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Brazil is one of the leading countries in designing and implementing a REDD+ scheme. This presentation analyses the political process with its multitude of actors involved, their positions and relations, and the coalition building around REDD policy design. It presents the results of a study that reveals the dynamics of policy networking at a crucial moment of REDD in Brazil.
Maria Fernanda Gebara gave this presentation on 18 June 2012 at a panel discussion organised by CIFOR and partners at the ISEE 2012 Conference at Rio, which convened under the topic "Ecological Economics and Rio+20: Challenges and Contributions for a Green Economy". The panel was titled ‘National strategies for reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and degradation – how much transformational change is possible in current political and economic realities? Part II – A policy network perspective’. For more information, visit http://www.cifor.org/rio20/
Networks, actors and power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil
Networks, Actors and Power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil Global Compara+ve Study-‐REDD+ Interna+onal Society for Ecological Economics -‐ ISEE Maria Fernanda Gebara, Shaozeng Zhang, Leandra Fatorelli and Peter May June 2012 – Rio de Janeiro
REDD+ in Brazil Na+onal Interagency REDD+ Na+onal Strategy Task Force Zero Plan for Compensated Deforesta+on Climate Na+onal Policy for Sub-‐na+onal Reduc+on Pact Change Climate Change Ini+a+ves 2003 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Voluntary JUMA NAMAs WGs REDD+ Amazon Fund PPCDAM Regime and PES Principle and Bills Criteria PPCerrado More than 50 FIP projects Brazil and REDD+ - Timeline ABC Plan THINKING beyond the canopy
REDD+ PNA in BrazilObjec&ve: To characterise the actors related to REDD+ in Brazil who interact in more variant forms of poli&cal processes across diﬀerent levels, iden+fying their main rela&ons and inﬂuences. Research Ques&ons: § Who are the actors and networks inﬂuencing REDD+ policymaking in Brazil? § What are the surrounding poli+cs related to REDD+ in Brazil? § What are the implica+ons of policy network dimensions to REDD+ implementa+on in Brazil? THINKING beyond the canopy
Methods§ Iden+ﬁca+on of ins+tu+ons based on preliminary research with focus on the emerging REDD+ policy networks § Na+onal Level § Jun. 2010-‐Sept. 2011 § REDD+ Related Ac+vi+es § Posi+on on REDD+ issues 3Es + § Networks § Eﬀec+veness § Policies and Processes § Eﬃciency § Events § Equity § General Informa+on § Co-‐beneﬁts § Open Ques+ons THINKING beyond the canopy
Methods Total of 64 ins&tu&ons selected § Na+onal Government agencies (20): § Na+onal Research Ins+tu+ons (4): § Domes+c NGOs (14): § Interna+onal NGOs (8) § Na+onal Business Organiza+ons (6): § Interna+onal Government Agencies (2): § Donors (2): THINKING beyond the canopy
ResultsInﬂuence of actors THINKING beyond the canopy
ResultsCollabora&on between actors THINKING beyond the canopy
ResultsScien&ﬁc Informa&on THINKING beyond the canopy
ResultsResource Flow THINKING beyond the canopy
Results General Percep&ons § Majority called for a na&onal REDD regime/structure as soon as possible, but they disagreed with each other as to whether all REDD+ accoun&ng and payments should go through the na&onal governments. § The biggest challenge for REDD+ as perceived by most of par+cipants was to achieve eﬀec&ve coordina&on between state agencies, the private sector, and civil society. § The great majority (83%) agreed that REDD+ should mainly reward local people for emission reduc&on ac&vi&es. Another 79%, agreed that REDD+ schemes should always require permission from local forest resource users in the form of Free, Prior and Informed Consent. § Most ac+vity directly related to REDD+ was networking and providing discussion forum. THINKING beyond the canopy
Results Implica&ons for the 3Es § The eﬀec&veness of REDD+ went unques&oned by many surveyed organiza+ons § The eﬃciency of REDD+ was addressed in similar way, and a “nested approach” was suggested by many § The issue of equity and co-‐beneﬁts of REDD+ was widely debated and contested by the policy actors, especially those of the civil society § The majority of the surveyed organiza+ons agreed that all REDD+ schemes should also require the realiza+on of other key beneﬁts as poverty reduc&on and maintenance of biodiversity § At interna+onal level, a half of the organiza+ons were not sure about whether REDD+ will assure fairness in the interna+onal distribu+on of environmental costs and beneﬁts à “it depends” on the evolu+on of REDD+ policies § Conﬂicts over forest land and forest resources are believed by many to challenge the equity and fair co-‐beneﬁt sharing of REDD+ THINKING beyond the canopy
Conclusions§ REDD+ as a new policy arena that puts various organiza&ons into actor networks and poli+cal plays. It redeploys exis&ng organiza&ons (MMA/INPE) for new tasks and gives birth to new ones (Amazon Fund) to work with REDD+ speciﬁc issues § Central nodes in terms of coordina+on and inﬂuence: MMA and IPAM § Eﬀec+veness and eﬃciency need to be beYer addressed § The equity and co-‐beneﬁts of REDD+: well debated and contested, but not guaranteed § Need for coordina&on between diﬀerent levels and sectors of governance THINKING beyond the canopy