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Feather Bioprocessing and novel applications.pptx

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Feather Bioprocessing and novel applications.pptx

Poultry is one of the fast-growing agricultural sub-sector, specially in developing countries. Subsequent growth of poultry meat processing generates a massive amount of feathers as major waste material. If these feathers ended up in dumping sites, it demands increased land area as well as uncontrollable toxic gas production. However, as a by-product that contains a significant amount of keratine, it can be utilized as an abundant and renewable raw material to obtain protein hydrolysates which have industrial and commercial significance.

Poultry is one of the fast-growing agricultural sub-sector, specially in developing countries. Subsequent growth of poultry meat processing generates a massive amount of feathers as major waste material. If these feathers ended up in dumping sites, it demands increased land area as well as uncontrollable toxic gas production. However, as a by-product that contains a significant amount of keratine, it can be utilized as an abundant and renewable raw material to obtain protein hydrolysates which have industrial and commercial significance.

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Feather Bioprocessing and novel applications.pptx

  1. 1. Feather bioprocessing and novel applications 1
  2. 2. Poultry feather: waste or raw material ? • Chicken meat processing – fast growing industry • Worldwide around 5 million tons of feathers are generated annually • 90% of the feather mass represent keratin • Feathers; abundant and renewable resource to obtain protein hydrolysates 2
  3. 3. Keratin structure in feather • High cysteine content in the primary sequence of keratin • Predominant at the protein N- and C-terminal regions • ∝- Keratins – 41 – 67 % • 𝛽- Keratin – 33 – 38 % • ∝- Keratins are superior in rigidity and resistant compared to 𝛽- Keratins • It has compact conformation and highly stable nature – disulfide bridges among cysteine residues 3
  4. 4. Hydrolysis of feathers Chemical hydrolysis Hydrothermal hydrolysis Microbial / enzymatic hydrolysis • Feathers are treated with strong acids/ alkali • Simple and fast • High hydrolysate yield • Destroy some useful amino acids • High energy demand • Steam explosion • Microwave treatment • Superheated water treatment • Do not use toxic chemicals • Extraction yield, composition of a.a. are highly depend on the process parameters • Bac. cultures /crude enzymes/ partially purified enzyme preparations are used • Preservation of amino acids • Easiness of controlling the degree of hydrolysis • Easiness of inactivating enzymes after the process • Low demand of energy • Eco-friendly • Slow • Expensive 4
  5. 5. Feather bioprocessing • Specific process that use complete living cells or their components like enzymes to obtain desire products. • This process takes place in the bioreactor which provide optimum environment for reaction to take place • Hydrolysis of feathers can be done with • Solid State Fermentation (SSF) • Submerge Fermentation (SmF) 5
  6. 6. Novel applications of keratin hydrolysates Raw material for animal feed Organic fertilizer production Ingredient in microbial culture media Production of bioactive peptides Bio fuel production Raw material for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry 6
  7. 7. Organic fertilizer production Keratinous material Hydrolysate production Application as fertilizers Method Agent (conditions) Whole feathers Microbial (SmF) Amycolatopsis sp. MBRL 40 (5 g/L feathers, 30 C, 120 h) Rice root and shoot growth similar to urea Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 (20 g/L feathers, 60 C, pH 10.0, 96 h) ↑ germination and roots mass of gram Bacillus polymyxa B20 (10 g/L feathers, 30 C, pH 7.2, 144 h) ↑ fresh mass and leaf chlorophyll content of tomato, cucumber, white cabbage plants Milled feathers Microbial (SmF) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 6B (5 g/L milled feathers, 37 C, pH 7.2, 12 h) ↑ mung bean germination and growth in similar to reference fertilization Bacillus licheniformis ASU (10 g/L milled feathers, 30 C, pH 7.2, 120 h) ↑ growth, roots and shoot, number and weight of root nodules in bean 7
  8. 8. • Feather hydrolysates contain Low C /N ratio caused rapid mineralization of organic Nitrogen (N) by microorganisms and releasing mineral N which is easily uptake by plants. • Feather hydrolysate contains tryptophan – essential to the synthesis IAA hormone • Several keratinolytic bacterial used for bioprocessing have the ability to produce IAA using feather substrate • Improve the beneficial microbial population • Ammonifying bacteria • Nitrifying bacteria • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria 8
  9. 9. • Traditional method to prepare feather meal - hydrothermal processing • ↓ Digestibility • ↓ Bioavailability • Lack of important amino acids due to high processing temperatures and pressure • Formation of lanthionine, lysinoalabine like anti nutritional factors • Bioprocessing methods - effectively convert keratinous materials into animal feed • ↑ Digestibility and biological value • Enhanced amino acid profile Raw material for animal feed 9
  10. 10. Hydrolysis of keratinous materials and potential applications of hydrolysates as animal feed Keratinous material Hydrolysate production Application as animal feed Method Agent (conditions) Whole feathers Microbial (SmF) Vibrio sp. kr2 (60 g/L feathers, 30 C, pH 6.0, 168 h) ↑ digestibility and BV than feather meal Replacement of 20% soybean protein in Wistar rat’s diets supplemented with methionine Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 (50 g/L feathers, 30 C, 120 h) Amino acids enrichment, ↑ digestibility and BV than feather meal (in vitro) Bacillus sp. MPTK6 (30 g/L feathers; 30 C, pH 10, 48 h) ↑ digestibility than whole feathers (in vitro) Milled feathers Microbial (SmF) Bacillus pumilus A1 (50 g/L milled feathers, 45 C, pH 10.0, 48 h) ↑ growth (weight) of Wistar rats by addition of 2.5% - 5.0% of feather hydrolysate Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1 (milled feathers : liquid bacterial culture = 1:4, 50 C, 120 h) Replacement of up to 5% soybean protein in broiler diets; supplementation with amino acids resulted in growth curves identical to soybean protein 10
  11. 11. Ingredient in microbial culture media • In microbiology, peptones is used as a substrate to culture microorganisms. • Peptones are expensive • Protein hydrolysates of feather waste - alternative organic nitrogen for culturing MO • Chemical hydrolysis gives superior protein hydrolysates which are suitable as an ingredient in culture media. • Because ↑ [soluble peptides] available in hydrolysates obtained by alkaline hydrolysis than bioprocessing. • There is new trend to apply thermo-chemical approaches with microbial/enzymatic methods to obtain peptones from keratinous materials. 11
  12. 12. Hydrolysis of keratinous materials and potential applications of hydrolysates as ingredients in microbial culture media Keratinous material Hydrolysate production Ingredient as culture media Method Agent (conditions) Whole feathers Microbial (SmF) Streptomyces sp. IF 5 (5 g/L feathers, 28 C, 72 h) Organic substrate for growth of Bacillus, Staphylococus aureus, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Aspergillus flavu Enzymatic Partially purified keratinase from Pseudomonas sp.P5 (24.9–31.9 g/L feathers, 1–2 U keratinase/mg feather, 50 C, pH 7.5, 24–48 h) Organic substrate for Escherichia coli growth Thermo- chemical + Enzymatic Autoclaving with Na2SO3 (10 g/L feathers, 121 C, 20 min, 10 mM Na2SO3) + lyophilized S. pactum DSM 40,530 crude keratinase (8,000 U keratinase/g feather/L/day, 50 C, pH 8.0, 24 h) Cyanophycean biopolymer production by recombinant Escherichia coli 12
  13. 13. Application in bio fuel production • Methene is the energetic substance of biogas which is originated from microbial degradation of organic matters under anaerobic conditions CH4 is produced from Co2 and H2 by hydrogenotrophic methanogens 4 Methanogenesis Homoacetogenic bacteria produce acetic acid from CO2 and H2 3 Acetogenesis Resulted monomers from hydrolysis are converted into organic acids, alcohol and CO2 & H2O 2 Acidogenesis Resulting amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars 1 Hydrolysis 13
  14. 14. Hydrolysis of keratinous materials and potential applications of hydrolysates for biofuel production Keratinous material Hydrolysate production Application for biofuel Method Agent (conditions) Whole feathers Microbial (SmF) B. licheniformis KK1 (feather: water = 1:2, 42 C, pH 7.2, 120 h) ↑ methane yield (12%) when added to mesophilic anaerobic digesters (38 C; 30 days) Milled feathers Microbial (SmF) Bacillus sp. C4 (50–200 g/L milled feathers, 37 C, pH 7.0, 24–192 h) ↑ methane yield (55%) in comparison to milled feathers at Mesophilic anaerobic digesters 14
  15. 15. Raw material for cosmetics Feather hydrolysis by: • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DHHJ • Has ability to enter the hair cortex and form transparent film on the hair surface • Improving flexibility and strength of normal/ damaged hair. • Bacillus subtilis AMR • Has ability to improve hydration, softness and brightness of normal/ colored/ bleached hair • Add to mild shampoos and rinse-conditioners • Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1 • Skin whitening agents • Anti-melanogenic activity in murine melanoma cell line • These proteins have ability to inhibit tyrosinase and terminate over production of skin pigments. 15
  16. 16. Bioactive peptides derived from keratinous materials • Have specific amino acid sequences that contribute to regulation & modulation of physiological functions Antioxidant Anti-hypertensive Antidiabetic Antimicrobial • Keratins are rich in hydrophobic amino acid residues - represent 50-60% of the polypeptide chain 16
  17. 17. Bioactivities of protein hydrolysates produced from keratin-rich materials 17 Keratinous material Hydrolysate production Function Method Agent (conditions) Whole feathers Microbial (SmF) Kocuria rhizophila p3-3 (50 g/L feathers, 25 C, 96 h) Radical scavenging Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1 (8 g/L feathers, 70 C, pH 7.0, 48 h) radical scavenging Chryseobacterium sediminis RCM-SSR-7 (50 g/L feathers, 30 C, pH 7.5, 84 h) Radical scavenging Milled feathers Microbial (SmF) Bacillus pumilus A1 (50 g/L feathers, 45 C, pH 10.0, 48 h) Radical scavenging Bacillus subtilis S1-4 (50 g/L milled feathers, 37 C, 72 h) Radical scavenging
  18. 18. Summery • Management of keratinous waste - problematic • Bioprocessing of feathers - promising method Eco-friendly Less utilization of energy • Use of different mo. cultures and enzymes in hydrolysis - end product with diverse characteristics and applications • There is huge potential to sustainably utilize these keratinous by-products • New research and development works are needed to identify properties of bio-active peptides in feather hydrolysates and effectively utilize them 18
  19. 19. Reference • Callegaro, K., Brandelli, A., & Daroit, D. J. (2019). Beyond plucking: Feathers bioprocessing into valuable protein hydrolysates. Waste Management, 95, 399–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.06.040 19
  20. 20. Thank you ! 20

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