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Travelcultppt 140329040210-phpapp01

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Travelcultppt 140329040210-phpapp01

  1. 1. 112006 Kwok Chun Lok, Alicia 112010 Au Hiu Sze, Celia Tourism as a Site of Contestation of the Definition of “Female”
  2. 2. Tourism : a Site of Contestation of the Definition of “Female” *On the one hand: *How is the stereotype of female reinforced in tourism industry? *On the other hand: *How is the stereotype of female in Tourism being challenged?
  3. 3. * *Travelling is masculinized as having “adventures” and “risk-taking” & “bravery” *“[Tourism] is a set of presumptions about manhood, education and pleasure”(Enloe,2000,p.28) *Originally, travelling is for men to grow and become mature, not intended for women *Women: Stays at home and looks after children * “Good girls go to Heaven. Bad girls go everywhere” (Enloe,2000, P.21) The stereotypes of female reinforced in tourism industry - A brief introduction of the gendered tourism
  4. 4. * * Example : *New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Tenzing Norgay reached the top of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, at 11:30 a.m. on May 29, 1953 *The first couple to climb up the Mountain (Rosenberg)
  5. 5. * Only MALE is mentioned in such pioneering journey & in history. How about the female?
  6. 6. *For male tourists , “Women are something to be experienced” (Enloe,2000,P.28) *Male tourists might opt for alcohol, entertainments & sex escape(to be sexually experienced/mature) *Visit bars and pubs *E.g. Moulin Rouge in France Enjoy Can Can dance Male gaze in sexualized female bodies Though tourists of both sexes can go there (maybe out of curiosity) Originally: For man’s sexual desire only The stereotypes of female reinforced in tourism industry -Female and Sex (targeted at the local women)
  7. 7. * *Case Study: *Red Light District in Netherland as a tourist site *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= rsKe3rMc5fo (0:47) The stereotypes of female reinforced in tourism industry -Female and Sex
  8. 8. *Female and Sex: Sex Tourism *Window “shopping” for sex services *=> reinforced male gaze *=> female bodies are being commodified *=> Sell herself like the mannequins sell clothes *Inferiority of the locals; superiority of the foreign male tourists
  9. 9. *Fordism of the red light district tour Making expectations, anticipations and fantasy over the prostitutes/women in general *“ Our local guides will show you the world's first specialized condom shop (The Condomerie), a statue for sexworkers, hidden art, the prostitutes, an erotic theatre (Casa Rosso) and much more.” *http://amsterdamredlightdistricttour.com/#ixzz2x M39gcsF The male gaze and tourist gaze reinforced in the packaged tour
  10. 10. *The red light district tour *Extraordinary (away from everyday) * ways in the red light district packaged tour to make the place extraordinary The male gaze and tourist gaze reinforced in the packaged tour
  11. 11.  Women (prostitutes) => Dangerous  Classified as “dark side” of the City (then what about casinos and pubs?)  Locals: “friendly”, “knowledgeable” and “reliable”  => Superficial social relations (like a trustworthy “friend” or “brother”)  Has to rely on the local guide in order to be “safe”  Make the place sounds like more dangerous and risky => Don’t go by yourself alone!
  12. 12. *In the packaged tour in which you are taught to gaze/having fantasy( sexualized and dangerous) over the prostitutes, *More than the gaze by male As well as female tourists View the prostitutes as if they are sex objects =>Male gaze is being legitimized by such tours  The stereotypical relation between female and sex is reinforced The male gaze reinforced in the packaged tour
  13. 13. * *Condoms are one of the “must-have” souvenirs from Holland *“Sexualized” Holland => as a sex paradise *Encouraging people to come and gaze at the women there The consumerism reinforcing the stereotypical relation between female and sex
  14. 14. How Stereotyping can be reinforced?
  15. 15. Reinforced Femininity and Post- Colonialism • Third World Countries(esp. the former colonies) , while promoting their tourism industry, uses feminine images to portray their lands • (Myanmar Tourism Showcase) 2013, (Wonderful Indonesia , Bali )2013 • Weaving and Women: Household confinement “Home” • “Innocent smile” of the local women
  16. 16. Reinforced Femininity and Post- Colonialism • Imagery Given: Weak, Submissive and even obedient Allow themselves to be gazed upon as a feminine, desired object Catering the Imperial Gaze  The Superiority of the white (colonizer) over the locals  Try to retain the colonial authority in the present
  17. 17. Gendered Landscapes – Feminine Landscapes • What is this excerpt trying to tell you? (Pritchard & Morgan, 2000)
  18. 18. Reinforced Femininity and Post- Colonialism • Portrayed as exotic, untouched and virgin land Allow to be exploited/explored/liberated by Imperial Gaze (White Men)
  19. 19. Is White Female guilty of this gaze? • Seemingly they don’t  The feminine image depicted by countries seemingly caters to Imperial Gaze (Patriarchal) • However, White Female tourists also possess the Imperial gaze (Superiority over the local women) • Served by the local women, Ability to travel
  20. 20. Is White Female guilty of this gaze? • Women, especially solo tourists, use tourism as a way to empower themselves from their normal lives •  from the Imperial gaze, seeing the exploitation of the local women as their sources of empowerment • “White women were meant to come away from the fair feeling grateful for the benefits of civilization they enjoyed.”(Enloe,2000, P.27) • Gaze upon their destination/the local “traditional” women with the same gaze as male tourists do
  21. 21. The Stereotypes of Female in Tourism being Challenged Subversive or not?
  22. 22. Challenging the Sex Tourism • Sex Tourism, Male Gaze and its Fantasy over Women’s body •  Women lost their subjectivity of their bodies • FEMEN: Topless female activists opposed to legalizing prostitution in Ukraine • “In the beginning, there was the body, feeling of the woman’s body, feeling of joy because it is so light and free. Then there was injustice, so sharp that you feel it with your body, it immobilizes the body, hinders its movements, and then you find yourself your body’s hostage.” Not subversive: patriarchal in the sense that they are exposing their bodies to cater for male gaze…?
  23. 23. Challenging the stereotype of female’s restriction of mobility Female = “ In many societies being feminine has been defined as sticking close to home. Masculinity, by contrast, has been the passport for travel” (Enloe,2000, P.21) Even if women have to travel, they are departing from a home to another home( accompanied by the male )  never leave “home”(in physical sense) Propagated by the tourism industry: “There's nothing like Australia”(2013), “Tourism Tasmania” (2011), “Tourism Fiji” (2013) 
  24. 24. Challenging the stereotype of female’s restriction of mobility The restriction of mobility( home, male companion) is challenged with the concept of female “explorer” /tourist “they dare to travel without male protection” (Enloe,2000, P.23) •“Incredible India”(Indian Tourism Board)2012
  25. 25. Challenging the stereotype of female’s restriction of mobility • (although she is a clumsy “adventurer” /tourist suggesting that she is not up to the male standard of being a good adventurer • And she is guided by man: still a biased view: female dependence) • The contestation: Redefining “women” • Woman travelling alone • riding motorcycle women’s mobility • Mountaineering the joy of being alone • (freedom) /having achievements during the trip
  26. 26. Challenging the Imperial Gaze of the white tourists Challenges : Defining the “non-white” female tourist “Your Moment is Waiting” (Kerala Tourism) 2010 (Although objectification of women is still present) Featuring a non-white female tourist Intimate , peaceful and spiritual relationship between the non-white female tourist and the nature/the locals there no Imperial Gaze
  27. 27. Conclusion • Although Tourism can be a site of contestation of the definition of “Female” • Only minute challenges can be made within the patriarchy • “The very structure of international tourism needs patriarchy to survive” (Enloe,2000, P.21)
  28. 28. References • Incredible India.(2012) Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulE2CbvCCG 0 • Colorado Tourism.(2012)Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- 1yXdOufzKE • Your Moment is Waiting.(2010) Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axHn7KDxM 8U • FEMEN. Retrieved from http://femen.org
  29. 29. References: • Wonderful Indonesia | Bali, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjP4QdZK7tc • Video about Vietnam Tourism , https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwqbjMVk-ZQ • Pritchard, A., & Morgan, N. (2000). Privileging the male gaze: Gendered tourism landscapes. (University of Wales Institude, Cardiff, UK) Retrieved from http://www.doc88.com/p- 643605604111.html • Jamaica in the 80's as in the Jamaica Tourist Board ad , https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYjGTa2ZnS4
  30. 30. * *Blake, M. (2012, Nov 27). British man becomes first person to visit all 201 countries.. without using a plane read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article- 2239087/graham-hughes-british-man-person- visit-201-countries-without-using-plane.html *Coinseurotrip. (Performer). (2011, Mar 2). Amsterdam Red Light District HD [Web Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsKe3rMc5 fo *Enloe, C. (2000). “On the Beach.” Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press. 19-41.
  31. 31. * *Rosenberg, J. (n.d.). The first to climb mount everest. Retrieved from http://history1900s.about.com/od/1950s/qt/ mteverest.htm

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