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2023 CalAPA Spring Conference presentation by Deepak Maskey on LCA

  1. Caltrans Pavement Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its Use to understand Environmental Impacts Deepak Maskey Senior Transportation Engineer Pavement Program, Caltrans CALAPA Spring Asphalt Pavement Conference & Equipment Expo March 23-24, 2023
  2. Pavement Sustainability • Long-life pavements • Fuel efficient pavements • Pavement preservation • Recycled materials • Environmental project declaration (EPD) • Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) • Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) • Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) • Multicriteria Decision Making (LCA+LCCA)
  3. Similar Name, Similar Approach Different Sustainability Pillar • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) o Environmental (sometimes referred to as LCA or eLCA) o Social (sometimes referred to as SLCA) • Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) • Similar: o Consider full life cycle, complete system o Use same life cycle of pavement activities • Different: o LCCA is for cost impacts o LCA is for environmental impacts, energy use and finite resource depletion o SLCA is for social impacts
  4. Why LCA? •Produces quantification of environmental, energy and finite resource use impacts •Considers oFull life cycle of production, consumption/use/ maintenance/rehabilitation and end of life of products and services oSystem boundaries that are sufficiently defined to capture important interactions and potential unintended consequences
  5. How do we work towards sustainability? • Is it just reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) and making sure we are recycling? oThese relate back to environmental impacts, economics and social well being, but there is a lot more oGHGs and recycling do not address all the environmental impacts • Need to set sustainability goals and routinely use quantitative approaches in our work to address and work towards those goals
  6. Good answers will come from full system and complete life cycle-based decision making • Full System for pavement considers: oResources oProcesses oStructure/traffic/climate/soil application oAll environmental and resource use impacts of interest oInteractions and effects on other systems • Complete Life Cycle for pavement: oLooks at consequences of current decisions as far into the future as can be calculated with some certainty oLooks at effects of current decisions on ability to make future decisions
  7. Pavement LCA Framework (Adapted from A.A.Butt 2014) • Recycle • Dispose • Incinerate • Transport • Albedo • Lighting • Pavement- Vehicle Interaction • Mill • Lay • Compact • Transport • Laying • Compaction • Transport • Extraction • Processing • Transportation Material Construction Maintenance Use End Of Life Electricity Raw Materials Recycled Materials Pavement Design and life time prediction Input Output Airborne Emissions Waste Recyclable Materials Energy Waterborne Emissions
  8. eLCAP
  9. Overview of eLCAP • eLCAP is a web-based transport infrastructure LCA tool • Capable to model the life cycle of any pavement project • eLCAP database library is developed based on the California specific extensive inventories of omaterials and mixes, oconstruction equipment and activities, otransportation modes, ouse stage impacts (based on IRI and vehicle fuel use), oend of life scenarios • eLCAP computes 18 different impact categories for any user defined case
  10. Overview of eLCAP • eLCAP data and models have been reviewed by three external reviewers who: • are road transport infrastructure experts, and • have extensive knowledge of LCA • Current version of eLCAP uses proprietary data, therefore per licensing agreement can only be used by: • Caltrans • UC Davis • Working to develop models in OpenLCA and use in eLCAP to replace models developed in a software that uses proprietary data • Plan to make eLCAP available for others by early 2024*
  11. Basic Unit Process Used in LCA • Example processes: • Produce one ton of asphalt concrete • Produce one cubic yard of concrete • Haul 25 tons of aggregate base • Place a slurry seal
  12. An LCA model of FDR-Cement with asphalt overlay, cradle- to-laid
  13. eLCAP Database: Material Stage using 2012 California electricity mix
  14. Asphalt Binder Material Stage Impacts
  15. Data Quality Assessment
  16. Default & User Defined Processes: Materials, Construction Equipment, & Transport
  17. Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Recycled Concrete Aggregate
  18. Compare Alternatives Alternative Layer Other Ops Year Built Service life 1: Rehab. & Preserv. HMA Overlay Mill & Fill 2 in. 0 22 Slurry 15 7 HMA Overlay Mill & Fill 2 in. 22 22 Slurry 37 7 2: Rehab. Only HMA Overlay Mill & Fill 2 in. 0 18 HMA Overlay Mill & Fill 2 in. 18 18 HMA Overlay Mill & Fill 2 in. 36 18
  19. Rehab. 1 Rehab. 2 Rehab. 1 Preservation 1 Rehab. 2 Rehab. 3 Preservation 1 CASE 2: REHABILITATION ONLY CASE 1: REHABILITATION AND PRESERVATION
  20. 75,364 9,726 2,094 88,522 11,404 2,468 MATERIALS TRANSPORT CONSTRUCTION Rehab & Preservation GWP (kg CO2-eq) Rehab. Only GWP (kg CO2-eq)
  21. Use Stage with Low Traffic: BUT-70-E 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 2023 2023 2024 2024 2025 2025 2026 2026 2027 2027 2028 Cumulative GHG (CO2-Eq tonne) Year Cumulative Life Cycle (All Events) GWP Use Stage: IRI + Fuel Use on Ideal Road Use Stage: IRI Only Use Stage: Fuel Use on Ideal Road Only
  22. Summary • Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to quantify environmental impacts • Guidance for applying LCA to pavements is available • Tools for applying LCA to pavement sustainability problems are becoming available • eLCAP is one of such tools (working to make it available for others to use) • Primary data from industry can make LCAs meaningful and impactful
  23. Thanks to many colleagues! Questions? • Contacts: • Deepak Maskey - • Ali A. Butt - • John T. Harvey -