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INTRODUCTION Negotiation is the process of bargaining, Where two parties ,trying to reach an agreement on mutually accepted terms to acquire each others wants. Example:- Customer trying to negotiate with buyer over a price of a product.- Negotiation for salary between employee & employer.
DEFINITIONS OF NEGOTIATION In the words of Bill Scott ,” a negotiation is a form of meeting between two parties: OUR PARTIES & OTHER PARTIES”. According to J.A. Wall, ”negotiation is a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.” Winston’s Advanced Dictionary,” the discussions & bargaining that goes on between parties before a contract is settled or deal is agreed upon”.
NATURE OF NEGOTIATION It requires involvement of two parties. Requires flexibility. A process not an event. Needs effective communication. Continuous process( i.e. between buyer & seller, employer & employee for wages, working hours etc) Win- win situation for parties involved.
P’s OF NEGOTIATION Like P’s of Marketing, essentials of negotiation are called as P’s of negotiation. They are as follows: Purpose : aim is required otherwise it will result in wastage of money, manpower & time.Plan : main agenda on which negotiation is to be carried on.Pace : main points should be covered in discussions, also proper breaks mustbe introduced to maintain interest of peoples involved.Personalities : negotiator initiating negotiation must have convincing power, effectivecommunication skills, can influence people & process of negotiation.
FACTORS AFFECTING NEGOTIATION PLACE: Familiarity with surrounding helps in boosting confidence. TIME: Time should be adequate for smooth exchange of ideas & securing agreement before it is to late . ATTITUDE: Attitude of both parties should be positive, i . e, willingness to make an agreement or deal. SUBJECTIVE FACTORS: Like relation of two parties involved, status difference, information & expertise.
NEGOTIATION PROCESS OFFER COUNTERAGREEMENT OFFER COMPROMIS E CONCESSION
OFFER: First proposal made by one party to another in the negotiation stage. COUNTER OFFER: Offer made by second party to first party, or proposing their offer against first party offer. CONCESSION: Increase or decrease made in the offer or change in the idea. COMPROMISE: Sacrifice made by both or one party. AGREEMENT: Point where both parties agrees, which is beneficial to both.
Loss/Loss : Take the cake away so that neither party gets it. Win/Lose : Give it to one party or cut it unevenly. Draw : Cut the cake down the middle. Win/Win : Make two cakes which are of a much larger size than the present size.
Positive AttitudesNarrow down to few points of dispute /conflictcontroversyStep By step approachFind out the other parties state of mind culture backgroundsLikes & dislikesHide your prove desireDon’t disclose your deadlinesThink before you speakKnow your market informationBring your own expert