• interactive study guide, was proposed by both
Tom Cyrs and Al Kent. It is an essential tool of
the distance educator and a structured note-
taking system that helps lead the learners
through series of concepts which require
interaction and involvement by the student.
4. Graphic Design Principles
•We define graphic design principles as
the size, font, color and contrast,
alignment, and use of uppercase and
lowercase in written graphics are
critical to successful design.
5. Elements of Design
• Line is generally considered to be one-dimensional. Line has length but not
width. Line portrays direction, presents objects, and defines the outer shape of
• Shape is used to symbolize objects or to show large or small spaces. Shapes
have two dimensions, height and width.
• Space is either positive or negative. The outline of an object in a visual signifies
its positive space. The most common negative shape of something is its
• Texture is the perceived or actual roughness or smoothness of a surface. Texture
is used to help define shape or space.
• Value is the degree of lightness or darkness of a surface. Value is accomplished
through shading. Value shows changes in space, and is often used to create the
illusion of volume or solidity in a graphic object.
6. Principles of Design
• Balance is the sense of equilibrium in a visual. The two kinds of balance
are formal and informal. Generally, a visual should be balanced left to
right and top to bottom.
• The center of interest is the visual focal point of the graphic and should
relate to its purpose. Historically, well-designed visuals did not place the
center of interest at the center of the picture. However, television
places restrictions on the graphic designer. Since the area displayed on a
television screen is relatively small and varies between television sets, it
is probably safest to place the center of interest of a graphic at or near
the center of the picture.
• Emphasis is closely related to the center of interest. The key object
should be emphasized so it is apparent to the viewer what is most
7. There are several ways to emphasize the key
element in a graphic, including the following:
• Use pointers, such as arrows.
• Use color to emphasize.
• Use large objects at the center of interest.
• Use different shapes for the center of interest.
• Use more elements of design to create the center of interest
for a graphic and fewer for less important elements.
8. Cyrs (1997) says the following about effective word
• Emphasis should be placed on the types of symbols used.
• They should cover chunks of information rather than entire
• Student attention can be maintained through the use of fill-ins.
• They emphasize the logical sequence of the class presentation.
• They provide a complete review of the class content.
• They can also be used for display by overhead video cameras.
• They are inexpensive to produce and duplicate.
• They condense ideas into a few key words.
• They should be designed to fit the format of television.
• They apply principles of graphic design.
• They emphasize communication via the visual sense.
• They require the instructor to think visually rather than
10. Mind Maps Characteristics
• The main ideas are clearly defined and placed in the center of the
• The relative importance of a subidea is indicated by its proximity
to the main idea.
• Links between ideas are clearly indicated.
• New information is easily added to a mind map because of its