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The Dark Net

  1. Connecticut Technology Council
  2. The Origins of the “Dark Net” “Dark Web” ARPANET The onion Router DRM - Copyright Infringement
  3. False Evidence Appearing Real (F.E.A.R) • Darknet - IS & IS NOT • An Overlay network (2 common types; Friend 2 Friend, and Anonymous) • Darknet is a private network where IP addresses are not routable (can’t PING or send other network requests) without special software, configurations, authorizations. • Virtual Private Networks can be considered “Darknet” • P2P and other file sharing is potentially Darknet • DRM and Copyright infringements (2002 paper by Peter Biddle, Paul England, Marcus Peinado, and Bryan Willman,) • On the internet • Able to be monitored at point nodes • Uses non-standard ports and protocols • IS NOT • Unaccessible • a secret • indexed • DeepWeb Searching (often confused) El Guapo
  4. Emergent Sub-Cultures • Social media racists - hate crimes • Camgirls - Fee per minute “bounty” - pay sites • Self Harm communities - Personality disorders • Darknet drug markets - “SilkRoad (10/2013),” “The Hive (2004; 2015),” “Cyber-Arms Bazaar,” “The Farmer’s Market (2012),” “Atlantis (9/2013),” “Black Market Reloaded (,” “Sheep Marketplace (,” “TheRealDeal.” Card Markets • Cryptoanarchists - Crypto-anarchists employ cryptographic software to evade prosecution and harassment while sending and receiving information over computer networks, in an effort to protect their privacy and political freedom. • Transhumanists - (H+ or h+), thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of using such technologies.
  5. Uses of Darknet • To better protect the privacy rights of citizens from targeted and mass surveillance • Protecting dissidents from political reprisal; e.g., Arab Spring • Whistleblowing and news leaks • Computer crime (hacking, file corruption etc) • Sale of restricted goods on darknet markets • File sharing (pornography, confidential files, illegal or counterfeit software etc.) • Tied with crypto-currency
  6. Software • Tor (The onion router) is an anonymity network. It is the most popular instance of a darknet. • I2P (Invisible Internet Project) is another overlay network whose sites are called "Eepsites". • Freenet is a popular (friend-to-friend) run as a "opennet" (peer nodes are discovered automatically). • RetroShare can be run as a darknet (friend-to- friend) by default to perform anonymous file transfers if Distributed Hash Tables and Discovery features are disabled. • GNUnet is a darknet if the "F2F (network) topology" option is enabled. • Zeronet is open source software aimed to build an internet-like computer network of peer-to-peer users of Tor. • Syndie is software used to publish distributed forums over the anonymous networks of I2P, Tor and Freenet. • OneSwarm can be run as a darknet for friend-to- friend file-sharing. • Tribler can be run as a darknet for file-sharing.
  7. Are you at risk? • Secure Web Gateways can be circumvented • False sense of security • Steps easily found on “Google” • Is your site serving as a node or darknet service? • Final answer YES you are at risk
  8. How do they do it? a ToR example • ToR Bridges - unregistered Relays • ToR without Bridges • Pluggable Transports • Direct SOCKS tunneling
  9. • Do you have a good idea of what sites/IPs have bypass/allowed enabled? • Do you have packet inspections looking for obfuscated fingerprints? [IP Address] [Port #] [Unique fingerprint ID] would look like obfs3 4352e58420e68f5e40bf7c74faddccd9d1349413 • Are you scanning your network looking for open ports? Like 7657, 4444 4445, 9150, 9050, 6668 • Looking for “Google” Searches on ToR nodes or Bridges? What can you do or what should you be asking?
  10. Questions ?