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Lean Leadership _ ARMA 2015

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Lean Leadership _ ARMA 2015

  1. 1. Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center Lean Leadership Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn Feb’15
  2. 2. Agenda • Introductions • What’s different about Lean Leadership? – The Lean System (Venn) – House of Lean (Tools) – Common Mistakes – Skills vs. Tools • Lean Leadership: Learning Teach – The Case for Instructional Skills
  3. 3. Agenda – Training Within Industry Job – Instruction • Break • TWI JI Demonstration • Breakdowns • Key Points • Lunch • Lean Leadership: Teaching to Learn – Adaptability – Toyota Kata
  4. 4. Agenda – Omitting the Problem Solving Kata – Improvement Kata • Understanding organizational constraints • Case Study #1 - Healthcare • Case Study #2 - Manufacturing – Coaching Kata • Learning the tenets of Lean Leadership • Mentoring • Conclusions
  5. 5. A federation of seven research organizations or universities (UTA, UTEP, UTPA, A&M-TEEX, TTU, UH,SWRI) Statewide coverage MISSION ACCELERATE THE PROFITABLE GROWTH AND COMPETITIVENESS OF MANUFACTURERS IN TEXAS
  6. 6. TMAC Value Proposition We work with companies in the manufacturing enterprise to accelerate profitable growth by developing & improving products, technologies, processes, and people. We work with partners to operate Regional Centers of Innovation and Commercialization for the Texas Emerging Technology Fund. www.tmac.or
  7. 7. TMAC Strategy Supports Profitable Business Growth Reduce bottom line expenses through lean, quality, & other programs for plant efficiency – Free up capacity for business growth Strategy to increase manufacturers’ capacity for innovation resulting in profitable sales growth Add to top line sales through business growth services focused on the development of new sales, new markets, and new products
  8. 8. Customer Reported Economic Benefits *5 years (2009-2013) Dallas Lubbock Austin San Antonio Houston El Paso Edinburg Ft. Worth College Station West Texas – TTU Paso del Norte– UTEP South Central– SwRI Gulf Coast - UH East Central– TEEX Metroplex - UTA New/Retained Sales: $1.43 Bil. Cost Savings: $642.3 Mil. New/Retained Jobs: 16,067 South Texas - UTPA Average Project Cost= $9,353 Average Project Return= $152,078 *Reported by customers in 3rd party survey TMAC IS MEASURED BY THE SUCCESS OF ITS CUSTOMERS Investments: $504.9 Mil.
  9. 9. Survey Information Survey Dates: October 17, 2015 to November 14, 2015 Address: info@mepclientsurvey.com Subject: MEP Client Survey Reminder Add this to your “safe list”
  10. 10. Books & References • The Shibumi Strategy - May • The 7 Kata: Toyota Kata, TWI and Lean Training – Soltero & Boutier • Creating a Lean Culture – Mann • Lean Thinking – Womack & Jones • Learning to See – Rother & Shook • Gemba Kaizen – Masaaki Imai
  11. 11. Toyota Respect for People …. Pass Out
  12. 12. TPS – A Philosophical Hybrid
  13. 13. If you want one year of prosperity, grow seeds. If you want 10 years of prosperity, grow trees If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow people. - Chinese Proverb
  14. 14. Management’s Key Equation (H x V x F) > R • Hatred of current state. Hatred > Dissatisfaction. • Vision of the ideal state – defining a compelling place to move toward. • First steps to close the gaps are the most difficult. It requires bold, powerful, resource consuming actions to make change. • Resistance to change will always exist in organizations. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Lean Jamie Flinchbaugh 2006
  15. 15. An Overarching Principle R = Q x A Results of the Project = Quality of the Solution x Acceptance of the Organization
  16. 16. Leadership “The greatest leaders of the 20th century were Hitler, Stalin and Mao: If that is ‘leadership,’ I want nothing to do with it.” - Peter Drucker
  17. 17. Must Get Here! Basic Lean Model Sustainable Results = Tools x Culture x Governance
  18. 18. Basic Lean Building Blocks Must Ultimately Result in a Change in Human Behavior & Requires Structure
  19. 19. VS Maturity Stages Simplify & Standardize (Continuous Improvement) Prepare & Align Stabilize Flow Pull Level Different Value Streams Mature at Different Rates
  20. 20. The Promise of Lean? • 2% of the companies have achieved their Lean objectives. • 24% of the companies achieved significant results. • 74% of the companies did not make good progress with Lean.
  21. 21. If Lean is so Great… Why are so many failing?
  22. 22. Lean turns the traditional on its head… … and it’s not what it seems to be!
  23. 23. What has Toyota hidden…. …in plain sight?
  24. 24. One-Piece Flow is not Intuitive 10 minutes 10 minutes • Batch & Queue Processing Lead Time: 30+ minutes for total order 21+ minutes for first piece 10 minutes Process A Process B Process C 12 min. for total order 3 min. for first part Process B Process A Process C • Continuous Flow Processing
  25. 25. Organizational Backlash
  26. 26. Lean Leadership The Lean Leader leads a very different way: It is as different from the commonly accepted notion of the “enlightened modern manager” as it is the old command and control dictator. - LEI
  27. 27. 3 Leadership Models Old “Dictator” Style 1970’s “Empowerment Style Follow me… let’s figure this out together Do it my way … Do it your way … Lean Style
  28. 28. • Two groups can have different perceptions of the same situation according to their viewpoints and their assumptions. • These assumptions can become deeply held beliefs. • Our beliefs constitute mental models about how the world works. • People work to preserve their mental models even when they acknowledge their inadequacy. • These mental models can lead to conflict even when there is no difference in the ultimate objective. Mental Models
  29. 29. Mental Models • Form our assumptions about how the world works based on experience, upbringing & temperament. • The ‘glasses’ we all wear filters and often distorts reality. • The world we see is our own. Key Mental Model = Teach with Facts If so, what must we do?Focus on the Facts with Kindness!
  30. 30. Different Mental Models Which Side Best Describes Your Company?
  31. 31. Mass Production Mental Model
  32. 32. Lean Leadership “Good leadership means that the leader gets the people in the organization to do what the leader needs done, when it should be done, and the way the leader needs it done, because they want to do it.” - TWI Job Relations (circa 1941) [Toyota Training & Development Section (circa 1989)]
  33. 33. Lean Leadership Lean Leadership The ongoing activity of directing, guiding, and building inspired and engaged thinkers who use their knowledge, skills and abilities to systematically improve and solve problems in their own processes so that business objectives are met.
  34. 34. Managing vs. Leading Manage: • Steps/Timeliness • Structure/Resources • Policies/Procedures • Monitoring Systems • Identify Variances • Problem Solving Produces: • Predictability/Order • Consistent Short-term Results Lead: • Long-term Vision • Teams/Coalitions • Strategies • Challenging Targets • Removing Barriers • Recognize/Reward Produces: • Innovation • Breakthrough Results
  35. 35. Lean Leadership Skills • Organizing & Planning • Communication • Developing Trust • Motivating • Observing • Providing Direction • Mentoring & Developing Leadership Must Adopt a Different Mental Model
  36. 36. Leadership Leaders challenge the process by searching for innovative ways to improve the organization. They experiment and take risks accepting inevitable failures as learning opportunities. Leaders inspire a shered vision by envisioning the future for the company and enlisting others in that future. Leaders enable others to act by fostering collaboration and building teams. They strengthen others, “making each person feel capable and powerful.” Leaders model the way by setting an example for others to follow and help staff in achieving small wins as they work toward bigger goals. Leaders encourage the heart by recognizing contributions from team members and celebrating accomplishments. “They make people feel like heroes.” Source: Oozes & Posner
  37. 37. The Leader’s Job at Toyota First, get each person to take initiative to solve problems and improve his or her job. Second, ensure that each person’s job is aligned to provide value for the customer and prosperity for the company. - Womack & Shook
  38. 38. Lean Leadership (LEI) • Not charisma (or heroic fire fighting). • Not bureaucracy. • Not “do it my way.” • Not “do it your way (but be sure you make your numbers).” Instead … “ Let ’ s get agreement on our purpose and the processes that achieve our purpose.” “Let’s transform processes together.”
  39. 39. Lean Leadership in Action (LEI) Once someone takes responsibility, you will need a method for:  Clearly determining the problem.  Identifying and evaluation alternative countermeasures.  Implementing the chosen countermeasure.  Evaluating the results, adjusting, and sustaining.  A3 is an excellent tool if used properly.
  40. 40. Leadership
  41. 41. Importance of Leadership Lean Transformation Requires: – 10 – 30% Management Behavior – 70 – 90% Leadership Behavior
  42. 42. 10 Minute Thought Experiment Having learned what a Lean Leader is, develop an action plan for getting management “on board” in your company.
  43. 43. Excerpt from 60 Minutes We’re not a school, we’re a company!
  44. 44. Lean Leadership Principle 9: Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others. - Toyota Way, p.39 – Teaching is the most highly valued skill of leaders, and leaders have to deeply understand the work to teach and coach others. - Toyota Talent, p.7
  45. 45. Lean Leadership When asked about his greatest challenge when trying to teach The Toyota Way to his American managers, he responded: “They want to be managers, not teachers.” He explained that every manager at Toyota must be a teacher. Developing exceptional people is Toyota’s number one priority. - Artushi Niimi, Former President, Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America
  46. 46. Role of Leadership  Establish Standardization  Teach Improvement  Teach Problem Solving  Flow the Product  Focus on the Process  Ensure Accountability Leadership Defines the Culture
  47. 47. Different Characteristics Traditional • Traffic Cop • Fire Fighter (reactive) • Delegator • Day-to-Day survival Lean • Teacher • Fire Marshall (proactive) • Team Member • Quest for Perfection
  48. 48. Lean Leadership The Lean Leader must Lead: • by example • by being knowledgeable • by getting into the details • by questioning • by coaching and teaching • by influence • by building robust, sensible systems and processes that cascade responsibility and authority.
  49. 49. Leading People (LEI) How do you engage people at every level?  Teach them to see the process,  Give them PDCA skills,  Push responsibility to the level of action,  Introduce end-to-end metrics,  Create frequent problem-solving loops,  Make the abnormal immediately visible.
  50. 50. Thought Experiment Let’s list the characteristics of the greatest teacher (i.e., grammar school, middle school, high school, college, religious, work, parent, etc.) you were fortunate enough to learn from. – Good instructor – Patient – ???
  51. 51. Leadership at Toyota “Lead the organization as if you have no power.” (Kan Higashi of NUMMI) - Womack & Shook
  52. 52. Learning to Teach 1. Become an exceptional instructor. 2. Become an extraordinary listener. 3. Inquire nonthreateningly. 4. Empathy, empathy, empathy! 5. Become an accessible resource. 6. Discern what’s important to them. 7. Become an exceptional teacher.
  53. 53. Excerpt from 7 Kata Bill’s first day at work.
  54. 54. Pass Out TWI Brochure
  55. 55. Job Instruction Demonstration Take a 10 minute break, Demonstration is 75 minutes.
  56. 56. PDCA
  57. 57. 1. Become an Exceptional Instructor • Training Within Industry – Job Instruction – One-on-one OJT; the most effective way to train. – Follows PDCA. – Accounts for “ALL” learning styles. – Parses information logically; just enough at a time – Provided with instructional aid – Provides learner rationale for circumstances – Instructor “knows” if learner understands – Not just a copy of the motions
  58. 58. JI 4-Step Method
  59. 59. No. __________ JOB INSTRUCTION BREAKDOWN SHEET Operation: ____________________________________________________ Parts: ________________________________________________________ Tools & Materials: ______________________________________________ REASONSKEY POINTSIMPORTANT STEPS Reasons for each key point Anything in a step that might— 1.Make or break the job 2.Injure the worker 3.Make the work easier to do, i.e. “knack”, “trick”, special timing, bit of special information A logical segment of the operation when something happens to advance the work.
  60. 60. Toyota Job Element Sheet
  61. 61. Job Instruction Follow Up (4 half day schedule) 8 9 10 11 12 8 9 10 11 12 8 9 10 11 12 one or two months later 8 9 10 11 12 ` Report & Reflect Review Breakdown and observe training of 4 Test Breakdown, twice Reflect on issues Revise & Test on workers D A Y 4 Review Breakdown and observe training of 4 Review breakdown and observe training of 2 Reflect & report to Management D A Y 3 Review Basic JI, Choose 2 task per group, each person create breakdown Group combines Breakdown visually Reflect on issues Revise & Test on worker Report & Reflect D A Y 2 Review Basic JI, Choose 2 tasks per group, each person create breakdown Group combines Breakdown visually Test Breakdown, twice Reflect on issues Revise & Test on workers Report & Reflect D A Y 1 Group combines Breakdown visually Test Breakdown, twice Review Basic JI, Choose 1 task per group, each person create breakdown Alternative schedule w/ thanks for inputs from Agata Pawlukojc JI Follow-on Workshop
  62. 62. Lean Leadership – Teaching to Learn The Toyota Kata Improvement Kata Coaching Kata Problem Solving Kata
  63. 63. Pass Out Creating an Adaptable Workforce…..
  64. 64. Imagination is more important than knowledge
  65. 65. Business Cycle
  66. 66. Markets Change
  67. 67. How the Org. responds is Important
  68. 68. CI is Important
  69. 69. The Good News Humans are adaptable
  70. 70. The Bad News Management Mental Model Must Change
  71. 71. People can handle the Unpredictable
  72. 72. People in Groups, However, … … seek security and predictability and therefore change doesn’t happen.
  73. 73. So, how do we create …
  74. 74. Key Point – Tap Ingenuity
  75. 75. Eliminate Management by Results … which assumes the path to improvement is clear
  76. 76. Management by Results 1.Define Target 2.Identify Solutions & Tools 3.Provide Incentives 4.Check Results
  77. 77. Problems are Beyond … our current horizon, knowledge & abilities.
  78. 78. The Path is Unpredictable!
  79. 79. Management by Results vs. Management by Means
  80. 80. Management by Results & ROI Calculation Focuses on outcomes …. … not the process that generates outcomes.
  81. 81. From: Numbers Management to Process Management • Leaders at Toyota, like Leaders anywhere, want to see measurable results. • But they know that the financial result is a result of a process. • They also realize that the financial results reflect the past performance of the process. • Far better is to create a process that can be managed right NOW. - LEI
  82. 82. Lean Leadership We get superior results from average people managing brilliant processes. We observe that our competitors get average (or worse) results from brilliant people managing broken processes. Senior Toyota Executive
  83. 83. • ASSUMPTION: Profit comes from full utilization of resources Traditional Measurements • MEASUREMENT: Labor efficiency & machine utilization • BEHAVIOR: Make more product • WHAT IS IMPORTANT: Full utilization of resources Ramifications of Mental Models • ASSUMPTION: Profit comes from maximizing flow. Lean Thinking • MEASUREMENT: Throughput • BEHAVIOR: Eliminate barriers to flow • WHAT IS IMPORTANT: Flow according to customer pull
  84. 84. • Labor efficiency & machine utilization • Cost variances vs.. standard • Budget adherence • Direct labor as % of sales • Cycle time • Throughput • First time quality • Inventory Turns • Delivery to customer • Value stream focus What’s Important Gets Measured Traditional Assumptions Lean Assumptions
  85. 85. • Make more product • Utilize resources to the max • Optimize dept. efficiencies • Track direct labor in detail • Allocate other costs • Eliminate barriers to flow • Focus on value streams rather than departments • Continuous improvement and team-work • Eliminate waste, inventory, and over- production Measurement Drives Behavior Traditional Assumptions Lean Assumptions People Behave And Are Motivated By How They’re Measured
  86. 86. Find our Way vs. Get’er Done Vs.
  87. 87. There are only 3 “For Sure’s” 1. Where we’re at 2. Where we want to be 3. Unclear territory between 1 & 2
  88. 88. Management by Means • The main concern is how we are working toward objectives, • When we focus on solutions, we are not adaptive & continually improving because… • …today’s solutions may not solve tomorrow’s problems
  89. 89. To Develop Fitting Solutions The organization must “understand conditions” and do it – again & again.
  90. 90. Where Do Solutions Come From? People’s MINDSET People’s BEHAVIORS Processes Products Services BUSINESS OUTCOMES The organizational culture Source of Performance Performance
  91. 91. Mindset Forms Culture Mindset Culture
  92. 92. Mindset A subconscious way of thinking and feeling, learned via successes and failures, that determines how you interpret and respond to situations.
  93. 93. Behavior Patterns Basic ways and routines through which work is conducted.
  94. 94. Scientific (Management) Method 1. What’s ahead of us isn’t predictable. 2. The special capabilities of our brain get engaged when we learn new things. 3. We advance to new solutions and levels of performance through disproof.
  95. 95. A Favorite of Sakiichi Toyoda (LEI) “It is a mistake to suppose than men succeed through success; they much oftener succeed through failures. Precept, study, advice, and example could never have taught them so well as failure has done.” - Samuel Smiles
  96. 96. So, if you’re going to FAIL, it’s best to… - Doug Hall
  97. 97. Mindsets FIXED MINDSET Avoids Uncertainty • Define path before starting. • Financials determine direction. • Maintain “status quo.” • Occasional changes – try “leaps” to catch up. • Mistakes & problems = failure (bad). ADAPTIVE MINDSET Accepts Uncertainty • Planning, but path determined “real time.” • Financials used for refinement. • Focus - long-term goal. • Change is frequent & normal (small steps). • Mistakes & problems = normal & useful.
  98. 98. Changing Mindsets is Critical … but, how?
  99. 99. Brain Science says …
  100. 100. Brain Science says … Nuerons that fire together, wire together.” - Carla Shatz Strength of connection (ease of transmission) & the number of connections increase with use. Whatever you practice weaves a habit or pattern in your thinking.
  101. 101. Changing Mindset Mindset is not developed by incentives, benchmarking, or episodic classroom training/workshops (declarative memory).
  102. 102. Changing Mindset Brain Research cites 3 mechanisms Deliberate daily practice Over time, changes mindsets Long term, builds organizational culture “New experiences are required to change our mind.” - Professor Gerald Huther
  103. 103. Changing Mindset The measures taken to deal with new situations, develop new solutions and reach new levels of performance are not predictable.
  104. 104. Comfort Comes With Practice Well worn mental circuits earned through practice decrease discomfort.
  105. 105. Management’s Task People’s MINDSET People’s BEHAVIORS Processes Products Services BUSINESS OUTCOMES In order to develop this Organization’s members must practice a means for developing solutions
  106. 106. Management’s Task BUSINESS OUTCOMES Processes Products Services BEHAVIOR PATTERNS MINDSET For true challenges, this may be a manager’s only lever! Because they can’t be affected directly
  107. 107. TPS vs. Traditional Solution How to Develop solutions Toyota’s Management Tendency Left Open Specified – guided and directed Our Management Tendency Given/Directed Not specified – left to the employee
  108. 108. Why a Kata? • Kata conditions the central nervous system for standardizing a reflexive action. • Kata passes on both knowledge and skill from the master of a previous generation to students of a future generation – a cultural feature.
  109. 109. Why Kata for Lean? • Build adaptability (behavior patterns) into individuals. • Provide cultural traditions.
  110. 110. PDCA
  111. 111. ProblemSolving Standardization Maintenance Kaizen “Maintaining the Status Quo” Bring it back to standard Establishing the “Status Quo”
  112. 112. Problem Solving Kaizen Time Improvement Status Quo Defective State
  113. 113. Improvement Kaizen Time Improvement Status Quo Improved State
  114. 114. Pass Out Inculcating Adaptive Behavior Patterns in ……..
  115. 115. Inculcating Adaptive Behavior Patterns in Complex Organizational Systems Conrad Soltero Research Institute for Manufacturing and Engineering Systems University of Texas at El Paso
  116. 116. Research Investigation Which kata best facilitates adaptability? Improvement Kata or Problem Solving Kata
  117. 117. Research Objective • Understand which technique produces higher levels of adaptability, the PS or Improvement Kata. • Adaptability is based on the rate of PDCA cycling.
  118. 118. Adaptability Improvement vs Problem Solving
  119. 119. Adaptability Requirement • Must be done daily! (Harder than it sounds) • Only a short duration (15 minutes)
  120. 120. Possible Reasons for Slower PS Kata Cycling • Extensive analysis of cause • Investigation of cause • Containment measures • Iterative disaggregation of the problem • Authorization of proposed countermeasure • Learning by investigation and experiment
  121. 121. Adaptability Kaizen Event • Improvement is the point • Step function improvement • Team based • Selected individuals • Up to 40 hours (1 week) • Punctuated • Project management • Planning necessary Toyota Kata • Learning is the point • Incremental improvement • Individual based • All management • 15 minutes daily • Continual • Highly scripted • Easily performed
  122. 122. PSK/IK Differences •“Gap” Determination •Causal Analysis
  123. 123. Improvement The Gap 2. Current Condition 1. Target Condition Key Mental Model = Improvements are Daily Systematically Improve
  124. 124. Problem Solving 1. Current Condition 2. Target Condition The Gap Key Mental Model = Problems are Treasures If so, what must we do? Systematically Surface and Solve Problems
  126. 126. PDCA PDCA Problem Solving
  127. 127. Reasons to Start with The Improvement Kata 1. Can practice daily to enhance adaptability. 2. Problem solving is not improvement. 3. Can’t schedule problems – planning practice is difficult. 4. No causal analysis, no blame. 5. Faster cycling, more adaptability!
  128. 128. Improvement Kata • Assumes no problem(s) • Aligns by the value stream “vision” • Identifies quickly obtainable target condition • Learning/understanding is progress • Obstacles, not problems • Many obstacles on the way to the vision
  129. 129. Improvement Kata For Lean to stick … … Organization wide tacit knowledge is more important than any single improvement.
  131. 131. Improvement Kata “The point of a kaizen event is to make an improvement … oh, and by the way, you might learn something.” “The point of the improvement kata is to learn something … oh, and by the way, you might make an improvement.”
  132. 132. Start with a VSM
  133. 133. Improvement Kata • Assumes no problem(s) • Aligns by the value stream “vision” • Identifies quickly obtainable target condition • Learning/understanding is progress • Obstacles, not problems • Many obstacles on the way to the vision
  134. 134. Current Condition Challenge/ Obstacles Next Target Condition Vision for Customer Improvement Kata Map
  135. 135. Improvement Kata • Steps 1 & 2: – Determine performance gap • Step 3: – Pick any obstacle to work on (doesn’t matter which) • Step 4: – Experiment • Step 5: – What did you learn?
  136. 136. What’s the Gap? (LEI) • What is the difference between the current offerings of the enterprise and the customer’s purpose? • What’s the difference between the performance of the key processes addressing customer purpose and the needs of the customer? • There is always a gap. • Current State vs. Future State (VSM) • Current Condition vs. Target Condition (Toyota Kata)
  138. 138. TARGET
  139. 139. Target Condition
  140. 140. Current Condition
  141. 141. Current Condition • Block diagram • Takt • Cycle time • Output fluctuation • One-piece flow • Staffing • Capacity/shift • Number of operators Grasp the current condition, GO & SEE:
  142. 142. Three Keys to Lean Leadership • GO SEE – “Sr. Mgmt. must spend time on plant floor.” • ASK WHY – “Use the ‘Why?’ technique daily. • SHOW RESPECT – “Respect your people.” - Fujio Cho (LEI)
  143. 143. Go See • Visit the point where value is actually being created; verify the situation.
  144. 144. Lean Leadership Checklist (LEI) Do you: Ask 5 whys, or is it 1 “who?” Show respect by asking questions, or is it “giving answers.” Make sure every leader is a teacher manufacturing new leaders? Dig into the details (“go see”) to a point that the root cause of the problem/gap is clear” (Turn hunches and data into facts).
  145. 145. Lean Leadership • Respect for Others – “One of the most disrespectful things one person can do to another is to waste their time. To allow people to continue to work with processes that take longer than they should is disrespectful”. – To what degree has management embraced this philosophy? Toyota Executive
  147. 147. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process: _______________ Process Metric: _________________ Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn
  148. 148. Case Study #1 Involves improvement efforts in a 500 bed public hospital by an RN Case Manager. Since it is a public hospital, it must accept charity cases. If an uninsured patient requires DME, it must (by law) be provided before discharge or else the patient must stay occupying a valuable bed.
  149. 149. Improvement Kata applied to … • The reintroduction of obsolete forms, • The reintroduction of an obsolete checklist for training new case managers and social workers, • Use of assessment checklists, • The use of pamphlets to encourage unfunded patient paperwork retrieval, • Case manager aid in coordinating bedside nurse discharge • Standardizing criteria for indigent out of state patients.
  150. 150. TARGET CONDITION FORM Process: Discharge Preparation Challenge: TC Date: 10/27/11 CURRENT CONDITIONS TARGET CONDITIONS Access durable medical equipment before discharge. • DME not on assessment for discharge plan. •Communication gaps (RN to RN & faculty to resident). •No Rx prior to CERNER proposal for DME. Do we propose to faculty or resident? •Insurance information on admission for the discharge plan is sometimes incorrect. •When providing DME list to family or patient, they think they have to purchase it and delay. •Sometimes DME arrives day of discharge and have to wait for it. •Assess the need for DME early. •Communicate to RN, MD and Patient the need for DME. •Once need is determined, obtain RX for DME. •Obtain insurance information to pay for DME. •Provide DME list to family to make arrangements to purchase one. •Have DME arrive the day before discharge.
  151. 151. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process: Proposal for DME (durable med. equip.) Process Metric: Time to sign DME (mins.) Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn 10/28 Ask CERNER power user if proposal DME is sent to faculty, can resident sign? The proposal sent to named MD will be the one signing the proposal (i.e. faculty). Proposal to “sent to” is the MD that needs to sign. May propose to 2 residents, Whomever accepts can sign for the DME. Don’t send to faculty. Send proposal to the 2 residents. The fist to sign eliminates the Other proposal (i.e. will not cause a “floating order” in CERNER}. 10/31 Send proposal for DME to 2 residents and see what happens. Make sure they receive and accept it. Expect to have to train them on how. Proposal was received on MD’s messages center. Showed them how to: Click ok and send to print on prescription printer. Learned proposal goes to MD message center on CERNER. 11/1 Ask CERNER power user. ”Can DME proposal be chosen for Multiple DME devices or one Per each?” I predict that I’ll be able to propose multiple devices on a single proposal. Attempted to send multiple DME’s on a single proposal. Power user was present. Unsuccessful. 11/2 Email top CERNER power User to find out if there’s a way to send multiple DME’s on a single proposal. I predict that there is a Way to accomplish this. …………………. ………………….
  152. 152. Case Study #2 Involves improvement efforts in the service department of a contract manufacturer. The manager of the service department would like all the service vehicles loaded and ready to go by the time the technicians arrive to work at 8 am.
  153. 153. Improvement Kata Applied to … • Use of credit card to backup invoices. • Improve pre-production QC order check. • Uploading photos of goods ready to ship. • Streamline Drive-Through paperwork. • Procedure to have PM’s review aging backorders. • Producing field quotations. • Grouping product parts on service orders.
  154. 154. TARGET CONDITION FORM Process: Staging Material Challenge: TC Date: 11-17-14 CURRENT CONDITIONS TARGET CONDITIONS Procure Materials (4 possible locations) and stage in 1 area. Sales orders reviewed daily and automatically stage when ready Identify staging area Materials & quantity “pre” verified to free up time for Paul Trucks loaded & ready to go by 5 pm & possibly taken home by technicians Staged by 3 pm each day Trucks loaded late (morning) 1 in woodshop 0 in shipping/receiving 2 in hollow metal shop 8 in cage Requested 2 to be staged but weren’t staged by 3 pm Staged in available area Paul verifies material & quantities Sales orders must be requested Locate & Stage Customer Material
  155. 155. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process: _______________ Process Metric: _________________ Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn Staging Material Orders ready 48 hrs. prior to work day 11/24 No automatic notification that all materials are ready. Why? MAS200 is capable of this. - Tina MAS200 not capable of generating email Notification. MAS200 not capable of auto generation of ready material – existing method still most efficient. 12/1 - - - - 12/2 - - - -
  156. 156. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process: _______________ Process Metric: _________________ Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn Stage Material by 3 pmStaging Material 12/4 How/what materials are staged: Tonia – she expects. Zac – How it facilitates our delivery. Zac’s not going to know. When he gets time? Zac – Staging box on Wall. -Hot ticket option -Priority Make ticket -If 9 – 11 is best delivery, Then by 5 pm. Tania – 2 to 3 requests per day for staging. Zac – Best times for notification, 9 – 11 am. Tania – affirmed. 12/9 Mock test at 11:00 am For 3 pm staging (request sent at 10:55) Zac will ask for more time or earlier request. Wasn’t staged by 3:00 pm. 11:00 am may be too late – 2 other sales orders were staged (shows randomness of process).
  157. 157. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process:_______________ Process Metric: _________________ Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn Staging Material Stage material by 3 pm. 12/12 8:30 request by Mark for a 10 am staging – promised. Zac – We were too Busy. Tonia – Statement of time. Zac – Short-handed & candidates being Interviewed. Tonia – Put in a 3:00 pm email request in. Too busy? Short-handed? Maybe a capacity problem. 12/12 (side-bar) UMHB order staged, but not requested. Why? Order in the way. Back order, made sense to do. It took 2 efforts to get correct material here for sales order we did not ask for. 12/15 Send sales order for staging by 11 am. Will be staged by 3 pm. Staged at 4:45 pm Late, but staged on the same day!* *Important to note, at this point in the kata, the process has improved from a 2 – 3 day period to stage material, down to a single day. More progress, however, needs to be made.
  158. 158. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process: _______________ Process Metric: _________________ Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn Staging Stage material by 3 pm. 12/16 Meet with Zac and See about 3 pm reliability. You never know how busy they are. Do it when they have time? Short-handed with staff. Informed him of the reason we need 3 pm delivery. Said that same day is still better than next day – self QC. Zac’s dept. is short- handed and we need to work with him on that. New worker to help w/ hot tickets. I expect 6 weeks for hire to occur. 12/17 Meet with Rob (Zac’s Boss) to see if new employee for Zac is true & viable. -Short-handed? -New guy on way? -When? -Opinion on Zac’s statement. Yes, short-handed. New employee Hired w/in 6 weeks. 7.5 workers Perhaps a new hire in the beginning of the year. Should have enough workers to cover the work load. Not expecting new hire.
  159. 159. PDCA CYCLES FORM Process: _______________ Process Metric: _________________ Trial Dates What do I expect? Trial/Test Result What did I Learn Staging Material Stage Material by 3 pm 12/18 Tonia email to Will Call for delivery/staging: - 3pm - Notice of issues - Follow-up @ 3 pm. Tonia will send email and have to wait. Tonia to send email: • S/O on subject line • S/O in body • Send by 11 am • Follow up if busy Tonia emails Zac appropriately & then waits. 12/19 Monitor daily progress, especially failures. Get a percentage. 1 in 5 will be wrong. 20% failure rate. Checked 2 jobs, both ok. 20% wrong Confirmed 12/22 Check Monday’s jobs for accuracy. 1 will be inaccurate. Quantities are ok, will check shop work.
  160. 160. Lean Leadership in Action (LEI) What’s needed to make Lean Leadership effective? Employee who takes responsibility for defining & solving the problem. Supervisor who can mentor employee along the path of discovery & resolution. NOTE: it’s all about dialogue – a continuing conversation between manager & subordinate or responsible person & all of those touching a process.
  161. 161. Toyota: From 5 Who’s to 5 Why’s • Good Toyota leaders don’t jump to conclusions or solutions – they try to first size up the situation and then ask “Why?” • This focuses on the work and problem at hand, avoiding finger-pointing seeking of where to place the blame. • It also keeps responsibility with the person who is doing the work, • This is what truly engages and empowers the workforce. - LEI
  162. 162. Kata Use of Stand Alone Features • Genchi Gembutsu, Gemba Kaizen, Gemba Walks • Kaizen Teian • 5 Why analysis • Daily Improvement • Incremental improvement • Achieving conditions versus metrics • Total Employee Involvement
  163. 163. Kata Use of Stand Alone Features • Conveys proper use of A3 • Go slow to learn to go fast • Advances explicit knowledge • Enhances tacit knowledge • Small experiments – sometimes big jumps • Value stream analysis • Reflection • Creation of teachers
  164. 164. Cultural Modifiers • Habitual – daily • Required of all • Collaboration • Ease of practice • Achievement • Gratification • Succinct • Interesting • Fun - experimentation • Recognition • Relevance • Different kind of work • Broaden system knowledge
  165. 165. Ask Why • What is the target condition? What are possible countermeasures? Why is one countermeasure the best?
  166. 166. Show Respect • Assign clear responsibility for every process & problem; ask questions about people’s work.
  167. 167. Lean Leadership Checklist (LEI) Do you: Ask for alternatives, not one countermeasure? Ask about additional countermeasures in case things don’t go as planned during implementation? Assign responsibility to “manufacture” authority for transformation through detailed discussions with every function, department, & person touching processes?
  168. 168. Total Employee Involvement • Involve the people • Allow them some “say” • Provide clear understanding of the benefits • Ask for positive, constructive ideas for solving any relevant issues • Allow them to express their feelings & ideas • Measure participation
  169. 169. The Coaching Kata • Tools: – The Coaching Kata Card – The Target Condition Form – The PDCA Cycle Form • Knowledge/Skill: – Knowledge of Lean Principles – Competent TWI-JI Instructor – Well Practiced in the Improvement Kata
  170. 170. What is Coaching? • An ongoing process of helping people achieve results • Integral part of “face to face” leadership • Spending constructive time with a person or group • Listening, advising, instructing, communicating enthusiasm
  171. 171. Preceptor vs. Coach • A Coach can teach the process • A Preceptor can teach the process and maintain the “precepts” of the organization, i.e. Sensei.
  172. 172. Coaching Points • Choose only 1 obstacle & stick with it • Compare target & current conditions • “P” – Don’t forget to predict the outcome of your experiment • “D” – Always an experiment, but not necessarily an implementation • “C” – Compare prediction to results, this is the learning. • “A” – adjust (new cycle) or act (implement)
  173. 173. Coaching Points • Analyze carefully, but cycle fast! • There are usually more than one answer (countermeasure) • If experiment takes time, don’t move to another target condition obstacle • Use lean principals (e.g. 1 piece flow), process being analyzed, and target condition to stay on track.
  174. 174. TPM / SMED Quality at Source Standard WIP POUS Standard Work 5S System Teams Plant Layout Visual Cellular/FlowTAKT Production Pull Value Stream Mapping The New House of Lean Lean J O B I N S T R U C T I O N K A T A J O B M E T H O D S K A T A J O B R E L A T I O N S K A T A J O B S A F E T Y K A T A Improvement Kata Coaching Kata Problem Solving Kata Continuous Improvement
  175. 175. Cultural Transformation Strategy
  176. 176. Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers IMPROVEMENT MAINTENANCE -Gemba Kaizen Massaki Imai Type of Kaizen & Job Function
  177. 177. Clam Shell Approach • TWI Job Instruction – Management trained, implemented from the bottom up. • Improvement Kata – Management coached, implemented from the top down.
  178. 178. Being World Class is a Decision
  179. 179. Conrad Soltero (512) 585-1567 email: csoltero@swri.org Larry Rucker (210) 522-3110 email: lrucker@swri.org For More Information