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  1. 1. MEMORYTraciPapoffPsych 275C. Moon08/10/2012
  2. 2. MEMORY• The power or process of • The store of things reproducing or recalling learned and retained what has been learned from an organism’s and retained esp. through activity or experience as associative mechanisms. indicated by modification of structure or behavior or by recall or recognition.• Source: Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary,2006.
  3. 3. TYPES OF MEMORY• Memory actually takes many different forms. We know that when we store a memory, we are storing information. But, what that information is and how long we retain it determines what type of memory it is. The biggest categories of memory are short- term memory (or working memory) and long-term memory, based on the amount of time the memory is stored.• Source: http://www.positscience.com/hu man-brain/memory/types-of- memory
  4. 4. SHORT TERM MEMORY• Short-term or working memory is the brief time of keeping something in mind before dismissing it or pushing it into long- term memory. The hippocampus and subiculum store short- term memories.• Source: *Brain, The Complete Mind, pg.243
  5. 5. LONG-TERM MEMORY• Long-term memory is • Long-Term Memory our brains system for storing, managing, and Types: retrieving information. There are many • PROCEDURAL different forms of long- term memory. • PRIMING• Source: http://www.positscienc • EPISODIC e.com/human- brain/memory/types- • SEMANTIC of-memory
  6. 6. PROCEDURAL MEMORY• An implicit memory, allowing action to be performed unconsciously; “how to” knowledge.• Stored first in the motor cortex, then sent to the cerebellum.• Source: Brain; The Complete Mind, pg. 243.
  7. 7. PRIMING MEMORY• An implicit memory, which biases the brain to nonconsciously recall recently experienced information quickly.• Stored in cerebral cortex regions that process original stimuli.• Source: Brain, the Complete Mind, pg.243.
  8. 8. EPISODIC MEMORY• A declarative (explicit) memory, in which conscious thought recalls personal experiences.• The prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus.• Source: Brain, The Complete Mind, pg.243.
  9. 9. SEMANTIC MEMORY• A declarative (explicit) memory, in which conscious thought calls up learned knowledge, such as facts about the world.• Stored, in perhaps, the same regions as episodic memory (prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus).• Source: Brain, The Complete Mind, pg.243.
  10. 10. MEMORY PARTS• MEMORY HAS THREE PARTS:• ENCODING• STORAGE• RETRIEVAL• Source: Brain, The Complete Mind, pg.239
  11. 11. ENCODING• Encoding is based on perception • During this process neurotransmitters fire and is the first step to creating a chemicals into the synapse memory. and dendrites creating• The strength of the memory memories, also known as depends on how much elaboration. attention is paid to the stimuli. • Even though these connections are made, they• During encoding memories are are not concrete, these developed in the hippocampus synapse and dendrites change by using the language of and so do our memories. electricity and chemicals. • Source:• When we create new memories *http://science.howstuffworks .com/environmental/life/insid with words and images it adds e-the-mind/human- strength to our encoding brain/human-memory1.htm abilities.
  12. 12. STORAGE• Storage is the process of retaining the information • Sensory memory extends the duration of the perception of gathered in the initial stages of stimuli long enough that they encoding. can be recognized,• Memory storage is made up of transformed (encoded), and three memory systems: relayed to conscious sensory memory, short-term awareness. memory, and long-term • Short-term memory (STM) has memory. a limited duration (15 to 30 seconds) and a limited• Source: capacity, believed to be about *http://www.cliffsnotes.com/s seven pieces of information. tudy_guide/Memory- • Long-term memory (LTM) has Storage.topicArticleId- an unlimited capacity and a 25438,articleId-25419.html very long duration; it is virtually limitless
  13. 13. RETRIEVAL• Retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory.• Retrieval cues are stimuli that can be used to help retrieve memories.• Priming is the process of identifying traces (perhaps associations made at the time the memory was formed) that lead to a memory.• Source: *http://www.cliffsnotes.com/stu dy_guide/Memory- Retrieval.topicArticleId- 25438,articleId-25420.html
  14. 14. MEMORY LOSS TYPES DESCRIPTION •• Alcohol blackout Causes partial or total memory loss for events occurring after rapid, heavy consumption of alcohol.• Dissociative fugue • Creates confusion about identity and life events. Commonly accompanied by wandering.• Korsakoff’s psychosis • Strikes some chronic alcoholics . Causes inability to form short-term memories. Patient may even invent memories.• Post-traumatic amnesia • Occurs after coma. Causes disorientation,agitation, inability to remember anything prior to injury.• Repressed memory • Arises as reaction to early trauma. Memories are later recovered. • Source: Brain, The Complete Mind,pg. 257.
  15. 15. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY• *Postit-Science/human brain. (2012, March). Retrieved from Post it Science: http://www.positscience.com/human- brain/memory/types-of-memory This article is information in regards to the scientific study ofbrain function around memory.• *John Wiley & Sons. (2012). Memory Retrieval. unknown: Cliff Notes. In regards to simple and understandable language, memoryretrieval and its processes, are explained and simplified.• *Merriam-Webster,Incorporated. (2006). Merriam-Websters Medical Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. This dictionary was developed to serve as a languagetranslator between patients and doctors.
  16. 16. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY cont.• Richard C. Mohs, P. (2012). Memory Encoding. How Human Memory Works, 4. The detailed descriptions of memory encoding and its physical,psychological and chemical processes can be found and understood inthis article.• Sons, J. W. (2012). Memory Storage. Cliff Notes, Inc. The long and the short, of how memory storage is developedand processed.• *Sweeney, M. S. (2011). Brain, The Complete Mind. Washington D.C.: National Geographic. This book describes the complexity of the human brain fromits development to its processes and operations.