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SOCIAL
MARKETING
IN A COUNTRY
THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
Carlos Oliveira Santos
Selected pages authorized by the author.
This book is available from Amazon.com, CreateSpace.com, and other retail outlets.
SOCIAL
MARKETING
IN A COUNTRY
THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
1st Edition September 2016
Copyright © Carlos Oliveira Santos
Graphic Design by DDLX, Lisbon
Art Direction by José Teófilo...
Printed by CreateSpace | An Amazon.com Company
SOCIAL
MARKETING
IN A COUNTRY
THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
Carlos Oliveira Santos
Contents
List of images, figures, and tables
List of abbreviations
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Part I	 Studying a Public Policy Proce...
Part IV	 The British Experience
	1. A new public health global-sectorial frame of reference
	2. The public health policy e...
List of images,
figures, and tables
Cover photo
Image F.1
Image A.1
Image I.1
Image I.2
Image I.3
Image I.4
Figure I.1
Table II.1
Table II.2
Figure III.1
Figu...
Image IV.1
and IV.2
Image IV.3
Table IV.3
Table IV.4
Figure IV.7
Image IV.4
Figure IV.8
Image IV.5
Image IV.6
Figure IV.9
...
List of abbreviations
AASM
ABPI
AESE
AMA
BMA
BUPA
CDC
CEBI
CERAT
CF
COI
DEFRA
DHSS
DoH
EC
ECB
EQUAL
ESMA
ETSC
GCN
GNP
HCSMD
HDA
HSC
IMF
INUAF
IP...
ISEG
ISLA
ISM
ISMA
LSHTM
MSSSB
NCC
NCHM
NGO
NHS
NICE
NSMC
NSMS
OECD
PCT
PHAST
PHE
RCN
RSPH
SHA
SSM
UL
UN
UNISON
UNL
USF
UT...
«The saddest aspect of life right now
is that science gathers knowledge
faster than society gathers wisdom.»
Isaac Asimov ...
20
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
21
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
Image F.1 Keble College’s dining hall at University of Oxford
(a b...
22
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
Foreword
23
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
T
hinking about Harry Potter is almost inevitable. I know Christ C...
24
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
of the University of Lisbon, ISEG) in the early 1970s (although interrupted by my
arrest in 1971...
25
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
I developed a social marketing guide (Santos et al., 2004) for the...
26
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
Part I states the methodological fundaments of the study, situates the field from
which it was g...
27
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
28
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
Acknowledgements
29
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
T
he sense of acknowledgement is inherent to all scientific resear...
30
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
proach, I spoke with Vivien A. Schmidt, and I thank her so much for her good ad-
vice. She stand...
31
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
32
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
33
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
Image A.1 Letter from Jeff French, as NSMC Director, to Carlos Oli...
34
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
I
Studying a Public Policy Process
35
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
I.1. In a vast and complex area
N
obody, and even better for the h...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
36
As we know, the list of problems is endless – from those related t...
PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS
37
sis of a partnership between the Department of Health (DoH) and the National
Co...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
38
I.2. Genesis and development of policy processes
The bottom line i...
PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS
39
In continental Europe, there have been several: the notion of public policy fra...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
40
One agrees with Surel (2006) in this aspect when he compares it wi...
PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS
41
«the cognitive dimension – the reference frame gives problems to be solved the
...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
42
As a system of beliefs, a frame of reference is also a strategic a...
PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS
43
«A case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenome­...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
44
ence (see Jackson, 2006; Polletta, 2006; Polletta, 2008) or manage...
PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS
45
One thus diverges, as Yin did, from the positions that totally eliminate the re...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
46
The sample resulting from that option was thorough and included Ca...
PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS
47
«Theoretical sampling simply means that cases are selected because they are par...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
48
Health (DoH) was possible, as was their available documentation an...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
236
Name Index
237
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
Adkins, S. 106, 199
Adshead, F. 29, 48, 143–147, 230
Ajzen, I. 12...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
238
Bell, B. 132, 158, 202
Bell, D. 69, 202, 216
Bell, S. 225
Belshaw, C. S. 70, 202
Bennett, A. 43...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX
239
Central Office of Communication 177,
204
Central Office of Information 15, 14...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
240
Dr. Foster Holdings LLP 46, 169
Drumwright, M. E. 125, 200
Dryzek, J. S. 73, 208
Duarte, J. T. ...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX
241
Glecker, E. A. 124, 211
Goldberg, M. E. 109, 110, 115, 187, 200,
211
Goldstei...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
242
Houston, F. S. 70, 214
Hovell, M. F. 208
Howard, J. R. 88, 91, 214
Howell, A. W. 223
Hume, D. 5...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX
243
Kuhn, T. 131, 218
Kurtz D. L. 83, 203
Laczniak, G. R. 218
Ladbury, P. 29, 47
...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
244
Massy, W. F. 210
Mathiasen, D. G. 51, 69, 221
Maybury, M. 222
Mayer, J. A. 208
Mayntz, R. 39, 2...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX
245
Newell, A. 177, 223
New University of Lisbon 16
Nicholls, J. 204
Nickels, W. ...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
246
Reisman. D. 71, 227
Reizes, T. 119, 226
Remacle, E. 215
Reto, L. 30, 107, 227
Reynolds, L. 29, ...
SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX
247
Snyder, L. B. 175, 231
Snyder, R. 223, 225
Sobel, D. 227, 231
Social Marketin...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
248
Warshaw, P. R. 122, 201
Wasson, C. 88, 90, 233
Weber, M. 52, 233
Webster, F. 82, 105, 233
Weinr...
CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
344
SOCIAL MARKETING MARKETING PUBLIC POLICY
MARKETING THOUGHT AND HISTORY POLICY PROCESSES
Since 2...
Social Marketing in a Country - The British Experience
Social Marketing in a Country - The British Experience
Social Marketing in a Country - The British Experience
Social Marketing in a Country - The British Experience
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Selected pages of the book by Carlos Oliveira Santos, printed in 2016, about the British national policy on social marketing in public health.

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Social Marketing in a Country - The British Experience

  1. 1. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE Carlos Oliveira Santos
  2. 2. Selected pages authorized by the author. This book is available from Amazon.com, CreateSpace.com, and other retail outlets.
  3. 3. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
  4. 4. 1st Edition September 2016 Copyright © Carlos Oliveira Santos Graphic Design by DDLX, Lisbon Art Direction by José Teófilo Duarte Graphic Design by Lília Correia and João Silva www.ddlx.pt Printed by CreateSpace, Charleston SC Available from Amazon.com, CreateSpace.com, and other retail outlets All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the author, or as expressly permitted by law, or under the terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the publisher or to the author Library of Congress Control Number: 2016913495 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, North Charleston, SC ISBN-13: 978-1534822559 ISBN-10: 1534822550
  5. 5. Printed by CreateSpace | An Amazon.com Company SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE Carlos Oliveira Santos
  6. 6. Contents
  7. 7. List of images, figures, and tables List of abbreviations Foreword Acknowledgements Part I Studying a Public Policy Process 1. In a vast and complex area 2. Genesis and development of policy processes 3. The resurgence of case study research 4. Theory’s priority role 5. A crucial case Part II Political Grounds for Social Marketing 1. Values and social sciences 2. Anglo-Saxon political philosophy 3. Social engineering, its limits and potentialities 4. North American pragmatism and public policy 5. Democracy and social marketing 6. A political conception of social marketing Part III From Marketing to Social Marketing 1. Markets and marketing 2. The marketing thought 3. Broadening the marketing and its social dimension 4.The emergence of social marketing 5. Social marketing and other social change approaches 6. Criticism and social marketing development 7. Repositioning social marketing 8. Social marketing management 9. Social behaviour change and its theories 10. Ethical questions 11 15 23 29 34 35 38 42 44 45 50 51 54 56 63 70 76 78 79 87 94 101 105 109 115 118 121 123
  8. 8. Part IV The British Experience 1. A new public health global-sectorial frame of reference 2. The public health policy evolution in England 3. A national policy on social marketing 4. The social marketing reference frame in England 5. From normative to instrumental dimensions 6. The National Social Marketing Centre 7. National social marketing organizations’ comparative analysis 8. Standards for social marketing 9. The evolution of the British national policy on social marketing 10. Evaluation processes 11. Renewing a public policy reference frame 12. Recent developments 13. A big picture Part V Conclusions 1. Evaluating a hypothesis 2. Framework for a national policy on social marketing 3. Potentialities and limitations 4. Policy transfer and implementation 5. Lessons from the field References Name Index Appendices A. Realising the Potential of Effective Social Marketing B. 3 Years Grant Agreement C. Social Marketing Benchmark Criteria D. Learning Together: From Theory to Practice: Social Marketing Learning Demonstration Sites E. Social Marketing Training for South Central F. Quick Reference Guide: The Procurement of Social Marketing Services G. Social Marketing Functional Map H. Summary of Key Achievements I. PHAST Project Report J. Future of NSMC 128 129 135 139 141 147 150 156 161 168 171 175 181 185 188 189 191 193 194 195 199 237 250 255 263 275 279 289 305 309 317 325 337
  9. 9. List of images, figures, and tables
  10. 10. Cover photo Image F.1 Image A.1 Image I.1 Image I.2 Image I.3 Image I.4 Figure I.1 Table II.1 Table II.2 Figure III.1 Figure III.2 Table III.1 Image III.1 Table III.2 Table III.3 Figure III.3 Table III.4 Figure III.4 Figure III.5 Figure III.6 Figure III.7 Figure III.8 Figure III.9 Table III.5 Image III.2 Table III.6 Figure III.10 Figure IV.1 Table IV.1 Figure IV.2 Figure IV.3 Figure IV.4 Figure IV.5 Figure IV.6 Table IV.2 How many skies are there inside us? (by Ana Branca) Keble College’s dining hall at University of Oxford (by David Iliff) Letter from Jeff French, as NSMC Director, to Carlos Oliveira Santos Choosing Health cover It’s Our Health cover Ambitions for Health cover Changing Behaviour, Improving Outcomes cover A reference framework Lewin (1943), Eagerness to succeed Lewin (1943), Relation between original preference for whole wheat bread and eagerness to reach goal Gross world product World population World development indicators since 1870 Miss Parloa’s first edition cover Schools of marketing thought Comparing Wiebe (1952) and Kotler & Zaltman (1971) Kotler & Zaltman’s social marketing planning process Some approaches and intervention processes in social behaviour change Le Net, 1981, Results by effect of persuasion Le Net, 1981, Results by effect of regulation Le Net, 1981, Results by effect of wrong control Le Net, 1981, Results combining persuasion, regulation and control Social marketing interventions levels Strategic and operational use of social marketing Operational models of social marketing A CDCynergy Social Marketing Edition frame (Phase 1) Theoretical models of behaviour change Integrated theoretical framework for behavioural influences Operating a global-sectorial reference frame policy Milestones in new public health Health policy network in England Main early mediators of the social marketing reference frame in England National Social Marketing Strategy governance arrangements A policy infusion process NSMC governance arrangements Learning Demonstration Sites
  11. 11. Image IV.1 and IV.2 Image IV.3 Table IV.3 Table IV.4 Figure IV.7 Image IV.4 Figure IV.8 Image IV.5 Image IV.6 Figure IV.9 Image IV.7 Image IV.8 Image IV.9 Image IV.10 Table IV.5 Image IV.11 Figure IV.10 Figure IV.11 Image IV.12 Figure IV.12 Figure V.1 NSMC organizational restructure drafts (end of 2007 and 29 January 2008; unpublished documents) Big Pocket Guide Social Marketing cover Comparing national social marketing organizations Comparative analysis of national social marketing organizations names Semantic fields of social marketing organizations names Procurement Guide for Social Marketing Services cover A functional map for social marketing Checklist for assessing the competence and track record of social marketing suppliers Healthy Foundations Life-Stage Segmentation Model cover Healthy Foundations five core motivational segments break down Comparing Healthy Foundations motivational segments Balanced Compensators segment characteristics Change4Life One Year On report cover Barriers to social marketing Learning Demonstration Sites helps and hinders Mapping the causes of obesity Evolution of reference frame The new government marketing in public health agenda Public Health England Marketing Strategy 2014-2017 cover Framework for the national British policy on social marketing reference mediation Framework for a national policy on social marketing reference frame
  12. 12. List of abbreviations
  13. 13. AASM ABPI AESE AMA BMA BUPA CDC CEBI CERAT CF COI DEFRA DHSS DoH EC ECB EQUAL ESMA ETSC GCN GNP HCSMD HDA HSC IMF INUAF IPPS ISCEM ISCEF ISCSP ISCTE-IUL Australian Association of Social Marketing Association of the British Pharmaceuticals Industry Associação de Estudos Superiores de Empresa (Association for Higher Studies of Enterprise) American Marketing Association British Medical Association British United Provident Association Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centro de Bem-Estar Infantil de Alverca (Center for Children Wellbeing of Alverca; currently Fundação para o Desenvolvimento Comunitário, Foundation for Community Development) Centre de Recherche sur le Politique, l’Administration, la Ville et le Territoire Consumer Focus Central Office of Information Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Department of Health and Social Security Department of Health European Commission European Central Bank European Union’s initiative for tackling discrimination and disadvantage in the labour market (2000-2008) European Social Marketing Association European Transport Safety Council Government Communications Network Gross National Product Health Canada Social Marketing Division Health Development Agency Health Sponsorship Council International Monetary Fund Instituto Superior Dom Afonso III (Higher Institute Dom Afonso III) Instituto de Políticas Públicas e Sociais (Institute for Public and Social Policy) Instituto Superior de Comunicação Empresarial (Higher Institute of Business Communication) Instituto Superior de Ciências Económicas e Financeiras (Higher Institute of Economic and Financial Sciences, currently ISEG) Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas (Higher Institute of Social and Political Sciences) Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (Higher Institute of Labour and Enterprise Sciences – University Institute of Lisbon)
  14. 14. ISEG ISLA ISM ISMA LSHTM MSSSB NCC NCHM NGO NHS NICE NSMC NSMS OECD PCT PHAST PHE RCN RSPH SHA SSM UL UN UNISON UNL USF UTL VPF WHO Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão (School of Economics and Mana­gement of the University of Lisbon) Instituto Superior de Línguas e Administração (Higher Institute of Languages and Administration) Institute for Social Marketing International Social Marketing Association London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Marketing Sales and Standard Setting Body National Consumer Council National Center for Health Marketing Non-Governmental Organization National Health Service National Institute for Health and Care Excellence National Social Marketing Centre National Social Marketing Strategy Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Primary Care Trust Public Health Action Support Team Public Health England Royal College of Nursing Royal Society for Public Health Strategic Health Authority Strategic Social Marketing Universidade de Lisboa (University of Lisbon) United Nations Public Service Union Universidade Nova de Lisboa (New University of Lisbon) University of South Florida Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (Technical University of Lisbon, currently UL) Value of Preventing one road Fatality World Health Organization
  15. 15. «The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom.» Isaac Asimov (1994)
  16. 16. 20 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
  17. 17. 21 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE Image F.1 Keble College’s dining hall at University of Oxford (a black-and-white reproduction of a photo by David Iliff)
  18. 18. 22 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS Foreword
  19. 19. 23 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE T hinking about Harry Potter is almost inevitable. I know Christ Church Col- lege’s dining hall was the location that inspired the movie’s shootings but in this one, the Keble College’s, also in Oxford, we could equally expect the delivering of a howler.1 In 2007, it was here that I met Jeff French for the first time. I had explained my research project to him and asked for his support and authorization for accessing the National Social Marketing Centre (NSMC), of which he was the director. This was a way in towards the main purpose of my research – to follow, as a crucial case study, the British national social marketing strategy, initiated in 2004, understanding how it emerged, developed and was implemented, in order to use their lessons to support similar social marketing processes in other countries. As you have already understood, this academic book about social marketing, marketing, marketing thought, public policy and policy processes, is for those who believe in the betterment of life in their societies, the life of their fellow citizens sub- mitted to all the problems that we had inherited, that we had created or in which we are involved. In 1992, I started teaching social marketing at the Higher Institute of Business Communication (ISCEM), in Lisbon, Portugal, a young and small institution that benefitted from the advantages of private initiative in higher education, gathering a set of experienced professionals, innovative and more open to the introduction of modern teaching than traditional Portuguese university institutions. I think that one was the first teaching experience of social marketing in Portugal. Before 1992, thanks to my brief training in economics at the Higher Institute of Economic and Financial Sciences (now the School of Economics and Management 1  An object created by J.K. Rowling in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998): a magic letter that speaks its message in the writer’s voice and bursts into flames ending up in ashes.
  20. 20. 24 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS of the University of Lisbon, ISEG) in the early 1970s (although interrupted by my arrest in 1971 and 1973 by the dictatorship’s political police), I had been working since 1983 in the area of marketing and communication in certificated companies such as BBDO or BJKE (currently Bozell) in Portugal. This one was owned by the SONAE industrial and commercial group, the greatest Portuguese one. In 1992, I participated in a political marketing consultants’ group that supported one of that year’s national legislative election campaigns. An ISCEM innovation, a ground-breaking for the time in Portugal, was the setting up of a public communication chair, which I was invited to teach, having immediately integrated the social marketing dimension refreshed by the recent publication of ­Kotler & Roberto’s book, Social Marketing Strategies for Changing Public Behavior (1989). From then on, I dedicated myself to this area. In 1994, in a marketing management course at the same school, I was already teaching an autonomous social marketing class. Unknown to me before the previously book by Kotler & Roberto, I admit that my interest in this area was motivated by a similar one by Heede (1985): «[these early critical scholars] took their degrees in marketing, perhaps by happen- stance, because they, as outsiders, wanted to study how the modern society was functioning so that they could change it in accordance with the values they were exposed to in their youth. As they ended up as young professors in marketing de- partments where they discovered that the marketing system was corrupting them. Therefore they want to change the system from inside by creating a new marketing system suitable for the society they want.» (p. 148) When the first Portuguese post-graduation course in political and social marketing was introduced in the Higher Institute of Labour and Enterprise Sciences (currently ISCTE-University Institute of Lisbon) in 2002, I had the pleasure of both co-directing and teaching it. In that same year, in the article «The efficiency of public communica- tion: For an integrated perspective of communication, social marketing and public policy» (Santos, 2002), I stood up for an enlarged perspective of social marketing, mainly inspired by Wallack (1989). Bearing in mind that Hastings & Donovan’s ar- ticle («International initiatives: introduction and overview»), where this approach was suggested, is also from 2002, and that Alan Andreasen’s book (Social Marketing in the 21st Century), where this enlarged perspective has been developed and diffused, is from 2006, one has to recognize a modest but pioneering position in my article. In any case, there was the conceptual basis on which social marketing is still seen today in this book: an approach and a methodology that, aiming for the betterment of people’s social behaviour, articulate specific interventions with a wider policy con- text that honestly and effectively aim for citizens’ improved wellbeing. Seeking to enlarge knowledge beyond the academy, it was with great pleasure
  21. 21. 25 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE I developed a social marketing guide (Santos et al., 2004) for the CEBI Founda- tion – a foundation for community development – and for the EQUAL project (the European Union’s initiative for tackling discrimination and disadvantage in the labour market) with the cooperation of young researchers and social ­activists from that institution. Published in 2004 and republished in 2012, I suppose this guide, the first of its kind in our language, is still a useful instrument for Portuguese-speaking users. It is available online for free download at the Mar- keting Social Portugal Website (www.marketingsocialportugal.net), which I have created and still coordinate for the free diffusion of social marketing related documents and links. During all these years, I have seen with joy the rise of some Portuguese researchers involved in social marketing and the development of this area all over the world, as important recommendations from institutions like the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, have stressed. Imagine my happiness when, in 2012, the first-ever European So- cial Marketing Conference was held in Lisbon! This means the present book goes hand in hand with a long and devoted life ex- perience about these subjects, the profound dream of having in my country a fairer and more fraternal and prosperous society centred on the effective betterment of people’s lives and seeking an open knowledge of new approaches and methodolo- gies which contribute to that. Thus the starting point for these pages is the need to understand how in other countries, social marketing national interventions inserted in their public policy have developed. This book reveals the methodological reasons why the British case was chosen and what led to the formulation of a cognitive hypothesis to explain its origin and development. Moreover, it is with a pleasant internationalist feeling that I have done a study as a Portuguese based in England and used a French-origin methodology – the public policy frame of reference (référentiel 2 ) according to the so-called Grenoble school. The truth is that after that talk at the Keble College dining hall in 2007, many doors opened for me in British institutions and I was able to participate in nume­ rous meetings, real interventions, have access to documents and perform several in- terviews. It has been both a lesson and an enormous pleasure to share the kindness, transparency and openness owned by the best of the British spirit. That was the place where this book was born. 2  The translation of the French word référentiel is not so simple. In a recent conversation, Vivien A. Schmidt advised me: «Two possibilities: one would be frame of reference – but that doesn’t really get at the generality of the term. Better would be framework with a qualifying adjective, such as ideational frame- work (because they talk of both cognitive and normative ideas) or cognitive framework because the overall approach is sometimes called “l’approche cognitive”». I agree but I think I will keep frame of reference (or reference frame) because it is already a common designation in physics, linguistics or psychology.
  22. 22. 26 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS Part I states the methodological fundaments of the study, situates the field from which it was generated, puts the main issue to be addressed and advances a hypo­ thesis to explore and an explanatory theory that aims to sustain it, which will be tested according to the case study research method (Yin, 1984), based on the British one considered as crucial. Part II sets out the political grounds for social marketing and formulates a po- litical conception of this discipline on the basis of freedom and democracy, and a go­vernment accountable to citizens, practicing a “piecemeal social engineering”, in Karl Popper’s own words, and adopting the concepts and criteria of pragmatism. My own statement about social marketing is the main content of Part III, based on the own theory and practice of marketing, as well as on the conceptual evolution of social marketing and its wider role, where a downstream approach is combined with an upstream one, addressing the structural and social factors, depending on their political, social and economic decision makers and agents. I know that many of the issues ad- dressed in Part III have already been mentioned by other authors, but my purpose was to create a reasoning line and a comprehensive way for this book’s readers. Parts I, II and III go hand in hand as a mixed framework for the focus of our study. Part IV, the core of this book, describes and analyses with appropriate detail the data resulting from the study of the British national policy on social marketing according to our explanatory theory. Finally, Part V assesses the initial hypothesis in the light of the findings of the case study research, formulating a national policy on social marketing framework, addressing their potential and limitations, taking into account the inherent policy transfer problems and implementation, and indicating some possible lines of re- search for the development of this study. In the Appendices we gather a few documents related with the British national policy on social marketing. It is important that all the statements, documents and references we present, can enable independent judgments about this study, according to the criteria of validity and replication, as well as support the knowledge and policy transfer to any other implementation process of a national policy on social market- ing. May this work be useful for those who want to develop social marketing in their own countries, communities and lives. I wish them well. C.O.S.
  23. 23. 27 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
  24. 24. 28 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS Acknowledgements
  25. 25. 29 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE T he sense of acknowledgement is inherent to all scientific research, consciously knowing that without a whole lot of people it wouldn’t have been possible. In England, I have already mentioned him but it is never too much: Jeff French’s role was decisive and unsurpassable. Presently he is one of social marketing’s world authorities and a true remarkable professor, but, beyond that, everyone recognizes him as an open, generous, restless person in the purpose of increasing knowledge in this area and giving it utility for people and societies. It was with his precious help that I entered number 20 Grosvenor Gardens’ attic in London, by then NSMC’s small address, a place of healthy socializing amongst people who loved social marketing and who were doing everything to implant it in England. Subtracting time and kindness to welcome and speak to me from their own works of great responsibility, I cannot forget Clive Blair-Stevens, John Bromley, Rowena Merrit, Denise Ong, Steve Menzies, Paul White, Patrick Ladbury, Dominic McVey, Chris Holmes, Alex Christopoulos, Marie Meredith, Lucy Reynolds, Aiden Truss and Emmet Giltrap. With each of them, I had the pleasure of exchanging words and documents, collecting their testimonies and attending some of their ac- tions. Through NSMC, I still had the chance to enter the Department of Health of the British government where I made contact with and collected precious informa- tion from Fiona Adshead, Julie Alexander and Mehboob Umarji. In my specific education in social marketing, the contact with the University of South Florida, in Tampa, United States, was also very important throughout the course in Social Marketing in Public Health. Also, my participation in several con- ferences of Social Marketing in Public Health allowed a direct relationship with pres- tigious personalities like Philip Kotler, Alan Andreasen, Bill Smith, Carol Bryant, Nancy Lee, Craig Lefebvre, Gerard Hastings, Jim Lindenberger, Bill Novelli, Rob Donovan, Doug McKenzie-Mohr, Michael Rothschild, Kelli McCormack Brown, Beverly Schwartz and Jim Mintz, among others. About the frame of reference ap-
  26. 26. 30 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS proach, I spoke with Vivien A. Schmidt, and I thank her so much for her good ad- vice. She stands as a great example of a cross-cultural academic, mixing French and Anglo-Saxon as well as the European and the North American cultures. In Portugal, I have to thank all the academic and social institutions where I have lectured on social marketing courses – ISCEM, ISCTE-IUL and its Institute for Public and Social Policy (IPPS), the AESE Business School, the Higher Institute of Social and Political Sciences (ISCSP), the Higher Institute of Languages and Ad- ministration (ISLA), the Higher Institute Dom Afonso III (INUAF), the European Anti-Poverty Network, the CEBI Foundation and the Irene Rolo Foundation. I must also thank all the Portuguese academic fellows that support my work – Luís Reto, Cristina Montalvão Sarmento, Nuno Severiano Teixeira, José Adelino Maltez, Jorge de Sá and my dear late friend Francisco Ferreira Gomes, the chairman of Unilever for twenty years. He devoted his retirement years to teaching and he encouraged me to go, in 2007, to the Department of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences under the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Lisbon to lecture on marketing and design management, giving me full freedom to develop this research. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the Foundation for Science and Techno­ logy, and the CEBI Foundation financed a good part of the international travelling and stays that this work involved. I am very grateful to all of them. When I presented this book for the first time, at the 41st Macromarketing Con- ference, in Dublin, Stanley Shapiro, the Professor Emeritus of Marketing, as chair of the Marketing History track, was unexcelled to receive me. Many thanks to him. The photographers David Iliff and Ana Branca, and the Portuguese designer José Teófilo Duarte and his team, Lília Correia and João Silva, from DDlx studio, have done exemplary work with this book. Last but not the least, in the course of this investigation, the youngest of my four children was born, and on many nights I had to tell him that I would stay working at “daddy’s office” – the small office I own near my house in Lisbon – or that I would travel by plane to places that he cannot even imagine. My wife and he know well how much I owe them. C.O.S.
  27. 27. 31 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE
  28. 28. 32 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS
  29. 29. 33 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE Image A.1 Letter from Jeff French, as NSMC Director, to Carlos Oliveira Santos (2008)
  30. 30. 34 CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS I Studying a Public Policy Process
  31. 31. 35 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE I.1. In a vast and complex area N obody, and even better for the human condition, can stop our societies from changing and fortunately there is something we can study and suggest in order to achieve some positive changes in social behaviour, which are favourable to the human life, its wellbeing and its social justice. This is the background of this book. The problem of change in social behaviour is certainly too complex for one to believe that it is possible to conceive a general theory on it. That would certainly be an “unreasonable ambition” (ambition déraisonnable) as rightly say Mendras & Forsé (1983, p.7). Consider, however, two great aspects from this social change dynamics, where human behaviour are included: – the one in which such characteristics as spontaneous, non-planned, violent, repressive, arbitrary, illegitimate, indirect and negative are combined ; – and the other one in which are identified characteristics like intentional, planned, non-violent, persuasive, consensual, legitimate, direct and positive (see Kotler & Roberto, 1989). The second aspect being the one we’re interested in, we shouldn’t stop consider- ing that the relationship between both of them and between their own dimensions is often inevitable. Even only considering the second aspect, the urge to interfere in the change of social behaviour is in itself questionable, as will be discussed as we go along in this book (cf. chapter II.3). However, what is studied here assumes that the fulfilment of that desire of intervention is, in our human societies, justifi- able and inevitable, given the magnitude of social problems and the concern they evoke, given the development of knowledge that can correct or mitigate them and given the capacity of people to confront them.
  32. 32. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 36 As we know, the list of problems is endless – from those related to health, envi- ronment and energy to others such as illiteracy, social prejudices, communitarian dysfunction, civic apathy, criminal behaviour and extremely negligent behaviour. Add to that, human and social costs that tend to be huge, including all the financial costs incurred (see Lister, 2007; Lister et al., 2008)1 . In our societies, all this has motivated numerous approaches and intervention forms, especially when they are democracies in which governments and public administration have the obligation to contribute for the citizens’ welfare. One of those approaches is this research’s specific area. Since the beginning of the 1970s (see Kotler & Zaltman, 1971)2 , the possibility of concepts, instruments and marketing experience being applied to social behaviour change has become effective in starting a new area – social marketing (see Bloom & Novelli, 1981; Manoff, 1985; Lefebvre & Flora, 1988; Kotler & Roberto, 1989; and more recently, Andreasen, 2015; and French, 2015b) – which would soon gain relevance in several interna- tional organizations such as the WHO, FAO or the World Bank. In the 1980s, in Canada, the interest from the central government to incorporate social marketing started systematically, either functionally or structurally, in public policy and its interventions of social behaviour change mostly in the health area. Thus, in 1981, the Canadian Health Department framed the Health Canada Social Marketing Unit. In 1994, it was the time for the New Zealand government to create, also in the Health Department area, the Health Sponsorship Council. In the United States, as a consequence of the Futures Initiative, also in the health area, the National Centre for Health Marketing was created in 2004. In England, in 2004, the British government delivered the White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier, starting a wider national stra- tegic policy on social marketing (cf. appendix A). Two years later, following the national review It’s Our Health: Realising the Potential of Effective Social Market- ing, a National Social Marketing Centre was created (cf. appendix B), on the ba- 1  See this interesting Portuguese study conducted by the Road Accident Research Unit of the Techni- cal Higher Institute of the University of Lisbon: «In Portugal in 2004, 1294 people lost their lives in road accidents: For the same period, in Sweden it was 480. Even correcting these values to an identical population, means that in Portugal, lost their lives more 735 people than in Sweden. If the loss ratio values were maintained in the next 10 years, it would mean that they would die in Portugal 7350 more people than in Sweden, for an equivalent population» (Road Accident Research Unit of the Technical Higher Institute of the University of Lisbon; available at http://www1.dem.ist.utl.pt/acidentes/memo- rias.shtml; accessed 15 April 2012). Considering the European Transport Safety Council’s 2014 Value of Preventing one road Fatality (VPF), which is 1.94 million euros per fatality (see ETSC, 2015, p.13), then the total monetary costs of these additional victims it will be 14 259 million euros. This amount is a fifth of the bailout programme 2010-2014 on financial assistance to the Portuguese Republic by European Commission on behalf of the Eurogroup, the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Inter- national Monetary Fund (IMF). 2  Although Harvey (1999) marks the first use of social marketing in family-planning activities in India in 1964 by promoting Nirodh condoms, with the support of companies like Unilever and Brooke Bond Tea Company (see also French, 2015b).
  33. 33. PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS 37 sis of a partnership between the Department of Health (DoH) and the National Consumer Council (NCC)3 , the national consumers’ defence organization. Such policy was reinforced in 2008 by the deliberation of the then Labour govern- ment, Ambitions for Health: A Strategic Framework for Maximizing the Potential of Social Marketing and Health-Related Behaviour, which was developed in 2011 by the decision Changing Behaviour, Improving Outcomes: A New Social Mar- keting Strategy for Public Health, issued by the Conservative-Liberal Democrats coalition government invited by the Queen in 2010. Also, during the second Cameron ministry, social marketing kept its importance in public health policy, well-evident in the maintenance of the Public Health England Marketing Strategy 2014-2017 and in its specific Social Marketing Strategy. In an institutionalized way and framed in national policy, social marketing en- tailed nationwide programmes, mobilizing the work of thousands of agents and mil- lions of people involved with it, broadening its dimension as a professional and academic field and having, in the meanwhile, the results of the interventions been submitted for several evaluations (see Gordon et al., 2006; Helmig & Thaler, 2010). As an approach and practice, in the frame of public policy, social marketing is a reality that is important to know, analyse and give potential to, in the wider range of social behaviour change and as an important factor to the betterment of life in socie- ties. This was the first purpose of our study. I admit that Part I of this book may sound unsuited to a non-academic reader, probably in a hurry to focus on the British case story, but I did it as a social scientist, and my mission is to support my work with conceptual strength, whatever commu- nication difficulties that this may entail. Images I.1, I.2, I.3 and I.4 Some of the main documents of the British national policy on social marketing (2004-2011) 3  In 2007 Consumer Focus was created as a brand of the NCC, and in May 2013 Consumer Focus was renamed Consumer Futures, as an executive non-departmental public body of the Department for Business Innovation & Skills, representing consumers across regulated markets, but it was abolished on 1 April 2014, with all its functions transferred to other bodies (Citizens Advice, Citizens Advice Scotland and General Consumer Council for Northern Ireland).
  34. 34. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 38 I.2. Genesis and development of policy processes The bottom line is what we are studying is a policy process (see Hill, 1997; Sabatier, 2007). How does a public policy process – in this case, integrating social marketing – emerge, develop and become implemented? Our aim is to analyse the genesis and development of the type of policies and organizations in that field; in other words, extracting analysis, theory and frameworks that are susceptible to lead new experiences in other countries or new developments in those where these have already been created. This study’s main issue is the why and how a national social marketing strategic policy emerges, develops and acts; however, the main purpose of our research was to under- stand the conditions and cognitive dynamics in which that process unfolded. Research is always a choice, keeping in mind a wide science perspective, namely the one expressed in Karl Popper’s tetradic schema (1994), in which a problem submitted to a theoretical or experimental attempt, as a solution proposal, undergoes necessarily through a critical-error and elimination process opening the way to the formulation of new problems4 . This is science’s inexorable path and its contribution to social problems. Today we are witnessing enormous development in cognitive studies of the politi- cal and social processes. By differentiation from exclusively normative, institutional, behaviourist, functionalist, rational choice or merely discursive approaches (see Marsh & Stoker, 1995), the cognitive approaches are based on the importance of considering «elements of knowledge, ideas, representations or social beliefs in the elaboration of public policy» (Surel, 2006, p. 80), in the path of “classical” approaches to cognitivism, namely the ones coming from psychology (see. Broadbent, 1958; Neisser, 1967). As Schmidt (2008) puts it, «cognitive ideas – also sometimes called causal ideas – provide the recipes, guidelines, and maps for political action and serve to justify policies and programmes by speaking to their interest-based logic and necessity» (p. 306). So this investigation’s hypothesis frames itself in the «last postulate common to these works» (Surel, 2006, p. 85), namely, «the major hypothesis which associates the significant change in public action to a transformation of the cognitive and normative elements which characterise a policy, a problem or a specific sector of public interven- tion» (p. 85). The perspective that states that the State in action (see Jobert & Muller, 1987) is not a homogeneous and monolithic unity of immediate and unilateral effec- tiveness, as well as the consciousness of complexity of «intellectual constructions which preside to the emergence and then the statement and fulfilment of a policy» (Faure et al., 1995, p. 9), have led to the development of numerous approaches. 4  «My theory of evolution is based on my oversimplified tetradic schema, P1 TTEEP2 . Here, TT may be a tentative theory, but it may be, more generally, a tentative trial. EE... is error elimination – not necessarily by way of critical discussion, but also, for example, due to natural selection or, at any rate, due to failure to solve the problem P1. P2 is, of course, the new problem, which may arise either from the error elimination or from the tentative trial.» (Popper, 1994, p. 79).
  35. 35. PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS 39 In continental Europe, there have been several: the notion of public policy frame of reference (référentiel) from the previously mentioned Grenoble school centred in Bru- no Jobert and Pierre Muller (1987); Claudio M Radaelli’s concepts of récits (2000) or Giandomenico Majone’s argument and persuasion in political process (1989); in Germany, the network approaches from Renate Mayntz (1993), Gerhard Lehmbruch (1995a, 1995b), Franz-Urban Pappi (1995) or David Knoke (1996), beyond its gene­ral incidence in the Steuerungstheorie school (see Giraud, 2002). In England, this procedural field is patent in both Andrew G. Jordan and Jeremy J. Richardson’s (1983) and Singer’s (1990) policy communities; in the policy networks from David Marsh and Roderick A. W. Rhodes (1992), Martin J. Smith (1993), Keith Dowding (1995) and Mark Tatcher (1998); and in Emery M. Roe’s (1998) narrative policy analysis. In the United States, it is the open-systems frameworks from Richard Hofferbert (1974); the issue networks by Hugh Heclo (1978); the innovation and diffusion models like the one by Everett M. Rogers (1983), applied by Frances Stokes Berry and William Berry (1990; 1992; 2007); the multiple streams framework by John Kingdon (1984) and Nikolaos Zahariadis (2007); the public advocacy coalitions from Paul A. Sabatier (1988) and Hank Jenkins-Smith (1993); the policy paradigms by Peter A. Hall (1993); the punctuated-equilibrium theory applied to political science by Frank R. Baumgartner and Bryan D. Jones (1993); the road maps, or focal points & glue by Judith Goldstein and Robert Keohane (1993); Katzenstein’s national traditions (1996); the public phi- losophies or public sentiments by Campbell (1998; 2004); Berman’s programmatic beliefs (1998); Blyth’s strategic weapons (2002); the collective memories by Rothstein (2005); Nicolas Jabko’s strategic constructions (2006); or the discursive institutionalism by Vivien A. Schmidt (2008, 2012), which is closely linked to the Grenoble school. Among these different approaches, the explanatory theory (Yin, 1989/2003b, pp. 20-22; cf. chapter I.4 of this book) – or the tentative theory (Popper, 1994, p. 79) – adopted in our investigation is the public policy reference frame one as presented by Jobert & Muller (1987) and reflected, namely, by Jobert (1992), Faure et al. (1995), Mériaux (1995), Smith (1995), Muller (2005) or Leca & Muller (2008)5 . As will be shown in the course of this study, the reason for this choice resides in the comprehensive capacity of that approach, in the nature and adequacy of the concepts it incorporates and in the explanatory capacity it possesses. It is a “good theory” in the sense given by Evera (1997): «Largeexplanatorypower…elucidatebysimplifying…is“satisfying”…clearlyframed… falsifiable… explains important phenomena… has prescriptive richness.» (pp. 17-21) 5  Zittoun & Demongeot (2010) signed the origins of this school to the beginning of the 80s, to Lucien Nizard and the team of the Centre de Recherche sur le Politique, l’Administration, la Ville et le Territoire (CERAT) at the Institut d’Études Politiques de l’Université de Grenoble, very involved in the critical analysis of Michel Crozier’s functionalist approach (see Leca & Jobert, 1980), and later developed by Jobert & Muller (1987).
  36. 36. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 40 One agrees with Surel (2006) in this aspect when he compares it with Hall’s para- digms or Sabatier’s advocacy coalition frameworks: «Both undoubtedly bear less attention to the importance of cognitive and nor- mative variable in the explanation of elaboration and implementation of public policy than Bruno Jobert and Pierre Muller.» (p. 84) The reference frame theory underlines not only that attention but also develops it in concepts and analysis units that are particularly enlightening. The construction of a new public policy frame of reference comes from a joint process that Muller desig- nates as mediation (see Muller, 1995), where several mediators are involved, operating in forums, places where such construction is developed, discussed and operated, a process through which are created «political conditions for the definition of a new social interest expression space, from a frame of reference which is simultaneously nor- mative and cognitive in which the different actors will be able to mobilize resources and firm alliances or conflicts.» (p. 161). In the scope of public policy the new way of thinking and intervening that results is formed in a «new conception of public action in the sector» (p. 156), gifted of «a struc- ture of sense that allows thinking about the change in its different dimensions» (idem). That mediation dynamics is developed through four units of analysis that Muller designates as «levels of perception of the world» (p.158), values, norms, algorithms and images: «Values are the most fundamental representations... about what is good and evil, desirable and rejectable»; «the norms define the differences between the real un- derstood and the real wanted»; «the algorithms are the causal relations which ex- press a theory of action»; «the images... make immediate sense without going through a long discursive course... they constitute a central element of a frame of reference.» (pp. 158 and 159) These four units gather themselves according to two pairs of dimensions «which is of absolute importance to bear in mind together if one wants to under- stand the mediation process in its whole» (p. 163). The first one is the pair cogni- tive dimension/normative dimension. In its cognitive dimension, the mediation processes «help to understand the world» (p. 164), in the normative one, «they define the criteria which allow to act on the world, in other words, the different public policy’ goals» (p. 164). The second pair of dimensions is the intellectual field/power field. In the intellectual field, in a process of word taking, the “production of sense” happens; in the field of power and of power taking, the «structure of a force field» is developed. Jobert (1992) on his side adds one more dimension to the reference frame and clarifies their meaning:
  37. 37. PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS 41 «the cognitive dimension – the reference frame gives problems to be solved the elements of causal interpretation; the normative dimension – the reference frame defines the values which have to be respected for dealing with such problems; the instrumental dimension – the reference frame defines the principles that should guide the action, under that knowledge and those values.» (pp. 220-221) In these diverse perspectives the whole set incorporated by this reference frame no- tion (figure I.1), mostly articulated in its diverse components – or interspersed, as Colomb (2009) states (entremêlé; p. 3) – and resulting from the interaction of its me- diators, «is not only speech or ideas… it is ideas in action» (Muller, 1995, p. 161) or as Jobert (1992) states, «a process of social reality modelling» (p. 220). And Schmidt (2008), speaking about discourse, adds: «Discourse is not just ideas or “text” (what is said) but also context (where, when, how, and why it was said). The term refers not only to structure (what is said, or where and how) but also to agency (who said what to whom).» (p. 305) Figure I.1 A reference framework REFERENCE frame MEDIATION VALUES COGNITIVE DIMENSION NORMATIVE DIMENSION INSTRUMENTAL DIMENSION POWER FIELD INTELECTUAL FIELD IMAGES NORMS ALGORITHMS MEDIATORS REFERENCE FRAME
  38. 38. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 42 As a system of beliefs, a frame of reference is also a strategic approach, where a mul- tiplicity of agents constantly intervenes, and which cannot be reduced to a merely discursive process. And even beyond the strategic and active, a public policy frame of reference becomes involved in the wider scope of the State’s legitimacy before its citizens when preserving, renovating or searching such legitimacy, as a set of social, political and economical rights, of participation rules in political life and values that determine the relationship State/citizens (see Jenson et al., 2007). Colomb (2009) signals that «taking into account the legitimating dimension allows one to understand precisely the frame of reference significances» (p. 4). In this aspect, Muller (2005) has advanced, since the start of his reference frame theoretical formula- tion, with the concept of a global reference frame, besides the sectorial references, that being understood not like a «perfectly unified cognitive and normative structure that would impose itself mechanically to the conjunct of social life’s domains» (p. 177), but as «a kind of “hard core” which corresponds to the heart of the dominant vision in a given moment strongly articulated at the value level» (p. 177). This is something similar to the deep core beliefs of the public advocacy coalitions in Sabatier & Jenkins- Smith (1993). There are indeed many points of contact between the reference frame theory and the approach of Sabatier & Jenkins-Smith, allowing a comparative analysis of the research process developed here with others who directly support the approach of those authors. In short, the goal of this research on the emergence and evolution of a social mar- keting frame of reference in a specific national public policy is to evaluate our hypothesis (that it is a significant cognitive process that develops itself for the emergence, affirma- tion and implementation of a new political and social reality modelling), testing in an appropriate case the theoretical approach mentioned, and searching to extract from our research a cognitive model of social marketing in national public policy. I.3. The resurgence of case study research The selection of the method that will submit the mentioned tentative theory to experimentation and critical analysis is obviously an essential step of this investiga- tion, which should be articulated with the nature of this study’s primordial question: how and why a new social marketing frame of reference in national public policy ap- pears, processes and develops itself? Facing this question, it is almost natural to evoke Robert Yin’s (1984/2003a) position: «In general, case studies are preferred strategy when “how” or “why” questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context.» (p. 1) This preference is reinforced by that author’s definition for this kind of research:
  39. 39. PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS 43 «A case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenome­ non within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenom- enon and context are not clearly evident.» (p. 13) In this sense, adopting the case study research as our main method depends deeply on posed questions and on the investigator’s position on the object of study, which in the present study is quite adequate. The “how” and the “why” are our primordial ques- tions, even if this investigation isn’t limited to a merely descriptive frame but rather integrated in what Evera (1997) states as one of the great strengths of the case method: «If case study evidence supports a hypothesis, the investigator can then explore the case further to deduce and test explanations detailing the operation of the hypothesis.» (p. 54) If one considers, as Collier & Ellman (2008), that we have recently been watch- ing, especially after 2007’s economical crisis, a resurgence in qualitative studies – which Dinzon & Lincoln (2005) come to designate as “the qualitative revolution” (p. ix) , we have to include in it the significant development of the case study research methodology, well explicit in the edition of some important works, among which The Sage Handbook of Case-Based Methods published by Byrne & Ragin (2009), with its focus on the importance of cases as «instances of a particular situation or set of circumstances» (p. 1); or the Encyclopedia of Case Study Research published by Mills, Eurepos & Wiebe (2010), with a wide concept and experiences review, «combining entries from across the social sciences and humanities, and encouraging work from across the methodological traditions» (p. xxxi). For those academic fields and situations where the case study research was con- fronted (and still is confronted) with the opposition of numerous arguments and, let us call them prejudices, the whole debate taking place over the last few years, the evidence and consistency of the published approaches have come to significantly enrich this methodological process. In the specific plan of political science, Bennett & Ellman (2006) and Byrne et al. (2009) have done clear reviews of the adoption of the case study method, where one aspect is especially underlined, like Olsen & Duggan (2009) have signalled: «The experience of the researchers is that quantitative knowledge cannot work without a narrative… there is a major turn to qualitative work in part because it provides narratives.» (p. 519) This underlining of the narrative’s importance is, moreover, consonant with the growing attention to the studies on storytelling as an instrument of research and approach (see McKee, 1997; Guber, 2007) in subjects as distinct as political sci-
  40. 40. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 44 ence (see Jackson, 2006; Polletta, 2006; Polletta, 2008) or management (see Boje, 2008c), pinpointing new concepts as antenarrative (see Boje, 2008b), meaningful whole (see Czarniawska, 1999), emotional effect (see Gabriel, 2000), in situ narratives (see O’Connor, 2002), co-producing (see Denning, 2002) or storytelling organizations (see. Boje, 2008a). This focus on the narrative and storytelling is another factor to privilege the case study research, given its undeniable capacity to incorporate and generate those approaches. While opting for the case study research method, our whole investigation was based on O’Donnell’s (2007) statement: «Claims that any single methodology may offer the answer to everything are preposterous» (p. 303). And even if it is also absurd to completely reject the capacities of the case study research, both in the descriptive and the explanatory plan, the debate on its scientific validity still makes sense as a methodology as does the debate on all the other research methods, especially when one intends to apply them. I.4 Theory’s priority role The steps shown earlier about the existence of an explanatory theory – the public policy frame of reference – clears the previous role of the theory in the development of a case study research. Like Yin (1984/2003a) points out: «(The) role of theory development, prior to the conduct of any data collection, is one point of difference between case studies and related methods such as eth- nography (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, 1986; Van Maanen, 1988: Van Maanen et al., 1982) and “grounded theory” (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Typically, these related methods deliberately avoid specifying any theoretical propositions at the outset of an inquiry… Among other considerations, the relevant field contacts depend on an understanding – or theory – of what is being studied… For case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study’s purpose is to develop or test theory. (p. 28) Whether it is like a blueprint for the case study, or as «a (hypothetical) story about why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur» (Sutton & Staw, 1995, p. 378), or whether it is still like more than a story, like a factor or explanatory theory (see Yin, 1989), to establish a case study in one or in a group of theoretical approaches «will provide surprisingly strong guidance in determining what data to collect and the strategies for analysing the data» (Yin, 1984/2003a, p. 29). In line with Harry Eck- stein (1975) or Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett (2004), «the use of theory, in doing case studies, is not only an immense aid in defining the appropriate research design and data collection but also becomes the main vehicle for generalizing the results of the case study» (Yin, 1984/2003a, p. 33).
  41. 41. PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS 45 One thus diverges, as Yin did, from the positions that totally eliminate the re- source to any previous theory, specifically from the grounded theory positions (see Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss, 1987; Strauss & Corbin, 1990) or from Kathleen M. Eisenhardt’s (1989; 2007), both inductive, even if the last one considers the pos- sibility of apriori constructs (Eisenhardt, 1989, p. 533) and doesn’t stand any incom- patibility with deductive approaches: «In fact, inductive and deductive logics are mirrors of one another, with inductive theory building from cases producing new theory from data and deductive theory testing completing the cycle by using data to test theory.» (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007, p. 25) This author’s roadmap «for building theories from case study research» (Eisenhardt, 1989, p. 532) is very useful for studies like ours, when it is about adopting multiple data collecting methods, combining qualitative and quantitative processes, data triangu- lation, within-case analysis, interactive tabulation and comparisons between similar and conflicting literature, with the main purpose of reaching a stronger grounding for the hypothesis, or – in our case – reaching a coherent deduction from the explanatory theory. I.5 A crucial case Choosing a case to study is a decisive step in this kind of research and its criteria should correctly be put ahead – and in first place should be the main reason for choosing a unique case. Joe R. Feagin understands that «a case study is... defined as an in-depth, multifaceted investigation, using qualitative research methods, of a single case phenome­ non» (Feagin et al., 1991, p. 2). However, this reduction by definition to a single case and to exclusive qualitative methods isn’t presently accepted by many investigators. As in the present study, choosing a unique case is optional and not compulsory. To select this case, as John Gerring (2008) points, «case-selection procedures in case study research may build upon prior cross-case analysis and that they depend, at the very least, upon certain assumptions about the broader population» (p. 646). In our specific case that prior cross-case analysis was led and introduced in Santos (2008), and we will go back to it in chapter IV.7. Its assumptions resulted from the goal and main question posed by the investiga- tion – therefore, the mentioned population gathered the countries where national social marketing policy and organizations existed dependent on government. What implicates that important social, academic or professional organizations haven’t been considered.6 6  Among them the Social Marketing Institute (Washington, United States), The Turning Point So- cial Marketing National Excellence Collaborative (United States), Florida Prevention Research Center (University of South Florida, United States), Weinreich Communications (Washington, United States),
  42. 42. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 46 The sample resulting from that option was thorough and included Canada, New Zealand, United States and England7 , with the previously mentioned organizations – the Health Canada Social Marketing Unit (currently its functions were divided by several Health Canada’s branches like Healthy Environments and Consumer Safe- ty, Health Products and Food or Communications and Public Affairs), the Health Sponsorship Council (currently Health Promotion Agency), the National Center for Health Marketing (currently Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC’s Gateway to Communication & Social Marketing Practice) and the National Social Marketing Centre. Each of these cases has four necessary characteristics susceptible of embodying the aimed analysis units: –– a national dimension; –– the existence of a more or less wider national social marketing policy; –– the existence of at least one organization resulting from that policy; –– the existence of actions resulting from that policy. At the beginning of this research, in 2004, to select from among those cases, we needed to consider other important aspects like: –– to be recent and able to directly observe its evolution; –– to be headquartered in a European country should be considered as an advantage, whether on how its study might imply in the diffusion and implementation of social marketing in Europe, or on better proximity, access and relationship condi- tions. On the other side, following Harry Eckstein’s (1975) classification developed by Gerring (2008) and given this research’s goal, the case chosen would have to be cru- cial, or, «one “that must closely fit a theory if one is to have confidence in the theory’s validity”… a case is crucial in a somewhat weaker – but much more common-sense when it is most, or least, likely to fulfil a theoretical prediction» (Eckstein, 1975, cit. by Gerring, 2008, p. 659). It is clear that in the research’s early phase, «the task of case selection is usually handled by some version of randomization» (Gerring, 2008, p. 645). In this selection of a case, some may pose the problem of its representativeness. Repeating ­Gerring, the case should, in the course of this investigation, mostly show that «closely fit a theory». Eisenhardt & Graebner (2007) hold an identical position: Canadian Social Marketing Association (Canada), Tools of Change (Canada), Centre for Social Mar- keting Research (University of Wollongong, Australia), Institute for Social Marketing (Stirling Univer- sity, Scotland) or Dr. Foster Holdings LLP (England). 7  At the beginning of this study, another possibility on that sample, the Australia National Preventa- tive Health Agency, founded in 2010, did not exist.
  43. 43. PART I STUDYING A PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS 47 «Theoretical sampling simply means that cases are selected because they are par- ticularly suitable for illuminating and extending relationships and logic among constructs.» (p. 27) Bearing all these criteria in mind, the selected case for this investigation project was the British one. It has a national dimension; involves a wide social marketing national strategy, including an organization resulting from that policy that is still ac- tive; has a recent origin and is still running, which meant that it could be observed since its evolution; and because of being set in an European country, it has proxim- ity, access and relationship conditions. On the other hand, the fundamental reason was that the course of this investigation has shown that this was an enlightening case for the demonstration of our hypothesis and the explanatory theory that supports it. The research has thus sought to show and analyse how the process that generated that policy had a cognitive basis, which through a specific and diversified mediation led to the creation of a new frame of reference, the British national public policy on social marketing with numerous implications, activities and with significant results. The National Social Marketing Centre was, as I have shown, the main way to access this research through the recollection of its members’ testimonies, of semi-structured interviews, its documentation’s research and following some of its activities. I did several interviews with Jeff French (Director, current CEO of Strategic So- cial Marketing company), John Bromley (European Advisor, current NSMC Co- Director), Clive Blair-Stevens (Deputy Director), Patrick Ladbury (Communica- tions Programme Manager, current NSMC Co-Director), Rowena Merrit (Local Practitioner Development Manager, current Head of Research), Dominic McVey (Research Programme Manager), Chris Holmes (Development), Alex Christopou- los (Project Officer), Paul White (Standards and Learning), Denise Ong (Project Officer), Marie Meredith (Senior Regional Manager), Lucy Reynolds (ShowCase Database), Steve Menzies (International Advisor), Emmet Giltrap (London Regional Manager) and Aiden Truss (Communications). Among NSMC’s activities, I directly participated in several team meetings, be- tween 2007 and 2010, the works of the National Occupational Standards for Social Marketing Workshops and Evaluation (2007-2010), just like the National Learning Demonstration Sites meetings (Social Marketing Project Breast Cancer Prevention Demosite, Tameside & Glossop, Manchester, 2008; and Social Marketing Project Increase Physical Activity Levels, Hattersley, Manchester, 2008), the Regional Pro- gramme Final Review, the National Learning Demonstration Sites Project Report or the evaluation programme Value for Money tool, besides the participation in the National Social Marketing Conference (Oxford, 2007) and in the World Social Mar- keting Conferences (Brighton, 2008 and Dublin, 2011), organized by the NSMC or by the Strategic Social Marketing company founded by Jeff French. Through the NSMC, the access to the British government’s Department of
  44. 44. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE 48 Health (DoH) was possible, as was their available documentation and interviews with some of its members like Fiona Adshead (Department of Health, Deputy Chief Medical Officer and Chief Government Advisor on Inequalities), Julie Alexander (Department of Health, Head of Social Marketing and Health-Related Behaviour, Public Health Strategy, Social Marketing and Sexual Health Improvement and Pro- tection Directorate), and Mehboob Umarji (Department of Health, Head of Social Marketing and Health-Related Behaviour, Public Health Strategy Group). I could follow several DoH’s connected activities such as the Social Marketing and Health- Related Behaviour, Public Health Strategy Meetings (2007-2009), the Social Mar- keting within Public Health Regional Settings (2008-2009) and the Social Market- ing for Health and Specialized Health Promotion Meetings (2008-2009), besides the definition of the Healthy Foundations Life-Stage Segmentation Model (2010). All along this extensive work the analysis of the collected data has taken place ac- cording to the methodological criteria of a crucial case study typology, developed ac- cording to Evera’s (1997, pp. 58-67) two main procedures: congruence procedures (see George, 1979) and process tracing (see George & McKeown, 1985; King et al., 1994): «When using congruence procedures the investigator explores the case looking for congruence or incongruence between values observed on the independent and de- pendent variable and values predicted by the test hypothesis.» (Evera, 1997, p. 58) «In process tracing the investigator explores the chain of events or the decision- making process by which initial cases conditions are translated into case out- comes.» (Evera, 1997, p. 64) Because it was a work spread through time, a systematic critical appreciation and evaluation has been searched, through public presentation and element discus- sion, whether conceptual or empirical. I have developed several papers and presenta- tions like Santos (2006a); Santos (2006b); Santos (2006c); Santos (2007a); Santos (2007b); Santos (2008a); Santos (2008b); and Santos (2011). Previously in the field of this investigation, I had published Santos (2002) and in its course the Portuguese edition of the book Melhorar a Vida: Um Guia de Marketing Social (Improving Life, A Social Marketing Guide; Santos et al., 2004, republished in 2012).
  45. 45. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 236 Name Index
  46. 46. 237 SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE Adkins, S. 106, 199 Adshead, F. 29, 48, 143–147, 230 Ajzen, I. 122, 199, 209 Akers, R. L. 122, 199 Alderson, W. 70, 88–94, 199, 206, 212 Aldridge, S. 212 Alexander, J. 29, 48, 143, 147 Allender, S. 171, 199 Allison, G. 68, 200 Almond, G. A. 56, 77, 113, 158, 194, 199, 200 American Marketing Association 15, 97, 100, 101, 123, 200 Andreasen, A. R. 24, 29, 36, 52, 62, 71, 77, 94, 103, 105–107, 115, 117, 119, 123, 125, 149, 187, 191, 200, 203, 217, 228 Angelmar, R. 235 Angus, K. 71, 211, 213, 231 Anker, T. B. 213 Antonovsky, A. 131, 200 Apfel, F. 210 Armitage, D. 54, 201, 226 Arndt, J. 207, 213 Ashton, J. 135, 231 Asimov, Isaac 19, 201 Asimov, Janet 201 Association for Higher Studies of Enterprise 15, 30 Atalaia, J. 229 Atkin, C. K. 228, 231, 233 Atto, W. J. 67, 227 Australia National Preventative Health Agency 46, 157 Australian Association of Social Marketing 15, 124, 215 Auvergnon, P. 201, 215 Baggott, R. 136, 201 Bagozzi, R. P. 70, 88, 91, 93, 99, 100, 122, 201, 209 Baker, M. J. 79, 88, 201, 213, 215, 230 Bandura, A. 122, 201 Barber, B. 51, 201 Barel, Y. 161, 201 Barksdale, H. C. 201, 226 Barngrover, M. 145, 201 Bartels, R. 82, 83, 87, 88, 90, 93, 97, 201 Barzelay, M. 69, 201 Bass, F. M. 89, 200 Bates, C. 212 Baudrillard, J. 92, 202 Bauman, A. J. 175, 204 Baumgartner, F. R. 39, 202, 233 Beales, G. 212 Bean, J. 51, 202 Beckman, T. N. 89, 202
  47. 47. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 238 Bell, B. 132, 158, 202 Bell, D. 69, 202, 216 Bell, S. 225 Belshaw, C. S. 70, 202 Bennett, A. 43, 44, 202, 211 Bennett, C. J. 194, 202 Benson, D. 194, 202 Bentham, J. 55, 56, 67, 202, 218 Berlin, I. 54, 202 Berman, S. 39, 202 Bernhardt, J. 182, 187, 202 Bernstein, H. 177, 187, 202 Berry, F. S. 39, 202 Berry, W. D. 202 Bibeau, D. 221 Bigné, E. 222 Bion, W. R. 122, 202 Black, D. 136, 137, 138, 187 Blackwell, R. D. 209 Blair, J. E. 202 Blair, T. 137, 143, 177, 187 Blair-Stevens, C. 29, 47, 105, 107, 116, 121–123, 140. 142–147, 159, 191, 202, 204, 210, 219, 223, 231 Blanton, H. 211 Bliss, P. 199, 202 Bloom, P. N. 36, 52, 106, 202, 207, 219 Blum, H. 109, 203 Blyth, M. 39, 203 Boddewyn, J. 88, 90, 203 Boje, D. 44, 203 Boone, L. E. 83, 203 Borden, N. H. 88, 90, 203 Bouckaert, G. 69, 227 Boussaguet, L. 203, 226, 232 Box-Steffensmeier, J. M. 203, 205, 211 Brady, H. E. 203 Brenkert, G. G. 72, 203 Breslin, S. 212 Breyer, R. F. 88, 89, 92, 203 British United Provident Association 15, 136, 143 Brittan, S. 203 Broadbent, D. 38, 203 Broadbent, J. 216 Bromley, J. 29, 47, 180, 203, 249, 250, 334 Brooke Bond Tea Company 36 Brown, A. 213 Brown, G. 177, 178, 187 Brown, K. M. 29 Brownlie, D. 88, 92, 203 Brussière, D. 82, 203 Brutscher, P.-B. 227 Bryant, C. 29, 119, 213, 217 Buchanan, D. R. 203 Buchanan, J. 203 Bucklin, L. P. 90, 203 Bullock, H. 204 Bulsara, K. 140, 204 Bunton, D. 189, 204 Bunton, R. 132, 204, 219 Butler, R. S. 88, 89, 204 Buzzell, R. D. 89, 204 Byrne, D. 43, 204 Cabinet Office 177, 178, 187, 204, 212, 222 Caldwell, B. 56, 57, 204 Caldwell, M. A. 175, 204 Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation 30 Cameron, D. 37, 175, 179, 187 Campbell, J. L. 39, 204 Canadian Social Marketing Association 46 Caplowitz, D. 92, 204 Carman, J. M. 97, 204 Caspary, W. R. 204 Cavill, N. 175, 204 CDCynergy 11, 118, 119, 120, 121, 204, 205 CEBI Foundation 15, 25, 30, 230 Celia, C. 227 Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion 15, 25, 46, 118, 157, 159, 223
  48. 48. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX 239 Central Office of Communication 177, 204 Central Office of Information 15, 149, 168, 170, 173, 178–179, 187, 204, 205, 211, 225 Centre de Recherche sur le Politique, l’Administration, la Ville et le Territoire 15, 39 Centre for Social Marketing Research 46 Cheng, H. 205, 218 Cherington, P. T. 88, 89, 205 Chomsky, N. 51, 75, 76, 205 Christ Church College 23 Christensen, T. 69, 205 Christopoulos, A. 29, 47, 202 Citizens Advice 37 Citizens Advice Scotland 37 Clark, F. 88, 89, 205 Clemens, M. 233 Coakes, E. 145, 205 Collier, D. 43, 203, 205 Colomb, F. 41, 42, 205 Comello, M. L. G. 216 Cometti, J.-P. 64, 205 Commaille, J. 205, 215 Conklin, A. 227 Consumer Focus 15, 37, 156, 160, 187, 203, 250, 334 Consumer Futures 37 Converse, P. D. 82, 86, 88, 89, 205, 206 Copeland, M. P. 88, 89, 206 Corbin, J. 44, 45, 232 Correia, L. 4, 30 Cosford, P. 177, 202 Coulam, R. 206, 211 Cox, R. 199, 206, 212 Craig, R. T. 122, 206 Croly, H. 67, 206 Czarniawska, B. 44, 206 Dabbs, J. M. Jr. 233 Dahl, R. 70, 193, 206 Dahrendorf, R. 206 Dalkir, K. 145, 146, 206 Dann, S. 123, 206 Deaton, A. 235 Debord, G. 84, 206 Deeds, S. G. 212 DeLeon, P. 68, 195, 206 Demongeot, B. 39, 235 Denning, S. 44, 206 Denzin, N. K. 206 Department for Business Innovation & Skills 37 Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 15, 168, 170 Department of Health 15, 29, 37, 48, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 177, 179, 180, 181, 187, 190, 207, 208, 214, 227, 228, 249, 250, 252, 260, Department of Health and Social Security 15, 136, 207 Dervis, K. 235 Dewey, J. 64–68, 75, 76, 204, 205, 206 Dholakia, N. 207, 209, 213 Dholakia, R. R. 207 DiClemente, C. C. 122, 227 DiMaggio, P. J. 190, 207 Dix, L. F. 214 Dixon, D. F. 82, 90, 207 Dolan, P. 204 Dolowitz, D. 194, 202, 208 Domegan, C. 213 Donaldson, L. 143, 144 Donovan, R. 24, 29, 52, 62, 71, 77, 115, 121, 122, 208, 213 Dorfman, L. 233 Douglas, J. 208, 210 Douglas, M. 92, 208 Dowding, K. 39, 190, 208
  49. 49. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 240 Dr. Foster Holdings LLP 46, 169 Drumwright, M. E. 125, 200 Dryzek, J. S. 73, 208 Duarte, J. T. 4, 30 Duggan, S. 43, 204 Dumas, A. 145, 146, 208 Duncan, C. S. 88, 89, 208 Earle, S. 208 Easterly, W. 235 Eckstein, H. 44, 46, 191, 208 Edwards, R. 216 Eisenhardt, K. M. 45, 46, 191, 208 Elder, J. P. 122, 208 Eliassen, K. 209, 221 Elliott, B. J. 209, 213 Elman, C. 202, 205 Engel, J. F. 88, 91, 209 Engels, F. 209, 221 Eurepos, G. 43, 222 European Central Bank 15, 36 European Commission European Social Marketing Association 15, 124, 215 European Transport Safety Council 15, 36, 209 Evera, S. V. 39, 43, 48, 209 Ewing, M. T. 209, 221 Fairclough N. 171, 209 Falkowki, S. 209, 211 Farnham, J. 177, 179, 205 Faulkner, R. R. 233 Faure, A. 38, 39, 209, 221, 222, 226, 231, 232, 233 Fayol. H. 67, 68, 209 Feagin, J. R. 45, 191, 209 Ferlie, E. 68, 209, 214, 220, 221 Festinger, I. 122, 209 Fine, S. 209 Firat, A. F. 88, 92, 209 Fischer, F. 209, 230 Fishbein, M. 122, 209, 211 Fisk, G. 88, 90, 92, 207, 209 Flint, C. 143 Flora, J. A. 36, 106, 219 Florida Prevention Research Center 45 Forester, J. 209, 230 Forsé, M. 35, 221 Foucault, M. 92, 209 Fourali, C. 77, 162, 209 Fox, K. 210 Fox, S. 82, 210 Frank, R. E. 89, 210 Franklin, B. A. K. 219 French, J. 11, 29, 33, 36, 47, 55, 62, 63, 105, 107, 116, 117, 121, 122, 123, 133, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 159, 163, 164, 179, 180, 191, 202, 210, 212, 219, 223, 224, 231, 233, 235 Friedman, M. 125, 210 Fryer, B. 221 Fullerton, R. A. 79, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 93, 210, Gabriel, Y. 44, 210 Gaebler, T. 225 Galbraith, J. K. 92, 211, 227 Gardner, D. M. 230 Garrett, D. E. 88, 230 Gassenheimer, J. B. 70, 214 Gearion, S. A. N. 219 Geller, E. S. 208 General Consumer Council for Northern Ireland 37 George, A. L. 44, 48, 211, Gerrard, M. 211 Gerring, J. 45, 46, 191, 211 Gibbons, F. X. 122, 211 Gil, C. 229 Gilovich, T. 211 Giltrap, E. 29, 47 Giraud, O. 39, 211, 218 Glanz, K. 121, 122, 221, 228 Glaser, B. 45, 211
  50. 50. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX 241 Glecker, E. A. 124, 211 Goldberg, M. E. 109, 110, 115, 187, 200, 211 Goldstein, J. 39, 211 Gomes, F. F. 30 Goodin, R. E. 68, 193, 200, 211, 222 Goodspeed, T. 204 Goossens, J. 233 Gordon, R. 37, 110, 175, 210, 211, 231 Government Communication Network 177, 205, 225 Government Office for Science 171, 211, 233 Goyard-Fabre, S. 55, 65, 212 Grabbe, P. 73, 219 Graebner, M. E. 45, 46, 208 Graham, P. 92, 100, 212 Grant, A. J. 212 Gray, J. 212 Green, L. W. 122, 212 Green, P. 199 Green, P. E. 91, 212 Greene, M.R. 201 Greenstein, F. I. 208, 212 Grether, E. T. 88, 89, 212 Griffin, D. 211 Guba, E. G. 44, 219 Guber, P. 43, 212 Gundlach, G. T. 203, 207, 219 Gunther, R. 51, 212 Hague, B. N. 108, 212 Hague, R. 156 Halbert, M. 79, 199, 212 Hall, P. A. 39, 40, 212 Hallsworth, M. 204 Halpern, D. 137, 204, 212 Handsely, S. 208 Hanley, D. 71, 212 Harrison, L. E. 212, 215 Harrop, M. 212 Harvey, P. D. 36, 212 Hastings, G. B. 24, 29, 62, 63, 64, 71, 106, 110, 115, 121, 143, 146, 147, 208, 210, 212, 213, 220, 225, 230 Hayek, F. A. 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 204, 212, 213 Haywood, A. 106, 213 Health Canada Social Marketing Division 15, 134, 157, 159, 187 Health Development Agency 15, 143, 144 Health Sponsorship Council 15, 36, 46, 157, 158, 159, 187, 213 Heathfield, A. 212 Heclo, H. 39, 213 Heede, S. 24, 103, 213 Heider, F. 122, 213 Helmig, B. 37, 213 Henley, N. 52, 71, 77, 208 Herring, E. P. 213 Herschel, R. T. 216 Hewitt, P. 143 Higher Institute Dom Afonso III 15, 30 Higher Institute of Business Communica- tion 15, 23, 24, 30 Higher Institute of Economic and Finan- cial Sciences 15, 23 Higher Institute of Labour and Enterprise Sciences 15, 24, 30 Higher Institute of Languages and Ad- ministration 15, 30 Higher Institute of Social and Political Sciences 15, 30 Hill, G. C. 70, 221 Hill, M. 38, 158, 190, 191, 195, 214 Hofferbert, R. 39, 214 Hollander, S. C. 82, 83, 85, 88, 214, 232 Holmes, C. 29, 47 Holt, R. 203, 232 Hood, C. 51, 70, , 214 Hossain, Z. 203 House of Lords 141, 142, 177, 178, 187, 214
  51. 51. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 242 Houston, F. S. 70, 214 Hovell, M. F. 208 Howard, J. R. 88, 91, 214 Howell, A. W. 223 Hume, D. 54, 55, 56, 59, 62, 214 Hunt, S. D. 88, 91, 92, 97, 214 Huntington, S. 212, 215 Hupe, P. 158, 195, 214 Hussey, L. 51, 202 Hyman, H. H. 108, 214 Iacobucci, D. 214, 230 Iggers, G. C. 83, 215 Immergut, E. M. 158, 190, 191, 215 Inglehart, R. 158, 215 Ingram, H. 73, 215 International Monetary Fund 15, 36, 81 International Social Marketing Associa- tion 15, 124, 215 Institute for Government 178, 204 Institute for Public and Social Policy 15, 30 Institute for Social Marketing 16, 46, 143, 144, 220 Isherwood, B. 92, 208 Ito, T. 235 Jabko, N. 39, 215 Jackson, M. 44, 215 Jacquot, S. 203 Jain, D. C. 217 James, O. 194, 215 James, W. 63, 64, 67, 215 Jarvis, S. 143, 144, 145 Jenkins-Smith, H. 39, 42, 228 Jenson, J. 42, 215 Jobert, B. 38–41, 129, 130, 131, 137, 141, 147, 149, 153, 161, 168, 176, 185, 186, 189, 192, 205, 215, 218 Jock, K. E. 70, 227 John, P. 190, 215 Johnson, S. 122, 215 Joly, K. 132, 202 Jones, B. D. 39, 202, 233 Jones, B. J. 93, 215 Jones, D. G. B. 79, 83, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 103, 207, 214, 215, 216, 230 Jones, L. R. 216 Jones, N. B. 145, 216 Jordan, A. 194, 202 Jordan, A.. G. 39, 216 Jumper-Thurman, P. 216 Kahneman, D. 177, 211, 216 Katzenstein, P. J. 39, 216 Kaufmann-Osborn, T. V. 68, 216 Keble College 11, 23, 25 Keeling, D. 68, 216 Keith, R. J. 82–88, 90, 216 Kelley, E. J. 218 Kelly, K. 122, 216 Keohane, R. 39, 211, 216 Kickert, W. J. M. 216, 217 King, A. 213, 216 King, D. 204 King, G. 216 Kingdon, J. 216 Kinnear, T. C. 216, 233 Kirp, D. L. 51, 216 Kissinger, H. 68, 216 Klein, N. 92, 216 Klingemann, H.-D. 200, 211, 223, 226 Knoke, D. 39, 216 Kollat, D. T. 209 König, K. 69, 216 König, T. 226 Kooiman, J. 68, 209, 217, 221 Kotler, P. 11, 24, 29, 35, 36, 51, 62, 69, 70, 71, 76, 88, 90, 91, 94–101, 103–106, 108, 111, 116, 118, 123, 124, 125, 132, 182, 187, 205, 210, 217, 218, 230 Kozlowski, S. W. J. 223 Kremer, M. 81, 217 Kreuter, M. W. 212 Kuehn, A. A. 210
  52. 52. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX 243 Kuhn, T. 131, 218 Kurtz D. L. 83, 203 Laczniak, G. R. 218 Ladbury, P. 29, 47 Laegreid, P. 69, 205 Lagarde, F. 132, 134, 218 Lage, M. 222 Lalonde, M. 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 157, 187, 218 Laski, H. J. 218 Lasswell, H. D. 68, 218, 219 Latham, G.P. 122, 219 Lawlor, E. 204 Lawther, S. 218 Layton, R. A. 92, 218 Lazer, W. 88, 90, 201, 218 Le Galès, P. 218, 219 Le Net, M. 11, 111–114, 218 Leca, J. 39, 218 Lee, A 117, 222 Lee, J. 226 Lee, N. 29, 51, 69, 105, 106, 115, 116, 123, 124, 125, 182, 205, 210, 217, 218 Lefebvre, R. C. 29, 36, 106, 218, 219 Lehmbruch, G. 39, 219 Lerner, D. 68, 218, 219 Levitt, T. 85, 219 Levy, S. J. 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 101, 217 Lewin, K. 11, 73, 74, 75, 101, 219 Lewis, E. H. 89, 219 Lincoln, Y. S. 43, 44, 206, 219 Lindblom, C. E. 110, 219 Lindenberger, J. 29, 119 Lindon, D. 51, 219 Lindsteadt, J. F. 219 Ling, J. C. 219 Lippitt, R. 73, 219, 234 Lister, G. 36, 175, 219, 225 Lloyd, C. E. 208 Loader, B. D. 108, 212 Locke, E. A. 122, 219 Locke, J. 54, 55, 56, 60, 218, 220 Lodge, M. 194, 215 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 16, 175, Lopes, N. 229 Lopes, O. 108, 220 Lowi, T. J. 220 Lowry, R. 218 Lucas Jr., R. E. 81, 220 Luck, D. 97, 220 Lusch, R. F. 218 Lynn Jr., L. 51, 70, 209, 220 Maarek, P. 51, 220 Macdonald, G. 132, 204, 219 MacFadyen, L. 106, 117, 220 MacIntyre, A. 65, 220 Mackie, T. 156, 220 MacLaran, P. 79, 80, 82, 201, 209, 215, 218, 220, 222, 226, 230 Maesingee, S. 217 Magee, B. 220 Majone, G. 39, 220 Mallen, B. E. 89, 220 Maltez, J. A. 30 Mannheim, K. 61, 220 Manoff, R. K. 36, 71, 220 Manrai, A. K. 222 Maranga, A. 229 March, J. G. 190, 220 Marketing Sales and Standard Setting Body 16, 249, 250, 306 Marketing Social Portugal Website 25, 229 Marques-Pereira, B. 215 Marsh, D. 38, 39, 135, 156, 194, 195, 202, 208 Marshall, M. V. 90, 203 Martin, P. 201 Martin, S. 51, 221 Marx, K. 60, 221 Maslow, A. H. 94, 221
  53. 53. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 244 Massy, W. F. 210 Mathiasen, D. G. 51, 69, 221 Maybury, M. 222 Mayer, J. A. 208 Mayntz, R. 39, 221 Mayo, E. 143–147 McCarthy, E. J. 88, 91, 221 McChesney, R. W. 51, 221 McCullagh, C. B. 83, 221 McDermott, L. 211, 231 McKee, R. 43, 221 McKenzie-Mohr, D. 29, 110, 221 McKeown, T. J. 48, 211 McLean, P. A. 216, 230 McLeroy, K. R. 121, 221 McMahon, L. 62, 221 McVey, D. 29, 47, 210, 219, 232 Meier, K. J. 70, 221 Mendras, H. 35, 221 Menzies, S. 29, 47 Meredith, M. 29, 47 Mériaux, O 39, 221 Merriam, C. 67, 68, 221 Merrit, R. 29, 47, 180, 210, 219, 221, 224, 225, 232 Metcalfe, L. 69, 221 Meyer, M. 54, 205, 212, 221 Miaskowski, C. 175, 204 Middlestadt, S. E. 211 Miles, M. W. 70, 88, 91, 199 Mill, J. S. 54, 55, 56, 60, 67, 156, 222 Millet, J. D. 68, 222 Mills, A. J. 43, 221 Milton, J. 54, 222 Mintz, J. 29, 157, 222 Mintzberg, H. 145, 146, 208 Misak, C. 64, 222 Moe, R. C. 69, 222 Moesel, D. D. 216 Möller, K. 91, 222 Monieson, D. D. 83, 216 Moore, E. S. 82, 88, 94, 234 Moran, M. 200, 206, 211, 215, 222 Moreira, P. K. 131, 132, 222 Morey, D. 145, 222 Mountford, J. 204 Moutinho, L. 79, 88, 93, 201, 222, 226, 234 Mughan, A. 51, 212 Mulgan, G. 117, 178, 187, 212, 222 Muller, P. 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 129, 130, 131, 133, 141, 147, 148, 149, 153, 161, 168, 176, 185, 186, 189, 192, 215, 218, 222, 223 Mullins, M. E. 145, 223 Munck, G. L. 222, 225 Muramatsu, M. 219, 223 Murphy, P. E. 218 Murray, G. 88, 93, 223 Naschold, F. 219, 223 National Center for Health Marketing 16, 46, 157, 159, 187, 223 National Consumer Council 16, 37, 139, 143, 156, 157, 160, 208, 223, 249, 250, 252 National Health Service 16, 135, 136, 137, 139, 141, 153, 162, 260, 181, 190, 234 National Institute for Health and Care Ex- cellence 16, 136, 168 National Social Marketing Centre 8, 11, 12, 16, 23, 29, 33, 36, 46, 47, 48, 118, 140, 141, 143, 144, 147–157, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164, 165, 168, 171, 173–175, 179, 180, 181, 187, 190, 203, 204, 207, 210, 219, 223, 224, 225, 249, 250, 334 National Social Marketing Strategy for Health 11, 16, 23, 37, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147, 150, 152, 155, 175, 179, 180, 181, 182, 187, 207, 225, 226, 229, 249 Neisser, U. 38, 223 Neitzert, E. 204 Nelson, B. J. 67, 193, 223 Neves, J. C. 81, 223 Nevett, T. R. 82, 86, 210, 223
  54. 54. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX 245 Newell, A. 177, 223 New University of Lisbon 16 Nicholls, J. 204 Nickels, W. G. 97, 223 Nimmo, D. 51, 232 Nirodh 36 Nizard, L. 39, 129, 223 Nonaka, I. 145, 223 Norris, P. 51, 223, Novelli, W. D. 29, 36, 52, 106, 144, 169, 203 Nystrom, P. H. 88, 89, 225 O’Connor, E. 44, 225 O’Donnell, G. 44, 71, 108, 112, 225 O’Hear, A. 61, 220, 225 Office for the Third Sector 177, 204 Office of Communication 225 Olsen, J. P. 190, 220 Olsen, W. 43, 204 Ong, D. 29, 47, 225 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 19, 69, 225 Orum, A. M. 209 Osborne, D. 225 Oxford Strategic Marketing 169, 177, 179, 208 Packard, V. 51, 92, 96, 225 Palazzo, G. 106, 225 Panigyrakis, G. C. 93, 225 Pappi F.-U. 39, 216, 226 Parker, H. T. 83, 215 Parlin, C. 88, 89, 226 Parloa, M. 11, 82, 226 Parsons, E. 82, 226 Partridge, K. B. 212 Parvatiyar, A. 92, 230 Peirce, C. S. 64, 67, 205, 225, 226 Pels, J. 222 Pessimier, E. A. 201 Peters, B. G. 51, 52, 69, 226 Pettit, P. 53, 226 Petty, R. 93 Pick, J. 51, 227 Pinhson, C. R. A. 235 Pirani, S. 119, 226 Plested, B. A. 216 Pocock, J. G. A. 226 Polanyi, M. 146, 226 Pollet, G. 209, 226 Polletta, F. 44, 226 Pollitt, C. 69, 209, 226 Polsby, N. W. 208, 212 Popper, K. 26, 38, 39, 59–64, 70, 220, 225, 227, 230 Powell, W. 190, 207 Prestritto, R. J. 227 Primary Care Trust 16, 136, 153, 168, 172, 173 Primarolo, D. 143, 150 Prochaska, J. O. 122, 227 Protherough, R. 51, 227 Public Health Action Support Team 8, 16, 153, 171, 172, 226, 249, 322 Public Health England 12, 16, 37, 181, 182, 187, 207, 208, 226 Putnam, R. 227 Quelch, J. 70, 227 Rabinovich, L. 173, 227 Radaelli, C. M. 39, 227 Ragin, C. 43, 156, 204, 227 Rand Corporation Europe 173, 174, 175, 177, 227 Rao, V. R. 212 Rassuli, K. M. 88, 214 Ravinet, P. 203 Rayner, M. 171, 199 Reddy, S. 203 Reeves, R. 227 Reich, C. A. 98, 227 Reid, J. 143 Reilly, W. J. 88, 89, 227 Rein, M. 211, 222
  55. 55. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 246 Reisman. D. 71, 227 Reizes, T. 119, 226 Remacle, E. 215 Reto, L. 30, 107, 227 Reynolds, L. 29, 47, 202, 210 Rhodes, R. A. W. 39, 190, 220 Ribeiro, S. 229 Rice, R. E. 228, 231, 233 Richards, S. 69, 221 Richardson, J. J. 39, 212, 216 Ries, A. 88, 90, 228 Rimer, B. K. 121, 122, 228 Road Accident Research Unit 36, Roberto, E. 24, 35, 36, 106, 108, 217 Roberto, N. 217 Roe, E. M. 39, 228 Rogers, E. M. 39, 122, 228 Rogers, R. W. 122, 228 Rosanvallon, P. 69, 228 Rosenstock, I. 122, 228 Ross, M. G. 122, 223 Rothschild, M. 29, 110, 119, 124, 182, 217, 218, 228 Rothstein, B. 39, 228 Rowling, J.K. 23, 228 Royal Society for Public Health 16, 225 Rozenblatt, P. 201 Russell, D. W. 211 Ryan, F. W. 88, 89, 228 Ryan, W. 228 Sá, J. 30, 107, 227 Sabatier, P. A. 38, 39, 40, 42, 130, 202, 228, 233, 235 Salamon, L. M. 68, 202 Santos, C. O. 4, 5, 11, 24, 25, 33, 45, 48, 109, 113, 156, 228, 229 Saren, M. 79, 88, 92, 93, 93, 201, 203, 213, 220, 222, 230 Sarmento, C. M. 30 Sartori, G. 51, 230 Savitt, R. 83, 214, 230, 232 Sawhney, M. 71, 230 Schedler, K. 216 Schlipp, P. A. 230 Schmidt, V. A. 25, 29, 38, 39, 41, 227, 230 Schmitt, N. 223 Schneider, A. L. 73, 215 Schochet, G. 226 School of Economics and Management 15, 24 Schuchman, A. 201 Schwartz, B. 29, 230 Schwarzer, R. 122, 230 Schwoerer, L. G. 226 Shaping the Future of Health Promotion 224 Shapiro, I. 206 Shapiro, S. 30 Shaw, A. W. 86, 88, 89, 230 Shaw, E. H. 82, 88, 93, 216, 230 Shawver, D. 201 Shearmur, J. 61, 230 Sheatsley, P. B. 108, 214 Sheth, J. N. 88, 91, 92, 214, 230 Silva, J. 30 Simões, A. 229 Simon, H. A. 177, 223 Singer, O. 39, 230 Singleton, S. 110, 232 Sjoberg, G. 209 Skinner, Q. 54, 231 Skocpol, T. 156, 231 Slater, C. C. 88, 92, 231 Slater, M. 216 Slovic, P. 216 Smith, A. 39, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 227, 231 Smith, M. J. 39, 190, 231 Smith, P. 145, 205 Smith, R. 206, 211 Smith, W. 29, 62, 110, 218, 221 Smith, W. A. 71. 110, 231 Smith, W. R. 88, 90, 231
  56. 56. SOCIAL MARKETING IN A COUNTRY NAME INDEX 247 Snyder, L. B. 175, 231 Snyder, R. 223, 225 Sobel, D. 227, 231 Social Marketing Institute 45, 187 Solomon, D. S. 105, 231 Solow, R. 81, 231 Somers, M. 156, 231 Sowers, W. 231 Spurr, S. 208 Sram, I. 135, 231 Srinivasan, V. 212 Stanley, R. 204 Statham, E. R. Jr. 67, 68, 231 Staw, B. M. 44, 232 Stead, M. 175, 211, 220, 231, 246 Steckler, A. 221 Stein, H. 125, 231 Stern, B. 220 Stern, L. 89, 231 Stewart, D. 200, 210, 231 Stiglitz, J. E. 235 Stoker, G. 38, 220 Stokols, D. 122, 232 Stowe, N J. 88, 232 Strategic Health Authorities 136, 153, 168, 172 Strategic Social Marketing 16, 47, 48, 118, 169 Strauss, A. 44, 45, 211, 232 Strauss, L. 53, 70, 72, 232 Stuckley, M. E. 51, 232 Sunstein, C. R. 177, 178, 232 Surel, Y. 38, 40, 232 Sutton, R. I. 44, 232 Swanson, D. L. 51, 232 Swinney, J. B. 88, 89, 204 Tadajewski, M. 86, 88, 89, 93, 209, 215, 220, 232 Takeuchi, H. 145, 223 Tallard, M. 201 Tatcher, M. 39, 232 Taylor, F. W. 67, 68, 84, 232 Taylor, M. 110, 232 Technical Higher Institute 36 Teixeira, N. 222 Teixeira, N. S. 30 Thaler, J. 37, 213 Thaler, R. H. 177, 178, 232 Thorndike, E. 232 Thorpe, A. 212 Thorpe, R. 71, 203 Thoveron, G. 51, 232 Thuraisingham, B. 222 Tilly, C. 211, 226 Tocqueville, A. De 54, 67, 232 Tools of Change 46, 118 Tosdal, H. R. 86, 233 Triandis, H. C. 122, 233 Trout, J. 88, 90, 228 True, J. L. 233 Truss, A. 29, 47, 71, 125, 221, 232, 233 Tsujinaka, Y. 216 Tucker, W. T. 97, 233 Turning Point 45, 119, 226 Tversky, A. 216 Tversky, B. 185, 233 Twede, D. 82, 232 Umarji, M. 29, 48 Unilever 30 Université de Grenoble 25, 39 University of Lisbon 16, 24, 30, 36 University of Oxford 21, 23, 47, 155 University of South Florida 16, 29, 45, 229 Van Maanen, J. 44, 233 Vandenbroeck, P. 178, 233 Verba, S. 56, 77, 113, 158, 194, 200, 216 Verbeke, W. J. M. I. 93, 201 Vlaev, I. 204 Wade, S. W. 216 Wallack, L. 24, 108, 109, 110, 233 Warin, P. 209, 211, 218, 233
  57. 57. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 248 Warshaw, P. R. 122, 201 Wasson, C. 88, 90, 233 Weber, M. 52, 233 Webster, F. 82, 105, 233 Weinreich Communications 45 Weinreich, N. 233 Weinstein, N. D. 122, 233 Weld, L. D. H. 88, 89, 233, 234 Wells, W. D. 234 Wensley, R. 203 Whewell, W. 55, 234 White, M. G. 56, 234 White, P. 29, 47, 71, 125, 209, 210, 233, 234 White, P. D. 207 White, R. 219 White, R. K. 73, 234 Whittington, R. 203 Wiebe, E. 43, 222 Wiebe, G. D. 11, 62, 101–104, 111, 138, 234 Wildavsky, A. 51, 234 Wilkie, W. L. 82, 88, 94, 234 Williams, A. 177, 202 Wilson, G. W. 201 Wilson, W. 67, 234 Wind, Y. (J.) 88, 93, 212, 234 Wolton, D. 51, 234 World Health Organization 16, 25, 36, 131, 132, 134–137, 187, 234 Wright, V. 51, 52, 226 Yankelovich, D. 122, 234 Yin, R. K. 26, 39, 42, 44, 45, 191, 234 Yusuf, S. 80, 235 Zahariadis, N. 39, 235 Zaltman, G. 11, 36, 70, 71, 88, 91, 97, 103–106, 118, 132, 187, 217, 235 Zaltman, L. H. 88, 234 Zarkada, A. 93, 225 Zémor, P. 235 Zittoun, P. 39, 235
  58. 58. CARLOS OLIVEIRA SANTOS 344 SOCIAL MARKETING MARKETING PUBLIC POLICY MARKETING THOUGHT AND HISTORY POLICY PROCESSES Since 2004, the British government has delivered a wider national policy on social marketing that has created a new frame of reference in this field. Using a cognitive approach, this book studies the genesis, evolution, and implementation of that policy process that led to an important development in British public health policy, with the aim of improving social behaviour change and wellbeing. May it contribute to the conception and development of similar policy solutions in other situations and countries according to appropriate transfer and implementation! «This research that you are undertaking is extremely important and will help us and others who are interested in how to set up such organizations to develop their plans. We have been happy to collaborate with you on this work and would like to thank you for the opportunity to be involved. I would also like to thank you for the considerate and charming way that you have engaged with us.» Professor Jeff French, Director of the National Social Marketing Centre, 2008 Carlos Oliveira Santos is an assistant professor at University of Lisbon (Portugal), PhD in Political Science (Public Policy) by New University of Lisbon. Since 1992, he has pioneered the study and teaching of social marketing in Portugal and has created the website Marketing Social Portugal (www.marketingsocialportu- gal.net). Previous publications have included Melhorar a Vida, Um Guia de Marketing Social (Improving Life, A Social Marketing Guide, 2004), the first social marketing textbook in Portuguese. Outside this field, he has published several books with studies about some of the biggest Portuguese ­enterprises as Amorim Group, Galp Energia, Mota-Engil and Pestana Hotels & Resorts Group, among others.

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