world-wide data centers.
Like an email drafted on Hotmail, the document you produce is stored remotely, on a
Webserver, so you can access it from any Internet-connected computer, anywhere in the
world, any time you like. Do you know where it's stored? No! Do you care where it's stored?
Again, no! Using a Web-based service like this means you're "contracting out" or
"outsourcing" some of your computing needs to a company such as Google: they pay the cost
of developing the software and keeping it up-to-date and they earn back the money to do this
through advertising and other paid-for services.
14. Advantages of cloud computing:-
Perhaps, the most significant cloud computing benefit is in terms of IT cost savings.
Businesses, no matter what their type or size, exist to earn money while keeping capital and
operational expenses to a minimum. With cloud computing, you can save substantial capital
costs with zero in-house server storage and application requirements. The lack of on-premises
infrastructure also removes their associated operational costs in the form of power, air
conditioning and administration costs. You pay for what is used and disengage whenever you
like - there is no invested IT capital to worry about. It’s a common misconception that only
large businesses can afford to use the cloud, when in fact, cloud services are extremely
affordable for smaller businesses.
With a managed service platform, cloud computing is much more reliable and
consistent than in-house IT infrastructure. Most providers offer a Service Level Agreement
which guarantees 24/7/365 and 99.99% availability. Your organization can benefit from a
massive pool of redundant IT resources, as well as quick failover mechanism - if a server fails,
hosted applications and services can easily be transited to any of the available servers.
Cloud computing provides enhanced and simplified IT management and maintenance
capabilities through central administration of resources, vendor managed infrastructure and
SLA backed agreements. IT infrastructure updates and maintenance are eliminated, as all
resources are maintained by the service provider. You enjoy a simple web-based user interface
for accessing software, applications and services – without the need for installation - and an
SLA ensures the timely and guaranteed delivery, management and maintenance of your IT
15. Strategic Edge
Ever-increasing computing resources give you a competitive edge over competitors, as
the time you require for IT procurement is virtually nil. Your company can deploy mission
critical applications that deliver significant business benefits, without any upfront costs and
minimal provisioning time. Cloud computing allows you to forget about technology and focus
on your key business activities and objectives. It can also help you to reduce the time needed
to market newer applications and services.
16. Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
As cloud service providers take care of a number of clients each day, they can become
overwhelmed and may even come up against technical outages. This can lead to your business
processes being temporarily suspended. Additionally, if your internet connection is offline,
you will not be able to access any of your applications, server or data from the cloud.
Although cloud service providers implement the best security standards and industry
certifications, storing data and important files on external service providers always opens up
risks. Using cloud-powered technologies means you need to provide your service provider
with access to important business data. Meanwhile, being a public service opens up cloud
service providers to security challenges on a routine basis. The ease in procuring and
accessing cloud services can also give nefarious users the ability to scan, identify and exploit
loopholes and vulnerabilities within a system. For instance, in a multi-tenant cloud
architecture where multiple users are hosted on the same server, a hacker might try to break
into the data of other users hosted and stored on the same server. However, such exploits and
loopholes are not likely to surface, and the likelihood of a compromise is not great.
Although cloud service providers promise that the cloud will be flexible to use and
integrate, switching cloud services is something that hasn’t yet completely evolved.
Organizations may find it difficult to migrate their services from one vendor to another.
Hosting and integrating current cloud applications on another platform may throw up
interoperability and support issues. For instance, applications developed on Microsoft
Development Framework (.Net) might not work properly on the Linux platform.
17. Limited Control
Since the cloud infrastructure is entirely owned, managed and monitored by the service
provider, it transfers minimal control over to the customer. The customer can only control and
manage the applications, data and services operated on top of that, not the backend
infrastructure itself. Key administrative tasks such as server shell access, updating and
firmware management may not be passed to the customer or end user.
It is easy to see how the advantages of cloud computing easily outweigh the drawbacks.
Decreased costs, reduced downtime, and less management effort are benefits that speak for