2. Lines are a basic element of design that can help
organize, texturize, guide the observers eye, provide
movement, make a statement, and convey universal
3. Shape is another basic element design.
The three types of shapes are
natural, geometric, and abstract.
Shapes are used to help guide the
eye, universal meaning, or to
organize information. Natural
shapes can be found in nature or
man made shapes, examples of
these are a flower or a ink blob.
Geometric shapes are often
symmetrical shapes, such as
rectangles, circles, and rectangles
but can also include
cubes, octagons, and cones.
Abstract shapes are simplified or
stylized versions of natural shapes.
Symbols on signs such as the
people in the crossing sign are a
form of abstract shapes.
4. Form (3D) is a three
dimensional shape where as
Shape is only two
dimensional. Forms are
objects that can be
held, walked around, or in
some cases walk inside
5. Color affects people differently on how they will respond to a visual composition.
Color has 4 main vocabulary words, they are hue, value, intensity, and
Hue: Is the primary colors, red, green, and blue.
Value: The amount of white or black added.
Intensity: The purity or saturation of the color.
Monochromatic Color: use of a single color in which only the value of the color
7. Texture is will always be a part of our designs
whether it is intentional or not. Textures
can be added by arranging lines or shapes
on specific surfaces.
8. Depth can show objects up closer or further away than others. For example when
looking down a street the closer buildings appear larger than the buildings at the
other end of the street. There a four different ways for a artist to illustrate
depth, these are, size & vertical location, overlapping, detail (aerial or atmospheric
perspective), and linear perspective.
Size & vertical location: Since objects in the environment look smaller when they are
farther away, the easiest way for a artist to depth in a visual presentation is to vary
the size of the objects in the image, with the smaller ones in the background.
Objects that are also small and higher up on the page also suggest that they are
further away than the larger objects in the front of the presentation.
Overlapping: This is done by partially covering up a object with another object or
objects. This helps give the viewer a sense of depth in the image.
Detail (aerial or atmospheric perspective): This technique uses color and value
contrasts to show depth in the visual presentation. Further images will blend with
the background and be blurry, were as the objects at the front will be sharper
contrast and a lot clearer.
10. Light in images can provide contrast and give objects volume. Where the light
source is directed from and the amount of light can affect the viewers
perspective. Silhouettes (light source behind object) appear more two
dimensional because they lack form.
11. We can not show motion in a image so we must rely on “tricks” to show motion to the viewer.
There a six different tricks that a artist can use to show motion in his or hers presentation.
These tricks include anticipated movement, fuzzy outlines, multiple images, optical
movement, optical illusions, and rhythm and movement.
Anticipated movement: Figures portrayed in unstoppable body positions causes the feel of
motion, such as a keeper (soccer goalie) diving for the ball.
Fuzzy outlines: When an object passes us at a high speed we perceive it as a bit blurry, such as a
formula one car passing a spectator on the straight away. This experience helps the viewer
interpret blurry objects in an image with conveying motion.
Multiple images: Similar objects overlapped helps give artist display a sense of motion in the
Optical Movement: This trick makes the viewers eyes move around the image in order to see all
of the different elements. Optical movement can be enhanced by curved forms that keep
our eyes moving in a circular motion.
Optical illusions: Certain optical illusions will cause the viewer to see motion by using a
repetition of geometric shapes.
12. Rhythm and movement: some images move your eyes in a easy, connected, stately flow.
While others move you in a abrupt, and dynamic way.
13. Every element in an artist visual presentation
has a physical mass. Mass or size is the
dimensions of the piece
(height, weight, depth (3D), and
14. Tone can be regarded as value since both terms refer to the
various degrees of darkness or lightness. Some important
terms for tone include shade, tint, tone, and value.
Shade: Is a color with black added to it.
Tint: Is a color with white added to it.
Tone: Is a color with grey added to it.
Value: Is the amount of lightness or darkness in colors. Is much
easier to see if colors are changed to greyscale.
16. Value is the amount lightness or darkness of a
specific area. Variations of value help to create
a focal point for the design in a presentation.
For example a black square on a white
background. Gradations of value can also be
used to give objects depth.
17. Space in images includes the background, foreground, and the
middle ground. Positive space represents the subject
matter, while negative space refers to the space around the
18. There are three different types of balance, they are symmetrical, asymmetrical, and
Symmetrical: A symmetrical image is when the left side and the right side is almost a
perfect mirror image of the other side. Objects with different masses on either
side of the image can easily throw off the balance.
Asymmetrical: A asymmetrical image is usually an off centered symmetrical image.
With an asymmetrical image you can use smaller objects to balance a large photo
out that has a few bigger objects on either side or you can avoid adding the
smaller images to make the image unbalanced.
Radial: on a standard page we generally place elements in orderly columns and rows.
When using a radial technique we have the elements radiate from or swirl around
in a spiral path. Some parts of the design still must be arranged so that image is
balanced across the page, only if the artist does not want it to be balanced.
20. Emphasis is when the viewer is immediately drawn to a specific
focal point. Another name for emphasis that is sometimes used is
dominance. Creating emphasis can be done by making an object
larger , changing the font, or by using contrasting colors.
21. Proportion is the specific scale of various elements in a design. The
most commonly used form of measurement is the human body.
Architecture that is created to impress are usually scaled to dwarf
the human viewers. This is commonly used in
churches, government buildings, and great halls in castles. It is also
used by corporations when they want to impress customers with
their power and invincibility.
22. Newspapers, Books, Magazines, and Brochures all have many
common repeating visual effects. Some of the affects that
these all have are text size, location of page number, and
column width. By doing this in these specific examples
makes it easier for someone to read and locate where they
left off or information they want to look over again.
23. Is a way of making objects in a image look related to one another. The three
techniques used to make unity are proximity, repetition, and
Proximity: This is of the simplest ways to create unity. All the artist has to
do is closely place certain objects together to give the viewer a sense of
unity between the objects.
Repetition: This form of unity is done by repeating color, shape, texture, or
an object to tie the image together.
Continuation: A more subtle method of unifying work is done by a
line, edge, or direction from one area to another. This method is
commonly used in books and magazines to tie key elements on a page
25. Contrast occurs when two elements are clearly different from one
another. The greater the difference means the greater the contrast is.
The biggest key to working with contrast is making sure that the
differences are very obvious. The four common methods to creating
contrast are by using different color, size, value, and type. Contrast
gives interest to a page and also provides means of emphasizing what
is important. An image that does not have contrast makes it harder for
the viewer to know where to look first, where as an image with
contrast automatically draws the viewer to what is the key element in
the presentation. Contrast aids in making headlines and sub headlines
stand out from the rest of the text and also helps by making the
smaller or lighter elements recede on a page to allow other elements
to stand out.
27. Is a visually satisfying affect by combining
similar or related elements. For example the
artist could use adjacent colors on the color
wheel or use similar shapes to create harmony
in their work.
28. One easy way to create a visual composition that
gives the viewer a organized feel is to space
objects according to their relations to one
another. Proximity simply means that items that
are related should be closer together than those
that aren’t. the spacing between the items is a
visual clue for the viewer to know where what
objects are related to one another.
30. Variety means to change a elements “character”, to make a difference. Unity and variety are
complementary to one another, without unity a image is chaotic, and without variety an
image becomes bland. Five different ways to create variety is by
line, shape, color, value, and texture.
Line: This can be done by changing the width of the line, value, color, angle, and/or it’s length.
Shape: To create variety with shape you can change it’s size, type, orientation and it’s texture.
Color: Variety in color can be done by changing it’s hue, value, or it’s saturation.
Value: Value can be done by changing the darkness or lightness, high or low key, or by changing
it’s value contrast.
Texture: Texture can be done easily by making an item a smooth or rough surface.