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Enterprise architecture DefinitionEnterprise architecture is the process of translatingbusiness vision and strategy into effective enterprisechange by creating, communicating and improving thekey principles and models that describe theenterprises future state and enable its evolution.The scope of the enterprise architecture includes thepeople, processes, information and technology of theenterprise, and their relationships to one another andto the external environment.Enterprise architects compose holistic solutions thataddress the business challenges of the enterprise andsupport the governance needed to implement them. Gartner3
The Need of ArchitectureThe Winchester House, San Jose, California • 38 years of construction – 147 builders 0 architects • 160 rooms – 40 bedrooms, 6 kitchens, 2 basements, 950 doors • 65 doors to blank walls, 13 staircases abandoned, 24 skylights in floors • No architectural blueprint exists
Role of an Architect – Climbing The Right Mountain• Use helicopter to see the “problem” mountain that needs to be climbed Not all problem mountains are easy to pick out of their surroundings• Use the helicopter to land on the mountain that needs climbing• Lead the team that trek through the jungle of confusion to the mountain and climb it because this is a guided journey not an expedition
Architecture Development Process (e.g.TOGAF) Prelim : Framework andGovernance & Chg Mgmt Principles Business Architecture A Architecture H Vision B Architecture Business Change Mgmt Architecture IIllustrative IIllustrative G C Implementation Require Information Migration Plan Governance ments System Technical Architecture GPDS ? Engineering Specs Engineering Specs Architectures N/A Alliances (Renault, Lotus, Bertone) Market/car-line requirements/plan, ALLDEV stock, uncleared allocation (monthly) Marketing input? Engineering Specs Confirmed Market/carline model/trim requirements / allocation requirements / allocation Production Orders & Schedule Allocation Central Order Matching Restrictions Central Scheduling (OMA) Table Generated Orders & (CSP/CSDB) Monthly Schedule Live Orders NSC Production requirements Vehicle / plan (monthly) Specs Free Demand Planning Process Master (PLP) Free Demand Scheduler Order Forecasting (FDOF) Generated Orders (40 wks) COP (1726) Production requirements (monthly) F N/A 10575 Vehicle Sales & Production N/A Reformatted Generated Orders Stock Statistics Orders & Seq. & Sched. Marketing Offer Marketing (VSSS) Schedule (weekly) Sequenced Orders, Production Projected System (MOS) Intent VOHS Orders MGO Supplier Systems Status Materials Model Package Versions (MPVs) BOM N/A Vehicle Specs Exploded ? Marketing Marketing Orders Order Status, Alignment Tool 10725 10707 BOM Exploded Orders (MALT - UK only) Channel 21 1800 Vehicle Orders, Inquiry Dynamic Systems Advanced Specs Sales Forecast Interface (DSI) Autosequence Vehicle Orders, Inquiry N/A at carline level (AAS includes (monthly) Dealer OPAW) Sequenced Orders & Management Non-CSP EPICS Vehicle Vehicle Orders Due Dates Final Volume System (DMS) Order Order Production Orders (from Dealer) (monthly) D Events Events Systems (country/ 10609 7188 Dealer region specific) ? 10518 Produced Order Processing Terminal System N/A Vehicle Orders Orders Logistics Dealer System (OPS) Order Info, Events Distribution (TSV) Order 10572 (Outside UK) Event Processing Info / Communications Events Logistics System (EPS) Order Request EOG System (DCS2) Communication Forwarder Events Logistics System (GM*Drive Systems Generated - LCS) Produced Info / Order Status Vehicle Orders Vehicle Details Orders TRAF2 Request 10704 (8 weeks ahead) (UK only) 10505 N/A European Inter/Intra Locator Certificate of Sales Forecast Company Vehicle Order Status Conformity Other External at carline Vehicle Orders Vehicle European Systems Migration Management (GM*Drive - N/A level (monthly) Sales (ICVM - future) ECoC) Info (ECS, CSI, ICATS, Sales Forecast SCOOP) Forecast FAST (2 years) 10557 NSC Invoice Triggering Order Status (GM*Drive - IVC) 10704 Additional GM*Drive subsytems Additional GM*Drive subsytems Inventory HPS (10546) - Hold Processing ESDS (10517) - part of OPS Management NVH (10584) - NSC Vehicle Handling Vehicle PDH (10636) - Production Deviation Handling Repoting (SIS- SSS (10672) - Source Shipping Intake Info PRL (10629) - Prereleasing Warranty Systems IMR) TAI (10687) - Type Approval SVO (10673) - Special Vehicle Ordering - part of OPS (country/region DES (N/A) - Retail & Registration E Order information GM*Drive (1750) VIS (10702) - Vehicle Inquiry System specific) for local legal requirements, DDC (N/A) - Dealer & Dest. Changes customs documents, type approval documents, etc Vehicle & Order Data ? ? ? ? ? ? Additional GM*Drive subsystems ? 1890 Additional external systems MEN (10580) - Menu subsystem Technology Production Car Ordering Planning Local Company Car Order Processing MUL (10583) - Multilanguage support PEM (Saab) PEG (Saab) PMU (Saab) BLOD (Saab) CAS-E (Saab) Scheduling (PS - Scheduling Vehicle Registrations SGM, Mexico, Holden, Yanase (OP - Saab) SEC (10666) - Security Volume Forecasting Model Option CKD Saab) System (COSS) & Macro Scheduling Forecasting Volume Planning Portugal SKD Dealer / Customer Order Management Vehicle Order Scheduling & Sequencing Vehicle Production & Delivery Local Dealer Information Systems Vehicle Spec Local Fleet Management Pricing Info Vehicle Invoicing Fleet Customers and Pricing Local Customs System (VIPS) Invoice Info Product Costing EPCS, WPCS, CLAN Marketing Info Local Type Approval Local Registration GMAC Local Accounting Dealer Audit Agencies & Insurance Customer Assistance GM*CUSTOM Customer Information GM*MOVE Vehicle Information FFCS Field Force Communication MRS Manufacturer Reporting Opportunities Architecture and Solutions IIllustrative IIllustrative
Enterprise Architecture Analogy: The OODA LoopThe OODA Loop was originated by U.S. Air Force Colonel John Boyd, who developed it to define a way to understand howfighter pilots, often in inferior aircraft, consistently won air combat engagements against enemy pilots. What Boyd observed wasthat winning pilots acted more quickly than their less successful opponents by cycling rapidly through four states: •Observe — See the situation and adversary. •Orient — Size up the vulnerabilities and opportunities. •Decide — Determine which combat maneuver to take. •Act — Execute the maneuver.
EA : The Multi Year Plan Although modern vision talk about governance models, iterative approaches and focus on value and business case, however … There is only one way and that is the top-down approach • Observe : business contect • Orient : define future state • Decide : create the plan • Act : Execute the plan
Link to Business Strategic Planning andBudget Process “In a well-architected enterprise, EA is the coordinating process that helps guide the strategic and management processes of the enterprise to be in sync with respect to evolving toward a future state vision.” “EA efforts must continually be revisited and updated to reflect the current business.” Source: Gartner - The Thirteen Worst EA Practices 10
Enterprise Architecture : The EssentialsAlice stands at a crossroads and asks the cat The meaning of the painting is indicated by thewhich path she should take. title La Clairvoyance (perspicacity). The egg willHe asks “Where are you going?” become a bird. The artist sees what it willShe says she doesn’t know. become. Through understanding the artist“Well then, it doesn’t really matter which path knows that the egg will become a bird.you take.”