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SQL Tuning 101

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Learn from the author of SQLTXPLAIN the fundamentals of SQL Tuning: 1) Diagnostics Collection; 2) Root Cause Analysis (RCA); and 3) Remediation.

SQL Tuning is a complex and intimidating area of knowledge, and it requires years of frequent practice to master it. Nevertheless, there are some concepts and practices that are fundamental to succeed. From basic understanding of the Cost-based Optimizer (CBO) and the Execution Plans, to more advance topics such as Plan Stability and the caveats of using SQL Profiles and SQL Plan Baselines, this session is full of advice and experience sharing. Learn what works and what doesn't when it comes to SQL Tuning.

Participants of this session will also learn about several free tools (besides SQLTXPLAIN) that can be used to diagnose a SQL statement performing poorly, and some others to improve Execution Plan Stability.

Either if your are a novice DBA, or an experienced DBA or Developer, there will be something new for you on this session. And if this is your first encounter with SQL Tuning, at least you will learn the basic concepts and steps to succeed in your endeavor.

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SQL Tuning 101

  1. 1. SQL Tuning 101 The three pillars of SQL Tuning: Diagnostics Collection, Root Cause Analysis and Remediation Carlos Sierra
  2. 2. Agenda • Motivation • Methodology – Diagnostics Collection – Root Cause Analysis – Remediation • Some Important Topics – Execution Plan – Cost-based Optimizer – Plan Stability • Free Tools
  3. 3. Motivation • One bad SQL can degrade overall DB performance! • SQL Tuning is: – A Complex Task – Part Science and part Art – The Responsibility of WHO? • DBA? • Developer? • Oracle? • Application Vendor?
  4. 4. Methodology The three pillars of SQL Tuning 1. Good Practices 2. Diagnostics Collection 3. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) 4. Remediation
  5. 5. I. Good Practices • The forgotten pillar of SQL Tuning • Quid pro Quo (e.g. This for That or Give and Take) – Be nice to the CBO and the CBO will be nice to you • A healthy environment requires less SQL Tuning • A win-win! • Except for Consultants like myself!
  6. 6. Some Good Practices • Start with a modern and solid database release • Reset all CBO related parameters (and some more) • Gather CBO Statistics as per Application or Product – Automatic task does a decent job on 11.2.0.4+ • Write reasonable SQL – Use the product as designed and avoid weird SQL – If SQL is too long or too complex the CBO will struggle
  7. 7. Partial list of Parameters to Reset • optimizer_features_enable • optimizer_index_cost_adj • optimizer_index_caching • db_file_multiblock_read_count (not CBO exclusive) • cursor_sharing (not an optimizer parameter) • optimizer_dynamic_sampling • optimizer_mode
  8. 8. II. Diagnostics Collection a) Identify SQL_ID b) Use Oracle-product base Tools c) Supplement with specialized Tools
  9. 9. II.a Identify SQL_ID • Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) – [ OEM] [ Database | Grid | Cloud ] Control • Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) • Statspack (SP) • SQL Trace (and TKPROF) • V$ dynamic views (e.g. V$SQL and V$SESSION)
  10. 10. II.b Oracle-product base Tools • SQL Trace (and TKPROF) • Active Session History (ASH) • EXPLAIN PLAN FOR • AUTOTRACE • SQL Developer • DBMS_XPLAN • SQL Monitor
  11. 11. SQL Trace • ALTER SESSION SET – SQL_TRACE = [ TRUE | FALSE ] – EVENTS ‘10046 trace name context forever, level N’ • N = 1: all executions (10g-) or 1st execution (11g+) • N = 4: Binds • N = 8: Waits • N = 12 = 4 + 8 • N = 16: each execution (11g+) • N = 64: 1st + each where DB time > 1min (11.2.0.2+)
  12. 12. Where is my Trace? • V$DIAG_INFO (11.1+) • USER_DUMP_DEST (deprecated 12c)
  13. 13. TKPROF: SQL Text and DB Calls
  14. 14. TKPROF: Execution Plan and Wait Events
  15. 15. Active Session History (ASH) • 1 sec snapshots of V$SESSION • Every 10 ASH samples into AWR (10 sec granularity) • Sessions “ON CPU” or “WAITING” (non-idle) • Multiple Dimensions • Excellent repository for performance data mining • Requires Oracle Diagnostics Pack!
  16. 16. SQL Trace vs. ASH Pros • Precise • Free Pros • Always available • Multi-dimensional repository • Plan line granularity (11g+) Cons • Re-execute transaction • Waits per cursor – No plan line granularity Cons • Requires Diagnostics Pack
  17. 17. EXPLAIN PLAN FOR • Actual SQL is not executed • Blind to Bind Peeking, thus unreliable with Binds
  18. 18. SET AUTOTRACE ON • Actual SQL is executed • Includes small subset of Session Statistics
  19. 19. Query Output and Execution Plan
  20. 20. Predicate Information and Session Stats
  21. 21. SQL Developer
  22. 22. DBMS_XPLAN • DISPLAY (from PLAN_TABLE) • DISPLAY_CURSOR • DISPLAY_AWR • DISPLAY_SQL_PLAN_BASELINE • DISPLAY_SQL_SET • SELECT * FROM TABLE(DBMS_XPLAN.DISPLAY%());
  23. 23. DBMS_XPLAN.DISPLAY_CURSOR • SQL_ID • CURSOR_CHILD_NO (defaults to 0!) • FORMAT – TYPICAL = DEFAULT – ALL = TYPICAL + QB + PROJECTION + ALIAS + REMOTE – ADVANCED = ALL + OUTLINE + BINDS – ALLSTATS = IOSTATS + MEMSTATS (all executions) – ALLSTATS LAST (last execution) – ADAPTIVE (12c)
  24. 24. Sample query with hints and binds
  25. 25. SQL Monitor • Part of the Oracle Tuning Pack • Tabular and Graphical Execution Plan • Timeline per Plan Line • Binds and Predicates • Nice and intuitive • Executed from OEM or SQL*Plus
  26. 26. II.c Specialized Tools • SQLTXPLAIN (a.k.a. SQLT) – My Oracle Support (MOS) 215187.1 • SQLHC – MOS 1366133.1 • SQLd360 – By Mauro Pagano • Others?
  27. 27. III. Root Cause Analysis • This is where you want to spend your time! • Go over all the output of your specialized tool • Look for correlations and possible causation • Put yourself in the shoes of the Optimizer • Question everything (is there a better way?) • Ask for help after you have done your homework • Enjoy the ride!
  28. 28. Typical Steps 1. Find where the time is spent (plan line) – Too many executions or too much time per exec? 2. Validate estimated rows versus actual rows – If off determine why (deficient statistics maybe?) 3. What is the history of this SQL? – Can you find a better performing plan? 4. Can you make perfect sense of the SQL and plan?
  29. 29. IV. Remediation • Explore multiple possibilities – And try to prove yourself wrong! • Implement the smallest-scope fix – Avoid system-wide changes unless you are rock solid! • Avoid guesses and assumptions (piñata method) – Too many people out there are “tuning” blind-folded! • Trust nobody! (be skeptic and test thoroughly)
  30. 30. Three Important Topics 1. Execution Plan 2. Cost-based Optimizer 3. Plan Stability
  31. 31. 1. Execution Plan • If you do not understand the SQL or the Execution Plan stop right there! • From SQL text you can draw a diagram if that helps • To understand the Execution Plan start small – Review a two-tables query and review plan – Move to a three-tables query and review plan – Introduce subqueries and more complex constructions
  32. 32. 2. Cost-based Optimizer • CBO was released on 7.3 (circa February 1996) • A large and complex piece of software enhanced for two decades • By design the CBO produces an optimal execution plan according to some representation of the data – This means: execution plans are expected to change! – Breathe deep and embrace the change!
  33. 33. 3. Plan Stability • Most DBAs hate Execution Plan changes – They never hear of changes for the better! • To remediate undesired plan changes we do have several Plan Stability techniques – SQL Plan Management (Baselines) from 11g – SQL Profiles from 10g – Deprecated Stored Outlines from 9i – And then some others (SQL Patches and CBO Hints)
  34. 34. Popular Free Diagnostics Tools • SQLTXPLAIN • SQLHC • SQLd360 • Stand-alone scripts
  35. 35. SQLTXPLAIN
  36. 36. SQLd360
  37. 37. SQLd360 Plan Tree
  38. 38. SQLT XPLAIN vs. SQLd360 Pros • Oracle Support Standard • Free (requires MOS account) • Comprehensive and mature Pros • Free Software (no strings) • Installs nothing on database • Graphical visualization of data Cons • Requires installation • HTML Tables (no charts) Cons • Still young (frequent releases)
  39. 39. SQL Tuning Road Map 1. Start with a clean and healthy environment 2. Identify SQL_ID 3. Collect diagnostics using comprehensive tools 4. Spend time analyzing diagnostics collected 5. Determine root cause 6. Explore remediation actions 7. Test and implement solution
  40. 40. Questions
  41. 41. The End • http://carlos-sierra.net/ – Blog and downloads • carlos.sierra.usa@gmail.com – Questions and follow-up • SQL Tuning is more about understanding what your eyes see at first

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