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Space for Hunting: Understanding Indigenous and other Hunters’ Impacts in the Congo Basin Forests

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Space for Hunting: Understanding Indigenous and other Hunters’ Impacts in the Congo Basin Forests

  1. 1. Space for Hunting Understanding Indigenous and other Hunters’ Impacts in the Congo Basin Forests John E. Fa, Jesus Olivero, Andrew Noss, Hirokazu Yasuoka, Michael Riddell, Jerome Lewis, Serge Bahuchet, Miguel Angel Farfán, Jesus Duarte, Romain Duda, Sandrine Gallois, Guiseppe Carpanetto, Shiho Hattori, and Robert Nasi
  2. 2. • Pygmy communities identify themselves as ‘forest peoples’ due to the fundamental importance of the forest to their culture, livelihood and history. • Each is a distinct people, such as the Twa, Aka, Baka and Mbuti living in countries across central Africa, including the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Uganda and Cameroon. • Different groups have different languages and hunting traditions. • Although each community faces different threats and challenges, racism, logging and conservation are major problems for many, all contributing to serious health problems and violent abuse.
  3. 3. around 900,000 Pygmies
  4. 4. Study Sites Mbuti BaAka Study sample 34 Pygmy camps and other settlements 26 non-Pygmy villages
  5. 5. Attribute Pygmies Non-Pygmies Settlement size (inhabitants) 91.9 ± 24.3 range = 8–690 n = 33 882.4 ± 311.0 range = 35 – 6594 n = 22 Total length of studies (days) 66.2 ± 13.7 range = 3-368 279.6 ± 54.4 range = 7-1020 Sale of hunted game (%) 34.8 ± 6.4% range = 0 – 90% n = 26 65.4 ± 19.8%, range = 11 – 95.3% n = 24 Total: 34 Pygmy camps and other settlements; 26 non-Pygmy villages Study Sites
  6. 6. 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 PercentofSpecies Log Prey Body Mass (g) Non-Pygmies Pygmies Size Distribution of Vertebrate Kills Pygmies = 71 spp. 17.02 ± 14.83 kg; Non-Pygmies = 122 spp. 8.53 ± 2.40 kg
  7. 7. Pygmy hunters killed a total of 77 species of reptiles, birds and mammals; 62 mammals (74.2%), 8 birds and 7 reptiles. Non-Pygmy hunters took more species; 97 in total, of which 71 were mammals, 17 birds, 8 reptiles and 1 amphibians. Differences in Animal Groups Hunted Pygmies Non-Pygmies 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 A) Amphibians Birds Ungulates Carnivores Hyrax Pangolins Primates Elephant Rodents Aardvark Repiltes 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B)
  8. 8. Duikers/Chevrotain Rodents Pigs Guenons Rep les Mongooses/Civet Others Mangabeys/Baboons Cats Birds Pangolins Great apes Colobus Large ungulates Elephant Prosimians Buffalo Bats Hyrax -3.00 -2.50 -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 LogMeanPercentPrey,Non-Pygmies Log Mean Percent Prey, Pygmies Differences in Animal Groups Hunted Pygmies Non-Pygmies
  9. 9. Differences in Hunted Animal Groups by  Pygmies Low (0.15) Medium (0.69) High (0.17) Low (0.29) Medium (0.58) High (0.13) Non-Pygmies
  10. 10. Harvest rates HR = no. of animals killed/ no. of potential consumers x duration Extraction rates ER = no. of animals killed/ no. of hunters consumers x duration Harvest and extraction rates
  11. 11. Pygmies HR 20.4 ± 23.2 ind. P-1 Yr-1 376.3 ± 515.1 kg P-1 Yr-1 ER 87.9 ± 109.9 ind. H-1 Yr-1 1646.6 ± 2095.7 kg H-1 Yr-1 Non-Pygmies HR 39.5 ± 66.9 ind. P-1 Yr-1 307.0 ± 450.6 kg P-1 Yr-1 ER 162.0 ± 123.6 ind. H-1 Yr-1 1283.9 ± 1004.2 kg H-1 Yr-1 Differences in Harvest and Extraction Rates H = Hunter P = Person
  12. 12. 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Philantomba mon cola Cephalophus dorsalis Atherurus africanus Cephalophus callipygus Cercopithecus nic tans Cricetomys emini Phataginus tricuspis Hymoshcus aqua cus Kinixys erosa Cercocebus agilis Cephalophus ogilbyi Potamochoerus porcus Cephalophus nigrifrons A lax paludinosus Gene a servalina Cephalophus silvicultor Gorilla gorilla Gu era edouardi Pan troglodytes Felis aurata Extrac on (ind./km2/year) a) Non-Pygmies 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Cephalophus callipygus Philantomba mon cola Cephalophus dorsalis Atherurus africanus Potamochoerus porcus Cephalophus silvicultor Cricetomys emini Cephalophus ogilbyi Felis aurata Cercocebus agilis Hymoshcus aqua cus Cephalophus nigrifrons Kinixys erosa A lax paludinosus Gorilla gorilla Gu era edouardi Gene a servalina Pan troglodytes Cercopithecus nic tans Phataginus tricuspis Extrac on (ind./km2/year) b) Pygmies Extraction Rates by Species Pygmies Non-Pygmies
  13. 13. y = 0.6945x + 1.1409 R² = 0.43761 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 LogTerritorySize(km2) Log Population Size Estimating Settlements’ Territory Sizes
  14. 14. Pygmies Non-Pygmies 29 animals km-2 Yr-1 487 kg km-2 H-1 Yr-1 226 animals km-2 Yr-1 1730 kg km-2 H-1 Yr-1 Extraction per Square Kilometre
  15. 15. Non-Pygmies Pygmies Mapping Harvest Rates
  16. 16. Future

Notas do Editor

  • Pygmy hunters killed a total of 77 species of reptiles, birds and mammals; 62 mammals (74.2%), 8 birds and 7 reptiles. Non-Pygmy hunters took more species; 97 in total, of which 71 were mammals, 17 birds, 8 reptiles and 1 amphibians.
  • low (0 - 0.25), medium (0.25 -0.50) and high fecundity (>0.50) classes.
  • Population density, calculated utilizing the LandScan™ 2008 High Resolution (1 km2) Global Population Data Set (copyrighted by UT-Battelle, LLC, operator of Oak Ridge National Laboratory); and (2) urban areas, taken from MODIS 500-m Map of Global Urban Extent (produced using data circa 2001-2002, see Schneider et al., 2009, 2010).

    We calculated the Pygmy potential population size (PPS) for every grid cell of the study area (0.1° × 0.1°), according to favorability values in Olivero et al. (2016). From this, the Pygmy population density was computed using the following equation taking territoriality into account: Population density = (PPS × GCS/ASA)/GCS = PPS/ASA, where GCS is the size of a grid cell, and ASA is the average territory size estimated for Pygmies (i.e. 1,079 km2, see Olivero et al. 2016).

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