Post author By Charlie January 20, 2022
The Government System of Mauritania
Mauritania is a country located in Northwest Africa and is bordered with Algeria, Mali,
Senegal, and the disputed Western Sahara. It also has a coast along the Atlantic Ocean
where Cabo Verde lies not far from. Its capital city Nouakchott is located on this coast.
Ancient tribes in the area that is today Mauritania were the Berber, Niger-Congo, and
Bafour. The Bafour were one of the first to put aside their nomadic lifestyle for agricultural
lifestyles. The Berbers would become one of the more dominant peoples in the area for a
time. The Berbers had migrated into what is modern-day Mauritania during the 3rd and
4th Centuries and then again in the 7th and 8th Centuries. The Berbers made vassals of
local peoples they came across or forced them out further South.
During the 9th Century the three Berber groups of Lemtuna, Messufa and Djodala formed
a loose confederation called the Sanhadja Confederation to obtain better control over the
easternmost trans-Saharan trade route. This confederation, after bringing some
prosperity, broke up during the 11th Century among unrest and warfare within
the Sanhadja Berbers, some zealots broke off from these peoples and preached for
Islamic reform and holy war.
By 1090 the Almoravid Dynasty extended from Spain to Senegal, including parts of
modern-day Mauritania. The dynasty begun to wane in power after four decades as their
enemies in the north and south grew in power. The Sudanic Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali,
and the Songhai expanded over the following six centuries and pushed into Berber
strongholds and brought a second wave of immigration.
From the late 17th Century, the Bani Hassan conquered all of what is today modern-day
Mauritania, leading to many Berber’s moving South and forcing other local populations
with them in the direction of the Senegal River Basin. A Berber force did attempt to stop
the Bani Hassan during the Char Bouba war but were defeated, allowing the Bani Hassan
to consolidate control, bringing in a new social structure, Islamization, and Arabization.
This social structure has the Bani Hassan at the top, followed by the Berbers of which
many became clerics serving the Arabs, and then at the bottom were enslaved
blacks. Hassaniya Arabic became the dominant language.
The Europeans had become interested in Mauritania during the second half of the 16th
Century with French traders in what is today modern-day Senegal purchasing
gum arabic from Southern Mauritania. French forces occupied parts of Southern
Mauritania for a short time during the mid-nineteenth century, the Arabs and Berbers paid
them little attention. The French would eventually use brute force and co-optation to
pacify refractory Arab chiefs at the beginning of the 20th Century, bringing Mauritania
under the French colonial Empire. Unlike most of French West Africa, Mauritania was
only administered by colonial authorities indirectly, with existing Arab-dominated
institutions allowed to continue.
Following World War II many French colonies had begun hungering for independence or
major reforms, but such calls in Mauritania were only minimal, but despite this the French
colonial authorities still implemented reforms on to them that had been demanded
elsewhere in French West Africa. With the prospect of independence looming the peoples
of Mauritania had sharp divisions on what they wanted to happen, Arabs and Berbers
who had strong family ties in Morrocco advocated a union with them, while many black
Africans in the south wanted to join the Mali Federation which included Mali and
Neither would happen though. A popular French-installed political figure called
Moktar Ould Daddah co-opted Mauritania’s traditional leaders with vague promises to
obtain a pretense of unity as Mauritania was given its independence in November
1960. Daddah became the first President, he transformed the country into a one-party
authoritarian state, claiming the country was not yet ready for Western-style multi-party
Despite the pretense of unity, the country actually remained deeply divided. Southern
blacks resented the Maure dominated system. In 1976 Mauritania and Morrocco annexed
the Western Sahara, with Mauritania taking the lower one-third at the request of Spain, a
former imperial power of the area. This conflict would turn out disastrous for Mauritania,
with them suffering several military losses to the Polisario Front, an armed group wishing
to have the Western Sahara be an independent self-governing state and who was armed
and backed by Algeria. Mauritania withdrew from the conflict in 1979 and its claims were
taken over by Morrocco.
The Maure had supported the conflict in a hopes for a Greater Mauritania while the
Southern Blacks had mostly been opposed to it, especially having been enlisted as the
bulk of the force and thus suffering the most, the conflict also led to scarce resources
being diverted away from the South. The conflict led to the removal of Daddah from
power during a bloodless coup, but Colonel Mustafa Ould Salek’s ruling junta failed to
extract from the war, leading to a different military junta taking power, The Military
Committee for National Salvation under Colonel Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidallah.
He ended Mauritania’s involvement and claims in the conflict and made peace with
the Polisario Front, and also improved political relations with Algeria. But political relations
with Morrocco and France would deteriorate. Mass instability also continued, further
reforms failed, and there were many attempted coups. Harsh measures against
opponents, such as jailing and execution of dissidents made it more unpopular. During
this time Mauritania became the last country in the world to formerly abolish slavery in
1981, although it was not properly criminalized until 2007 and even then, it remains poorly
Haidallah was eventually deposed in a coup in December 1984 by Colonel
Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya who maintained tight military control, but did introduce a
more relaxed political climate. Political ties with Morrocco were reestablished and
pursued further support from Western states and Western-aligned Arab states. Mauritania
has maintained strict neutrality over the continued war in the Western Sahara.
A border war begun between Mauritania and Senegal from 1989 between Moorish
Mauritanian herders and Senegalese farmers over grazing land rights, the conflict was
made worse when Mauritanian guards killed two Senegalese in April of that year, leading
to riots erupting in Senegal against mostly Arabized Mauritanian retail business. As
a result, a campaign of terror against black Mauritanians begun in return, many of which
are wrongly viewed as Senegalese due to existing tensions. It is believed the Mauritanian
government may have encouraged or even been involved in acts of violence and seizure
of properties against such peoples.
Compounded by international pressure wanting an end to the violence, Mauritania and
Senegal eventually agreed to an international airlift. Thousands of black Mauritanians
were expelled by the government despite having few or no ties to Senegal, many were
also repatriated to Mali, again despite having little or no ties. The border war ended in
1991. Also, that same year the country transitioned into a multi-party state and adopted a
new constitution, although the opposition accused Ould Taya of holding fraudulent
Mauritania had during the late 1980s established close ties with Iraq as part of its pursuit
of Arab nationalism which led to Mauritania becoming increasingly isolated by the
international community after it supported Iraq during the Gulf War. Mauritania later
shifted its foreign policy to increase cooperation with the US and Europe, of which it
gained diplomatic normalization and foreign aid projects. Mauritania’s economy improved
during this time; oil was also discovered in 2001.
In August 2005 a bloodless military coup was launched while Taya was out of the country
bringing an end to his 21-years of rule. The Military Council for Justice and Democracy
installed Colonel Mohamed Vall as President. The coup came to be generally accepted by
the international community with the military junta organizing elections which would take
place after a two-year period. A referendum was also held in 2006 where an
overwhelming majority approved a new constitution that put a term limit on the
presidency. Vall peacefully relinquished power following the 2007 elections and the
country came under civilian rule, Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi was elected President.
In August 2008 there would be another military coup, this one ousting Abdallahi from
power. The coup followed the dismissal of senior officers by the President and had been
coordinated by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, the former Chief of Staff of the army
and head of the presidential guard who had recently been fired by the President. Some in
Parliament also expressed support, saying the majority had been marginalized by the
President, the coup was also backed by Abdallahi’s 2007 opponent. Aziz was installed as
President, his regime became isolated by the international community, with aid projects
cancelled and sanctions put in place.
The junta found support from places such as Morrocco, Libya, and Iran, it also banned
demonstrations and cracked down on dissent. But the increasing pressure forced the
junta to release Abdallahi into house arrest. Aziz promised elections to replace Abdallahi
which were pushed back due to increasing pressure internally and internationally. In 2009
the junta finally gained the upper hand after negotiating with some opposition and
international parties and Abdallahi was officially forced to resign. An election was held
that same year and elected Aziz as President who had resigned from the military to lead
in a civilian role. His election was criticized by those who continued to support Abdallahi.
Aziz ruled the country for 10-years and founded the now dominant Union for the Republic
party, he did not seek re-election in the 2019 election.
A close ally of Aziz, Mohamed Ould Ghazouani, a former army general, was elected as
the next President. So as can be seen the military continue to have indirect sway within
the country’s politics, which is not really healthy for a properly functioning democracy.
Nonetheless the 2019 election was celebrated as one of the first proper peaceful
transfers of power.
The country’s official language is Arabic, other recognised national languages are Pular,
Soninke, and Wolof. French is also recognized. The largest ethnic group are the Haratin,
followed by the Arab-Berbers, Halpulaar, Fulani, Mande, and Wolof. Islam is the largest
religion with the country being an Islamic Republic, there is little freedom of religion and
atheism is not tolerated. The country’s currency is the Ouguiya. The country’s population
is over 4,828,530.
Seal of Mauritania. Public Domain.
Mauritania is a semi-presidential representative parliamentary democratic Islamic republic
where the President is Head of State and the Prime Minister is Head of Government. A
unicameral chamber called the 157-seat National Assembly makes up the legislative
government. There did used to be an upper house as well but it was abolished following a
2017 referendum. Multiple parties are allowed but the Union for the Republic party has
dominated since the 2008 coup (as of 2018 they hold 89 seats), many other parties exist
but only hold small numbers of seats, as of the 2018 elections the single largest
opposition party is the National Rally for Reform, holding just 14 seats.
Regional Councils were established following the abolishment of the Senate, these
councils promote regional development.
Also, something under Article 2 of the constitution I found a bit humorous – coups and
other forms of unconstitutional changes of power are considered as imprescriptible
crimes whose authors or accomplices, physical or judicial persons, are punished by the
law – BUT – nevertheless, these acts, when they were committed before the date of entry
into force of this constitutional law will not give rise to prosecution. Well, how convenient.
Anyway, the article also says the people are the source of all power, who national
sovereignty belongs to and who exercise their power through elected representatives and
by way of referendum. Political power is meant to be acquired, exercised, and
transmitted, in a peaceful framework. Partial or total abandonment of sovereignty cannot
be decided without consent of the people.
Political parties that are formed must respect democratic principles and must not infringe
upon national sovereignty, territorial integrity, and unity of the Nation/Republic.
The right to strike is recognised but that it may be forbidden by law for all public services
or activities of vital interest to the Nation and is always forbidden in the domains of
Defense and National Security.
Article 17 makes sure to let us know that no one is supposed to ignore the law, just in
case anyone forgot or did not realize that laws are meant to be abided by and not
The Executive Government
Current President Mahomed Ould Ghazouani. Photo by Graham Carlow from UK Department
for International Development. CC BY 2.0. Source.
So, as we already know there is a President who is Head of State. You may not have
known though that under article 23 the President must be of a Muslim religion, I guess
that makes sense within what is an Islamic Republic. It is the duty of the President to be
the guardian the Constitution and ensure the continuous and regular functioning of the
public powers. The President guarantees national sovereignty and the integrity of the
territory. The President exercises the executive power and presides over the Council of
Ministers – the highest executive decision-making body of Government.
The President must also guarantee judicial independence. On these matters the
President is assisted by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, over which the
Duties and Powers of the President
The President determines and conducts the foreign policy as well as the policy of
defense and of security. The President accredits ambassadors and envoys to
foreign powers and those from foreign powers are accredited to the President. The
President signs and ratifies treaties within framework of the Constitution and laws.
On the subject of treaties: treaties of peace, union, commerce, or treaties and
agreements pertaining to international organisations, those engaging with finances of the
State, those that modify provisions of a legislative nature, those that concern the status of
persons, and those concerning the frontiers of the State, can only be ratified via virtue of
the law (approval of the National Assembly via legislation).
Further any treaties that include cession, exchange, or addition of territory is not valid
without being confirmed in a public referendum via a four-fifths majority of the total
Revision of the Constitution may also be required in cases where the Constitution would
be contravened by a treaty, this is decided by the Constitutional Council after being
referred to the matter by either the President of the Republic, President of the National
Assembly, or by at least one-third of the members of the National Assembly.
The President appoints the Prime Minister following parliamentary elections, by
convention the leader of the largest party (which has so far always been Union for
the Republic). They also can terminate the Prime Minister in areas where guided to
do so by the Constitution. The President also appoints the ministers on proposal of
the Prime Minister, and also terminate them following consultation with the Prime
Following consultation with the Prime Minister and President of the National
Assembly, the President of the Republic can dissolve the National Assembly,
elections must take place within 30-60 days. After such elections the National
Assembly cannot be dissolved again until the passing of 12-months.
The President promulgates laws passed by the National Assembly within the
framework given by the Constitution.
The President exercises regulatory power of which they can delegate all or part of
to the Prime Minister. Decrees with regulatory power must either way be
countersigned by the Prime Minister or relevant Minister to have effect.
The President is the Supreme Head of the Armed Forces and as such he/she
presides over the Superior Councils and Committees of the National Defense. The
President appoints civil and military officers.
The President has the right of pardon including the right to remit and commute
The President can put forth a national referendum on any question of national
If the presidency becomes vacant for any reason or if the President has been declared to
have an impediment by the Constitutional Council, then originally the President of the
Senate would have taken up the interim presidency before fresh elections, but since the
Senate has now been abolished it is not clear entirely who would now do this, it could
either be the President of the National Assembly or perhaps the Prime Minister. When
there is a vacancy or impediment declared then the Prime Minister and members of
Government are considered to have resigned but will continue to handle functions as
The next presidential election will take place within three months following this unless
declared otherwise by the Constitutional Council. The Interim President has limited
powers, such as being unable to hold referendums, terminate functions/members of the
caretaker Government, cannot dissolve the National Assembly, and no constitutional
modifications can take place during this time either via referendum or through the
For reasons of imminent peril that menaces the institutions of the Republic, or that
security, independence, or integrity is threatened, and when regular functional of
constitutional powers are impeded, the President of the Republic, after consultation with
the Prime Minister, President of the National Assembly, and with the Constitutional
Council, may take extraordinary measures, which can include temporary empowerment of
authorities and temporary suspension or reduction of certain guaranteed rights.
The extraordinary powers are defined by either a State of Siege or State of Urgency,
depending on what one is decreed by the President. Both of these last for a maximum of
30-days by default, which can be extended by the National Assembly.
The measures must aim to assure a return to normalcy in the shortest possible time and
that when this happens the extraordinary powers cease to have effect.
When extraordinary powers are being exercised the National Assembly continues to have
the absolute right to meet and cannot be dissolved, allowing them to monitor and check
the implementation and usage of such powers and decide on when they should end.
The President can be removed from office due to a definitive impediment as declared by
the Constitutional Council, which can be pursued by either the President of the Republic
themselves, the President of the National Assembly, or the Prime Minister.
The President can also be removed from office if the High Court of Justice convicts
him/her of High Treason. Such a trial begins if the President has been impeached by the
National Assembly via an absolute majority of all members (not the Senate when it
existed would also have had to vote an absolute majority in favour for impeachment for
the President of the Republic to be impeached) so it is now assumed this is entirely in the
hands of the National Assembly, but this could be incorrect.
Prime Minister and Government
The Prime Minister is the Head of Government. They are appointed by the President of
the Republic following parliamentary elections, by convention the leader from the largest
political party. The Prime Minister directs and coordinates the Government.
The Council of Ministers, presided over by the President of the Republic, is the highest
executive decisions-making body of Government. Ministers are appointed/removed by the
President after consultation with the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister allocates tasks
amongst the Ministers.
Members of Government cannot also be members of the National Assembly, or any other
function of professional representation of a national character, they also cannot take part
in any professional activity, or in a general manner with any public or private
Members of Government have access to the National Assembly and are heard when they
demand it. They may also be assisted by commissioners of the Government.
The Prime Minister, under authority of the President of the Republic, defines the policy of
Government. Within one month of the appointment of the Government, the Prime Minister
presents their program before the National Assembly and engages the responsibility of
the Government. The Government and Prime Minister must maintain the confidence of
the National Assembly to remain in power.
The Prime Minister, after consulting with the Council of Ministers, puts forth the question
of confidence in the Government on the program and also eventually on general policy.
The National Assembly itself can also introduce a Motion of Censure against the Prime
Minister and Government (requires one-third of the members of the National Assembly to
sign it for its introduction), it can only be adopted by an absolute majority. If confidence is
lost or a motion of censure is adopted, it results in the immediate resignation of the
Government, they will continue as caretaker Government until the President of the
Republic appoints a new Prime Minister and forms a new Government.
If, in an interval of less than 36-months, two changes of Government have taken place
following a vote of confidence or motion of censure, the President of the Republic can,
after consulting with the President of the National Assembly, dissolve the National
Assembly for fresh elections, which will take place within 40-days.
The Government implements the general policy of the State in accordance with the
orientations and with the options established by the President of the Republic. The
Cabinet provides for the administration and of the Armed Forces, and it also publishes
and executes the laws and regulations.
Other Bodies and Offices
There is a Court of Accounts which is the superior institution that is independent and
responsible for the control of public finances. Its organisation, functioning, and the status
of its members are all determined via an organic law and are not constitutionally-fixed.
There is a Constitutional Council. It is made up of 9-members who are limited to a
single 9-year term. Members are renewed in thirds every 3-years. 4-members are
appointed by the President of the Republic, and 3 by the President of the National
Assembly. The final 2 were originally appointed by the President of the Senate but since
that is now abolished it is unclear who appoints these members. Appointed members
must be at least 35-years-old and cannot belong to directive instances of political parties
or be a member of Government or the National Assembly, with other restrictions decided
by an organic law. The President of the Constitutional Council is appointed by the
President of the Republic from among one of the members he/she appointed, this
member has a casting vote in cases of a tie.
Sees to regular elections of the President of the Republic, examines any
complaints, and officially proclaims the results.
Sees to the regular elections of the National Assembly, examines any complaints,
and officially proclaims the results.
Sees to the regularity of the operations of Referendum and officially proclaims the
results of referendums.
Decides on the conformity of all organic laws with the Constitution.
Also decides on conformity of other laws with the Constitution, referred to it.
There is a High Court of Justice that is composed of members elected by the National
Assembly (originally also by the Senate so I am assuming they are all now elected simply
by the National Assembly, but this may be incorrect), assumed now every 5-years as it
said after each renewal of the National Assembly. This court tries the President of the
Republic (in cases of alleged High Treason), and the Prime Minister, and members of
Government for crimes committed in office related to the exercise of their functions.
There was an Islamic High Council and an Ombudsman but the latest 2017 constitutional
amendment merged these two institutions/bodies together into the Supreme Council of
the Fatwa. So, I am unfortunately not entirely sure of the structure of this new body. This
Islamic High Council had five members appointed by the President and it met at demand
of the President of the Republic and questions were put before it by the President.
There is an Economic and Social Council, its composition, rules and functioning are
determined by an organic law.
Gives its opinion concerning Bills of law, of ordinances, and of decrees of an
economic or social character as well as concerning the proposals of law of the
same nature that are submitted to it. These things are referred to the council by the
President of the Republic.
The President of the Republic can also consult with the council concerning any
economic or social question of interest to the State.
There is a National Commission of the Rights of Man. It is an independent consultative
Institution that promotes and protects the rights of man. Its composition, organisation, and
functioning is decided by an organic law.
The Legislative Government
Meeting of the National Assembly in 2005. Photo by Assemblée
Nationale Mauritanienne. CC BY-SA 4.0. Source.
The National Assembly makes up the legislative government as a unicameral body that
currently consists of 157-members that is not fixed by the constitutional and so can be
changed or modified via organic legislation (remember that organic law is meant to be
harder to change or modify as it often requires special majorities and sometimes other
requirements, such as review by the Constitutional Council and declaration that it
conforms with the Constitution), an organic law also determines how elections are
conducted and what system is used, but suffrage must remain direct.
Its main job is to legislate, which includes considering introduced bills and other motions,
possibly amending them, and either passing or rejecting them. Legislation is introduced
by either the Government or members of the National Assembly. On amendments, any
deposited by members of Parliament are not receivable if they effect a reduction of public
revenues or if they create or aggravate a public charge, unless they also come with a
proposal of augmentation of revenues or of equivalent economies. They can also be
declared not receivable if they go against granted regulatory powers or are contrary to a
If such legislation is declared not receivable but the Parliament refuses to acknowledge
this, then the President of the Republic can refer the matter to the decision of the
Constitutional Council, who will come to a decision within 8-days.
Bills and legislation introduced are examined first by permanent commissions of the
National Assembly, there can only be a maximum of five permanent commissions in
operation. At the demand of the Government or of the National Assembly, bills and
legislation may instead be sent to commissions especially established for that reason.
The Government, after opening of debate, can oppose the examination of any
amendment that has not previously been submitted to a commission.
The National Assembly also votes on the annual budget introduced by the Government,
known as the Bill of the Law of Finance. If there is not an agreement on its passing within
a specified amount of time then the President of the Republic establishes it by ordinance,
based on revenues from the preceding year. The National Assembly controls the
execution of the budget and is provided with a statement of expenses every six months.
Bills and laws passed by the National Assembly go to the President of the Republic for
promulgation, the President must act on this by 8-days at the earliest and 30-days at the
latest. During this time period, the President can send bills or laws back for a second
reading, if a majority of the National Assembly’s members adopt them again then the
President must promulgate them.
Another major job of the National Assembly is to provide oversight for actions and
responsibilities of the Government, with the Government held to furnish the National
Assembly, in forms specified by law, all explanations demanded of it, of its managements
and of its acts.
The National Assembly sits in open session by default but may operate in close session if
demanded by the Government or at least one-fourth of the members present. An
extraordinary session may be held, opened by the President of the Republic, either at
his/her own demand or the demand of a majority of the members, to focus on a
determined agenda. The length of an extraordinary session cannot exceed 1-month. One
sitting per week is reserved for questions of the members of the National Assembly for
responses of the Government. The Prime Minister also makes a report to the National
Assembly annually concerning activity of the Government on the past year and presents
general outlines of the Government program for the coming year.
Declarations of war must have authorization from the National Assembly.
The Government, after getting the agreement of the President of the Republic, can, in
order to execute its program, demand from the National Assembly the authorization to
take by ordinance, for a limited time, the measures which are usually the domain of the
law (and so usually handled by the National Assembly instead of the Government). Such
ordinances are taken in the Council of Ministers and must be approved by the President
of the Republic. They become law as soon as published but will lapse if not deposited to
the National Assembly by an agreed upon date for its consideration. The law enabling this
ability will also automatically lapse if the National Assembly is dissolved.
The National Assembly is presided over by the President of the National Assembly who is
elected for the duration of its term by the members from among themselves. The
President of the National Assembly is meant to represent the National Assembly in an
impartial manner and also enforces procedure and rules.
The Electoral System
Administrative regions (not to do with electoral districts). Image by Eric Gaba and derivative
work by Addicted04 from Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA 3.0. Source.
Presidential elections happen every 5-years and uses a two-round absolute majority
system where a candidate must get an absolute majority of the vote to win in the first
round, otherwise a second round is held between the top two candidates and is won by
simple majority. One person is limited to two terms in office – there was a proposal to
extend this to three terms so the former President Aziz could run again, but it was
dropped from the 2017 referendum following protests, which is a good sign of democracy,
the people able to hold those in power to account.
Candidates must be a citizen born in Mauritania who enjoy their civil and political rights
and who are at least 40-years-old but not older than 75-years-old. While holding the
presidency the person may not exercise any other public or private function and cannot
belong to the directive instances of a political party.
Parliamentary elections for the National Assembly take place every 5-years to elect its
current 157-members. 117 (including 4 reserved for Mauritanian’s living abroad) members
are elected from multi and single-seat constituencies using a plurality system (I imagine
for smaller constituencies with the least seats) and proportional representation (I imagine
in larger constituencies with more seats), another 40 members are elected via a
nationwide constituency also using proportional representation.
Candidates for the National Assembly must be Mauritanian citizens enjoying their civil
and political rights and who are at least 25-years-old.
To vote in elections one must be a Mauritanian citizen who is at least 18-years-old. Voting
is not mandatory.
The source for this comes from Mauritania’s 1991 constitution with amendments through
to 2012 (constituteproject.org) – I have included changes made in the 2017 amendment
as best I can but with a full version of the Constitution not being available with those
changes, means I may have missed some things and would have had to assume in some
places (clearly marked by me saying that I have assumed at such points). Cross-research
as always is recommended for anyone using this seriously. The Constitution may also be
amended again at some point in the future and so this may become outdated.
Amendments are proposed by the President of the Republic or by the National Assembly,
those introduced by the National Assembly require at least one-third of the membership
to back it for consideration. Adoption by the National Assembly requires a two-thirds
majority, and then approval in a public referendum.
It is possible to bypass a referendum when it comes to amendments introduced by the
President that have been adopted by the National Assembly via at least a three-fifths
It should be noted that the above may have since possibly changed somewhat following
the abolishment of the Senate.
Next up will be the government system of Mauritious.
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