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Tiit Tammaru

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Socioeconomic segregation in Europe

Socioeconomic segregation in Europe

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Mais de Consorci Universitat Internacional Menéndez Pelayo Barcelona (CUIMPB) - Centre Ernest Lluch

Tiit Tammaru

  1. 1. New Urban Rehabilitation Policies: Needs and Perspectives 5-6 May 2022, Barcelona Urban Socioeconomic Segregation and Income Inequality in Europe Prof. Tiit Tammaru University of Tartu Research professor of Estonian Academy of Sciences
  2. 2. www.segregationcircles.eu www.deprivedhoods.eu
  3. 3. Routledge: Regions and Cities 2016 Open Access: Introduction and Conclusions Cases from 13 European capital cities
  4. 4. Questions addressed ❖ What are the levels of residential segregation by SES in European capital cities? ❖ What are the changes in residential segregation by SES between the two last census rounds? ❖ Do levels of residential segregation by SES reflect levels of income inequality?
  5. 5. Background New Urban Rehabilitation Policies: Needs and Perspectives 5-6 May 2022, Barcelona
  6. 6. Social polarization thesis
  7. 7. Globalization as a key driver of income inequality Low skills High skills
  8. 8. Global talent hunt Globalization as a key driver of income inequality Low skills High skills
  9. 9. Low skills Global compe- tition Global talent hunt Globalization as a key driver of income inequality High skills
  10. 10. Low skills Global compe- tition Global talent hunt Globalization as a key driver of income inequality and residential segregation High skills
  11. 11. Global income inequality trends reversed around the 1980s Source: Global Inequality Report 2018 Top 10% income share, 1915–2015
  12. 12. Income inequalities T-1 Residential segregation T Main hypothesis
  13. 13. Residential segregation is a group level phenomenon that occurs as a result of individual level sorting into neighbourhoods Skills Homophily Other
  14. 14. Social structures Spatial structures Residential segregation is a group level phenomenon that occurs as a result of individual level sorting into neighbourhoods shaped by socio-spatial contexts
  15. 15. New Urban Rehabilitation Policies: Needs and Perspectives 5-6 May 2022, Barcelona DATA AND METHDODS
  16. 16. ISCO-88 occupational categories 1 – Managers 2 – Professionals 3 – Technicians 4 – Clerks 5 – Sellers 6 – Industrial workers 7 – Machine operators 8 – Elementary occupations Main occupational categories
  17. 17. 1 – Managers = Top SES group 2 – Professionals 3 – Technicians 4 – Clerks 5 – Sellers 6 – Industrial workers 7 – Machine operators 8 – Elementary occupations = Bottom SES group Main occupational categories ISCO-88 occupational categories
  18. 18. Main indicators Income inequality – national Gini Index Residential segregation – Index of Dissimilarity between Top and Bottom SES groups in neighbourhoods of around 1000–5000 inhabitants Less than 20 Low segregation 20–39 Medium segregation 40 and more High segregation
  19. 19. Main findings New Urban Rehabilitation Policies: Needs and Perspectives 5-6 May 2022, Barcelona
  20. 20. STEP 1 ❖ What are the levels of residential segregation by SES in European capital cities?
  21. 21. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Riga Oslo Prague Vilnius Helsinki Tallinn Budapest Stockholm Athens Madrid Amsterdam London Milan Index of Dissimilarity 2001 Index of Dissimilarity between the Top and Bottom SES groups Medium Low High
  22. 22. STEP 2 ❖ What are the changes in residential segregation by SES between the two last census rounds?
  23. 23. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Riga Oslo Prague Vilnius Helsinki Tallinn Budapest Stockholm Athens Madrid Amsterdam London Milan Index of Dissimilarity 2001 2011 Medium Low High Index of Dissimilarity between the Top and Bottom SES groups
  24. 24. STEP 3 ❖ Do levels of residential segregation by SES reflect levels of income inequality?
  25. 25. 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 1990 2000 2010 Gini index and Dissimilarity index Tallinn v v 25 30 35 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 20 40 London Riga Vilnius Madrid Tallinn Milan Amsterdam Budapest Oslo Athens Stockholm Prague Helsinki Bucharest Gini Index Dissimilarity Index Liberal Corporatist Social Democratic Plotting income inequality and socioeconomic segregation
  26. 26. 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 1990 2000 2010 Gini index and Dissimilarity index Tallinn v v 25 30 35 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 20 40 London Riga Vilnius Madrid Tallinn Milan Amsterdam Budapest Oslo Athens Stockholm Prague Helsinki Bucharest Gini Index Dissimilarity Index Liberal Corporatist Social Democratic Plotting income inequality and socioeconomic segregation
  27. 27. 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 1990 2000 2010 Gini index and Dissimilarity index Tallinn v v 25 30 35 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 20 40 London Riga Vilnius Madrid Tallinn Milan Amsterdam Budapest Oslo Athens Stockholm Prague Helsinki Bucharest Gini Index Dissimilarity Index Liberal Corporatist Social Democratic Plotting income inequality and socioeconomic segregation
  28. 28. Tallinn 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 1990 2000 2010 Gini ind Dissimilarity Social inequality (Gini index, lagged 10 years) Socio-economic segregation (Dissimilarity index)
  29. 29. Stockholm 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 1990 2000 2010 Gini ind Dissimilarity Social inequality (Gini index, lagged 10 years) Socio-economic segregation (Dissimilarity index)
  30. 30. Milan 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1990 2000 2010 Gini ind Dissimilarity Social inequality (Gini index, lagged 10 years) Socio-economic segregation (Dissimilarity index)
  31. 31. Madrid 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1990 2000 2010 Gini ind Dissimilarity Social inequality (Gini index, lagged 10 years) Socio-economic segregation (Dissimilarity index)
  32. 32. Discussion New Urban Rehabilitation Policies: Needs and Perspectives 5-6 May 2022, Barcelona
  33. 33. Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility
  34. 34. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility Socio-spatial mobility
  35. 35. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility Socio-spatial mobility
  36. 36. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility Socio-spatial mobility
  37. 37. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Socio-spatial mobility Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility High income inequality High socioeconomic segregation
  38. 38. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Socio-spatial mobility Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility High income inequality High socioeconomic segregation
  39. 39. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Socio-spatial mobility Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility High income inequality High socioeconomic segregation
  40. 40. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Socio-spatial mobility Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility High income inequality High socioeconomic segregation
  41. 41. Low income inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Socio-spatial mobility Income inequality and segregation affect socio-spatial mobility High income inequality High socioeconomic segregation
  42. 42. Individuals moving to at least two deciles more affluent NBH between 2001 and 2011 by 2001 NBH deprivation Source: Nieuwenhuis et al 2021 Deprived neighbourhood Affluent neighbourhood
  43. 43. Main conclusions ❖ Levels of residential segregation between Top and Bottom SES groups increased in European capital cities between two last census rounds ❖ There is a weak corrrelation between income inequalities and levels of residential segregation ❖ Changes in the levels of residential segregation follow changes in the leves of income inequality with a time-lag
  44. 44. New Urban Rehabilitation Policies: Needs and Perspectives 5-6 May 2022, Barcelona Thank you! Prof. Tiit Tammaru University of Tartu Research professor of Estonian Academy of Sciences

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