Nutrition and brain_function

11 de Aug de 2012

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Nutrition and brain_function

  1. Nutrition and Brain Function Kalynn Anderson
  2. INTRODUCTION As we well know by now in class, the brain is made up of billions of neurons and transmitters and is incapable of regenerating itself and does not make new neurons, but recently scientist have begun to research the effects that proper nutrition has on the brain. Through these next few slides I will explain what I have learned by researching how nutrition effects the brain from our time in the fetus to our current age.
  3. The fetal brain is most effected as it grows rapidly from the 10th to 18th week of pregnancy. This is where the importance of nutrition begins to come into play. Without a healthy nutritional diet during this time and throughout pregnancy can lead to growth issues, complete devastation to the nervous system that can last several years after birth, mental retardation and/or behavioral problems. Above is a picture I have provided to show the growth of the brain from the website
  4. The science of nutrition and brain function is still evolving and is a relatively new study, but what scientist have found out is that nutrients are essential to human brain function. If a brain were to have B12 and iron deficiencies, it could lead to impaired cognitive function due to nerve fiber complications. Cognition- the ability to use simple to complex information to meet the challenges of daily living; WWW.ARS.USDA.GOV/IS/AR/ARCHIVE/AUG07/AGING0807.HTM
  5. At the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston, the head of neuroscience James Joseph ran a study using rats, where the control group was fed standard chow and the test group were fed antioxidants to show the effects on the brain such as vitamin, strawberry extracts, or spinach extracts and did not experience any age related cognitive performance losses that the control group displayed and reversed age related deficits and showed high stamina, they put the rats in mazes and were amazed with the results.  Control group  Test group
  6. During these tests they found that depending on what Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) units, (which include both fat and water soluble values) food contained had a higher effect on the test rats and while the brain cannot heal itself it does need outside nutrition and vitamins to help it stabilize and reach its full potential Microglia- repair mechanisms involving neural immune cells that help to heal and protect injured brain tissue
  7. During these next few slides I will be talking about what the brain needs to run properly, diet and neurotransmitters
  8. The brain needs special material to run properly: glucose, protein, vitamins, minerals and essential chemicals glucose- the preferred form of energy for many of the body cells including the brain and muscle cells and is found in many food sources. There are a variety of foods that the body either chemically reduces to glucose, which is absorbed into the bloodstream or is chemically converted to glucose such as starch, which is made up of long chains of glucose molecules chemically connected together. Other food sources include lactose, milk and other dairy products Protein- large molecules made from amino acids, which are enzymes and hormones. Food sources of protein include meat, eggs, beans and dairy products. Essential vitamins and minerals-Vitamins and minerals are needed by the body but not produced by the body therefore must be taken in as part of the diet. “Biochemistry”; Reginald Garrett, PH.D. and Charles Grisham, PH.D.; 2007
  9. Diet and neurotransmitters Certain foods contain precursors or starting material for some neurotransmitters. If a diet is deficient, the brain will not be able to produce some neurotransmitters. Neurological and mental disorders may occur when this balance is upset. Examples of neurotransmitter precursors include: Aspartic acid Choline Glutamic acid Phenylalanine Tryptoplean Tyrosine
  10. ASPARTIC ACID Used to make aspartate, the building blocks of protein. Found in peanuts, potatoes, eggs and grains
  11. CHOLINE Used to make acetycholine, which effects both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system and is the only neurotransmitter used in the motor division of the somatic nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles; found in eggs liver and soybeans
  12. GLUTAMIC ACID Used to make glutamate which plays a key role in long term potentiation and is important for learning and memory; found in flour and potatoes
  13. PHENYLALANINE Used to make dopamine, a simple organic chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells, there are five known types of dopamine receptors. Found in beets, soy beans, almonds, eggs, meats and grains.
  14. TRYPTOPLEAN Used to make serotonin, found in the GI tract, platelets, and central nervous system. They act as many functions in the brain such as regulation of mood, appetite and sleep. Serotonin also has cognitive functions including memory and learning. Found in eggs, meat, skim milk, bananas, yogurt, milk and cheese.
  15. TYROSINE Used to make norepinepherine, which functions as the neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic neurons affecting the heart. As a stress hormone norepinepherine affects parts of the brain such as amygdala where attention and fight or flight responses are controlled. Found in milk, meat, fish, and legumes
  16. Finally, to conclude my presentation I thought I would inset a video where an experienced neurosurgeon talks about the effects of nutrition and brain health. Thank you for taking the time to read through my slideshow, I hope you found something new and interesting.  U0imEAlUg
  17. Bibliography  Books: Biochemistry; Reginald Garrett, Ph.D. and Charles Grisham, PH.D.; 2007  Websites: 1. 2. 3. y.html 4. htm 5.