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Exposure and Vulnerability

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Chapter 2

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Exposure and Vulnerability

  1. 1. Exposure and Vulnerability Chapter 2 DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
  2. 2. Vulnerability • It is the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard • Factors of Vulnerability Demographic Factors Population Density Age of Population Distribution of Population
  3. 3. Socio – economic Factors Wealth Education Nature of Society Understanding of the area Community Preparedness Building codes Scientific monitoring and early warning system Communication networks Emergency Planning Dealing with After - Effects Insurance Cover Emergency Personnel Aid Request
  4. 4. 4 types of Vulnerability Physical Vulnerability It may be determined by aspects such as population density levels, remoteness of a settlement, the site design and materials used for critical infrastructure and for housing United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). Social Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organization and societies to withstand adverse impacts to hazards due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions and system of cultural values.
  5. 5. Economic Vulnerability The level of vulnerability is highly dependent upon the economics status of individuals, communities and nations. The poor are usually more vulnerable to disasters because they lack the resources to build sturdy structures and put other engineering measures in place to protect themselves from being negatively impacted by disaster. Environmental Vulnerability Natural resources depletion and resource degradation are key aspects of environmental vulnerability 4 types of Vulnerability
  6. 6. Elements Exposed to Hazard Exposure refers to the element at risk from a natural or man – made hazard event. • Human beings; • Dwellings or households and communities; • Building structures; • Public facilities and infrastructure assets; • Public transport system; • Agricultural commodities; and • Environmental assets
  7. 7. Quantifying Vulnerability • It is used in estimating how much mitigation and preparedness measures will be applied. • Based on data about the interesting of the previous hazard events and severity of their effects. • It can be expressed as: 0 – lowest degree of vulnerability 1 – highest degree People: Ratio of casualties / injured to the total population Buildings: Expressed as a repair cost or degree of damage
  8. 8. Risk Factors • Risk signifies the possibility of adverse effects in the future. It is derived from the interaction of social and environmental processes, from the combination of physical hazard and the vulnerabilities of exposed elements.
  9. 9. RISK Exposure Earthquake Tsunami Floods Cyclones Bushfires Landslides Volcanoes Engineering Economic Social People Buildings Business Infrastructure Risk = Hazard x Exposure x Vulnerability Capacity Triagram of Disaster Risk
  10. 10. Philippine Exposure and Vulnerabilities to Natural Disaster • 8 out of 10 cities most exposed to natural hazards are in the Philippines. (Philippine Star, 2014) • Study also found that of the 100 cities with the greatest exposure to natural hazard, 21 are in the Philippines, 16 in China, 11 in Japan and 8 in Bangladesh
  11. 11. 10 World Cities Most at Risk 1. Port Villa in Vanuatu 2. Tuguegarao in Cagayan 3. Lucena in Quezon 4. Manila 5. San Fernando Pampanga 6. Cabanatuan in Nueva Ecija 7. Batangas 8. Taipei 9. San Carlos , Pangasinan 10. Naga in Camarines sur
  12. 12. Philippine Vulnerability to Natural Disaster • The Philippines lies in the Pacific typhoon belt and we are visited by an average of 20 typhoons every year. • The rugged nature of our landscape makes our communities very vulnerable to landslides, mudflows and other disasters. • The Philippines is an archipelagic country with many small island. • Many of our areas are also at below sea level • With one of the longest in the world at 32,400 km, we have many areas that are vulnerable to storm surges. • The Philippines is still a primary agricultural and fishing economy.
  13. 13. • Natural hazard risk is compounded in the Philippines by poor institutional and social capacity to mange, respond and recover from natural hazard events. • The Philippines is considered “high risk” in terms of the country’s ability to manage and mitigate the impacts of natural hazard and in part due to ‘entrenched corruption and high levels of poverty’. • Aside from being at risk to typhoons, the Philippines is also at risk to volcanic, quakes and floods. Philippine Vulnerability to Natural Disaster
  14. 14. • Facts about the are before and after the disaster • What caused the disaster? • When and where did the disaster took place? • How extensive was the area affected? • Was the cause of the disaster forecasted or predicted? • Were there warning issued? • How did the people react to the warning? • How many lives were lost? • How many were injured and missing? • Quantify it in terms of peso • What could have prevented the lost of many lives