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Table of contents i
Contents
Preface iii
Acknowledgements iv
Dedication v
1 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT ENGINEERING
1.1 INTROD...
Table of contentsii
2.3.2 Bar Chart or Gantt Chart...........................................................................
Table of contents iii
3.6.8 Examples – Miscellaneous Combinations............................................................
Table of contentsiv
4.2.6 Procurement........................................................................................
Table of contents v
5.4.6 Process flow diagrams do not include...............................................................
Table of contentsvi
6.4.7 Award of purchase order............................................................................
Table of contents vii
7.5.9 Installation of temperature Installation ........................................................
Table of contentsviii
8.8.2 Networking protocols.............................................................................
Table of contents ix
9.14.6 Documentation....................................................................................
Table of contentsx
10.11.3 Drawings..........................................................................................
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Project Engineering , Planning and Management

Project Engineering , Planning and Management (Paperback/PDF)
By Hiral Shah, Chinttan, Sneha Shweta

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Project Engineering , Planning and Management

  1. 1. Table of contents i Contents Preface iii Acknowledgements iv Dedication v 1 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT ENGINEERING 1.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[1-1] 1.2 PROJECT .................................................................................................................................[1-1] 1.2.1 Definition of project.....................................................................................................[1-1] 1.2.2 Characteristics of projects ............................................................................................ [1-2] 1.2.3 Purpose and scope of project........................................................................................ [1-2] 1.2.4 Typical examples of projects......................................................................................... [1-2] 1.2.5 Project structure..........................................................................................................[1-3] 1.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT..........................................................................................................[1-4] 1.3.1 Management functions ................................................................................................ [1-4] 1.3.2 Types of project...........................................................................................................[1-8] 1.3.3 Project authority and their functions............................................................................. [1-9] 1.3.4 Project management cycle.......................................................................................... [1-10] 1.3.5 Project life cycle......................................................................................................... [1-11] 1.4 PROJECT REPORT [1-15] 1.4.1 Project reportformat................................................................................................. [1-17] 1.5 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF A PRODUCT.......................................................... [1-20] 1.6 GOOD COMMUNICATION AND BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION................................................... [1-21] Review questions................................................................................................................... [1-22] 2 PROJECT PLANNING AND SCHEDULING 2.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[2-1] 2.2 PROJECT PLANNING [2-1] 2.2.1 Project statement or the statement of work..................................................................[2-2] 2.2.2 Project specifications ...................................................................................................[2-7] 2.2.3 Steps for project planning............................................................................................. [2-8] 2.2.4 The planning cycle...................................................................................................... [2-11] 2.3 Project Scheduling [2-12] 2.3.1 Project Scheduling Techniques.................................................................................... [2-13]
  2. 2. Table of contentsii 2.3.2 Bar Chart or Gantt Chart............................................................................................. [2-13] 2.3.2.1 Examples on Bar chart............................................................................. [2-14] 2.3.3 Difference between CPM and PERT............................................................................. [2-17] 2.3.4 Difference between network and bar chart ................................................................. [2-17] 2.3.5 Network techniques................................................................................................... [2-18] 2.3.5.1 Critical path method ............................................................................... [2-22] 2.3.5.2 Program Evaluation and Review Techniques(PERT).................................. [2-29] 2.3.6 Examples on PERT and CPM........................................................................................ [2-42] 2.3.7 S – Curve Concept and Crash Time Concepts................................................................ [2-49] 2.3.8 MILESTONE SCHEDULING ........................................................................................... [2-53] 2.3.9 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS)...................................................................... [2-54] 2.3.10 Cost and Estimation ................................................................................................... [2-60] 2.3.10.1 Types of Estimates.................................................................................. [2-60] 2.3.10.2 Pricing process........................................................................................ [2-62] 2.3.10.3 Materials or support costs....................................................................... [2-64] 2.3.10.4 Pricing out the work................................................................................ [2-64] 2.3.11 Software usedin project management........................................................................ [2-65] 2.3.12 Standing operating procedure (SOP)............................................................................ [2-67] Review questions................................................................................................................... [2-69] 3 STANDARDS USED IN PROJECT 3.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[3-1] 3.2 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................[3-1] 3.3 IDENTIFICATION LETTERS.........................................................................................................[3-5] 3.4 TYPICAL LETTER COMBINATIONS..............................................................................................[3-8] 3.5 FUNCTION BLOCKS-FUNCTION DESIGNATIONS....................................................................... [3-10] 3.6 SYMBOLS .............................................................................................................................. [3-13] 3.6.1 Instrumentline symbols............................................................................................. [3-13] 3.6.2 General instrument or function symbols...................................................................... [3-15] 3.6.3 Control valve body symbols, damper symbols.............................................................. [3-16] 3.6.4 Symbolsfor self-actuated regulators, valves and other devices..................................... [3-20] 3.6.5 Symbolsfor actuator actionin event of actuator power failure..................................... [3-24] 3.6.6 Primaryelement symbols ........................................................................................... [3-25] 3.6.7 Examples- Functions................................................................................................... [3-37]
  3. 3. Table of contents iii 3.6.8 Examples – Miscellaneous Combinations..................................................................... [3-45] 3.6.9 Examples – Complex Combinations............................................................................. [3-51] 3.6.10 Example – Degree of Detail......................................................................................... [3-52] 3.7 STANDARDS .......................................................................................................................... [3-54] 3.7.1 ISA: The instrumentation, systems and automation society .......................................... [3-54] 3.7.1.1 ISA S 5.1: (Instrumentation Symbols and Identification) ............................ [3-54] 3.7.1.2 ISA S 20: (Specification forms for P and I) ................................................. [3-54] 3.7.2 API: American Petroleum Institute.............................................................................. [3-55] 3.7.3 TAPPI: Technical Association of the pulp and paper Industry......................................... [3-55] 3.7.4 PIP: Process Industry Practices.................................................................................... [3-55] 3.7.5 SAMA: Scientific Apparatus MakersAssociation........................................................... [3-55] 3.7.6 NEMA:National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association................................................. [3-56] 3.7.7 ISO 9000: International Standardization Organization .................................................. [3-56] 3.7.8 IBR (Indian Boiler Regulations – 1950) ......................................................................... [3-56] 3.7.9 IEEE........................................................................................................................... [3-57] 3.7.10 Safety Organizations .................................................................................................. [3-57] 3.7.11 IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) .......................................................... [3-57] 3.7.12 ANSI (American National Standards Institute).............................................................. [3-60] 3.7.13 ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ...................................................... [3-62] 3.8 ROLE OF STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS.............................................................................. [3-63] 3.8.1 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)........................................................................... [3-64] 3.8.2 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)................................................................. [3-64] 3.8.3 Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA)................................................ [3-65] 3.9 SAFETY STANDARDS[3-66] Review questions................................................................................................................... [3-66] 4 BASIC AND DETAILED PROJECT ENGINEERING 4.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[4-1] 4.2 BASIC OR PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING.....................................................................................[4-1] 4.2.1 Engineering calculations............................................................................................... [4-2] 4.2.2 Making and changing drawing ...................................................................................... [4-2] 4.2.3 Organizing vendor literature ........................................................................................ [4-2] 4.2.4 Writing specifications...................................................................................................[4-2] 4.2.5 PRN (Purchase Requisition Note) .................................................................................. [4-2]
  4. 4. Table of contentsiv 4.2.6 Procurement................................................................................................................ [4-2] 4.3 DETAILED ENGINEERING..........................................................................................................[4-3] 4.3.1 Document control........................................................................................................[4-4] 4.3.2 Instrument selection ....................................................................................................[4-4] 4.3.3 Material of construction............................................................................................... [4-4] 4.3.4 Area classification........................................................................................................[4-5] 4.3.5 Instrumentation specification....................................................................................... [4-5] 4.3.6 Drawing phase............................................................................................................. [4-5] 4.3.7 Control center design...................................................................................................[4-5] 4.3.7.1 Control room design .................................................................................... [4-5] 4.3.7.2 Control room one line diagram.....................................................................[4-5] 4.4 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE....................................................................................................[4-6] 4.5 INTER DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES...............................................................................................[4-6] 4.6 INTER AGENCY OR ORGANIZATION INTERACTION ....................................................................[4-9] 4.7 MULTI-AGENCY INTERACTION OR EXTERNAL AGENCY INTERACTION.........................................[4-9] 4.8 MANPOWER PLANNING IN A PROJECT................................................................................... [4-10] 4.9 DEGREE OF AUTOMATION ..................................................................................................... [4-10] 4.10 TECHNICAL REVIEW MEETING................................................................................................ [4-11] 4.11 ENGINEERING PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTIONS............................................................ [4-11] 4.11.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. [4-11] 4.11.2 Significance of engineering, procurement and construction.......................................... [4-11] 4.11.3 EPC (Engineering,Procurement and Construction) contract selection ........................... [4-11] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [4-12] 5 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION AND DRAWINGS 5.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[5-1] 5.2 TYPES OF PROJECT DOCUMENTS..............................................................................................[5-1] 5.3 PRELIMINARY SCHEDULE OF EVENTS........................................................................................[5-2] 5.4 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM.......................................................................................................[5-4] 5.4.1 Use of process flow diagram......................................................................................... [5-4] 5.4.2 Approaches [5-4] 5.4.3 Steps in development of process flow diagram.............................................................. [5-5] 5.4.4 Process description......................................................................................................[5-5] 5.4.5 Process flow diagram will include.................................................................................. [5-5]
  5. 5. Table of contents v 5.4.6 Process flow diagrams do not include............................................................................ [5-5] 5.5 P & ID (PROCESS AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM) .......................................................................[5-6] 5.6 USES AND CONTENTS OF P & T DIAGRAM ................................................................................[5-9] 5.7 PROCESS DATA SHEET............................................................................................................ [5-11] 5.8 MATERIAL BALANCE SHEET.................................................................................................... [5-13] 5.9 INSTRUMENT INDEX SHEET.................................................................................................... [5-14] 5.10 SPECIFICATION DATA SHEET................................................................................................... [5-16] 5.10.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. [5-16] 5.10.2 Purpose..................................................................................................................... [5-16] 5.10.3 Description................................................................................................................ [5-16] 5.10.4 Field required to be considered .................................................................................. [5-16] 5.11 INSTRUMENT PROJECT SCHEDULE SHEET ............................................................................... [5-20] 5.12 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION AND STANDARDS ....................................................................... [5-22] 5.13 LOOP WIRING DIAGRAM OR CLOSED LOOP DIAGRAMS .......................................................... [5-23] 5.14 JUNCTION BOX SCHEDULE ..................................................................................................... [5-29] 5.15 Cable Schedule...................................................................................................................... [5-29] 5.16 MIMIC DIAGRAM................................................................................................................... [5-30] 5.17 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROJECT..................................................................................... [5-30] 5.18 GA DRAWING (GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING)............................................................. [5-31] 5.18.1 Importance of plantlayout and GA drawing................................................................. [5-32] Review Questions [5-34] 6 PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACTING 6.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[6-1] 6.2 VENDOR LIAISON.....................................................................................................................[6-1] 6.3 TENDERS ................................................................................................................................[6-2] 6.3.1 Types of tenders ..........................................................................................................[6-2] 6.4 Steps in purchasing [6-2] 6.4.1 Issue of purchase requisition ........................................................................................ [6-2] 6.4.2 Development of acceptable list of suppliers...................................................................[6-3] 6.4.3 Assemble the bid package ............................................................................................ [6-3] 6.4.4 Send the bid package for bid......................................................................................... [6-4] 6.4.5 Formally receive the proposals ..................................................................................... [6-4] 6.4.6 Evaluate the proposals.................................................................................................[6-4]
  6. 6. Table of contentsvi 6.4.7 Award of purchase order.............................................................................................. [6-5] 6.4.8 Receive the device .......................................................................................................[6-5] 6.5 PURCHASE ORDER [6-5] 6.6 VENDOR DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS...................................................................................[6-6] 6.6.1 Vendor data or vendor documents................................................................................ [6-6] 6.6.2 Vendor drawings..........................................................................................................[6-7] 6.7 SITE SELECTION AND LAYOUT OF A FACTORY............................................................................[6-7] 6.7.1 Site selection and construction details...........................................................................[6-7] 6.7.2 The problem of the selection of a factory ......................................................................[6-7] 6.7.3 Factory building...........................................................................................................[6-9] 6.7.4 Selection of site in a city............................................................................................. [6-10] 6.7.5 Factors affecting layout.............................................................................................. [6-10] 6.7.6 Factory layout............................................................................................................ [6-11] 6.7.7 Plant layout .............................................................................................................. [6-12] 6.8 CONTRACTING....................................................................................................................... [6-18] 6.9 BIDDER LIAISON AND EXPEDITING ......................................................................................... [6-18] 6.10 BID ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................ [6-20] Review questions [6-22] 7 INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTION 7.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[7-1] 7.2 BILL OF MATERIAL [7-1] 7.3 PURPOSE OF DEVELOPMENT OF INSTALLATION SKETCHES........................................................[7-2] 7.3.1 Various tube plus pipe fittings....................................................................................... [7-3] 7.4 TYPICAL INSTALLATION DETAILS...............................................................................................[7-3] 7.5 INSTALLATION DETAILS OF SYSTEMS...................................................................................... [7-26] 7.5.1 Pressure instruments ................................................................................................. [7-27] 7.5.2 Installation of temperature instruments...................................................................... [7-28] 7.5.3 Flow instruments....................................................................................................... [7-29] 7.5.4 Final control element................................................................................................. [7-29] 7.5.5 Samplers and analyzers.............................................................................................. [7-30] 7.5.6 Installation details of wiring and cable......................................................................... [7-30] 7.5.7 Check or tests of wiring and cable in field quality control.............................................. [7-30] 7.5.8 Installation of thermocouples..................................................................................... [7-32]
  7. 7. Table of contents vii 7.5.9 Installation of temperature Installation ....................................................................... [7-33] 7.6 CONSTRUCTION AND START- UP............................................................................................ [7-33] 7.7 CONTRACTOR LIAISON........................................................................................................... [7-34] 7.8 REVIEW OF SCHEDULE ........................................................................................................... [7-34] 7.9 RECEIVING THE MATERIAL ..................................................................................................... [7-34] 7.10 CALIBRATION ........................................................................................................................ [7-35] 7.11 STORAGE AND FITTING.......................................................................................................... [7-35] 7.12 HARDWARE INSTALLATION AND SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION ................................................ [7-36] 7.13 INSTALLATION CONTRACT ..................................................................................................... [7-36] 7.14 VENDOR ENGINEERING REVIEW OF CONTROL........................................................................ [7-37] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [7-37] 8 CABLE ENGINEERING AND NETWORKING 8.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[8-1] 8.2 TYPES OF CABLE [8-1] 8.3 CABLE SUPPORT ......................................................................................................................[8-2] 8.4 INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS.............................................................................................[8-3] 8.4.1 Conduit....................................................................................................................... [8-3] 8.4.2 Tray............................................................................................................................. [8-3] 8.4.3 Marine cable................................................................................................................ [8-4] 8.4.4 Input and output cabling .............................................................................................. [8-4] 8.4.5 Cable layout[8-6] 8.5 IMPORTANCE OF PLANT LAYOUT AND GA DRAWING................................................................[8-7] 8.6 CLASSIFICATION OF CABLES.....................................................................................................[8-7] 8.6.1 Twisted pair cables.......................................................................................................[8-8] 8.6.2 Twinax Cable ............................................................................................................... [8-9] 8.6.3 Coaxial cable................................................................................................................ [8-9] 8.6.4 Tray Cables [8-11] 8.6.5 Fiber-optic Cable........................................................................................................ [8-11] 8.7 TYPES OF INSTRUMENT SELECTION HARDWARE..................................................................... [8-12] 8.8 NETWORKING ....................................................................................................................... [8-13] 8.8.1 Network topology...................................................................................................... [8-13] 8.8.1.1 Physical Topologies.................................................................................... [8-13] 8.8.1.2 Logical topologies...................................................................................... [8-16]
  8. 8. Table of contentsviii 8.8.2 Networking protocols................................................................................................. [8-18] 8.8.3 CAT cables .............................................................................................................. [8-18] 8.8.4 LAN cards.................................................................................................................. [8-18] 8.8.5 Networking hardware ................................................................................................ [8-19] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [8-21] 9 COMMISSIONING 9.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[9-1] 9.2 CONTRACTOR AND VENDOR LIAISON.......................................................................................[9-1] 9.3 LOOP AND HARDWARE CHECK.................................................................................................[9-2] 9.3.1 Loop check .................................................................................................................. [9-3] 9.3.2 Typical flow transmitter check out procedure................................................................ [9-4] 9.3.3 Typical temperature transmitter checkout procedure .................................................... [9-4] 9.3.4 Typical control valve check-out procedure.....................................................................[9-5] 9.3.5 Miscellaneous checks...................................................................................................[9-6] 9.4 SYSTEMS CHECK [9-6] 9.5 PUNCH LIST.............................................................................................................................[9-6] 9.6 CORRECTION VERIFICATION.....................................................................................................[9-7] 9.7 INSTRUMENT GROUNDING......................................................................................................[9-8] 9.8 PRE-COMMISSIONING THE CONTROL SYSTEM..........................................................................[9-8] 9.9 COMMISSIONING STAGE (HOT & COLD COMMISSIONING)........................................................[9-8] 9.10 CORRECTIVE ENGINEERING.................................................................................................... [9-11] 9.11 ACCEPTANCE TESTING ........................................................................................................... [9-12] 9.11.1 Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT)............................................................................... [9-12] 9.11.2 Customer Acceptance Test (CAT)................................................................................ [9-14] 9.11.3 Site Acceptance Test (SAT)......................................................................................... [9-16] 9.12 ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING .......................................................................................... [9-18] 9.13 DUTIES OF PROJECT ENGINEER IN PROJECT SCHEDULING........................................................ [9-18] 9.14 PROCESS START-UP ............................................................................................................... [9-19] 9.14.1 Beginning process testing........................................................................................... [9-19] 9.14.2 Contractor liaison....................................................................................................... [9-20] 9.14.3 Loop tuning .............................................................................................................. [9-20] 9.14.4 Startup Logs [9-20].............................................................................................................. 9.14.5 System refinements ................................................................................................... [9-22]
  9. 9. Table of contents ix 9.14.6 Documentation.......................................................................................................... [9-22] 9.14.7 Maintenance training................................................................................................. [9-22] 9.14.8 Production training ................................................................................................... [9-22] 9.15 INTERLOCK ELEMENTARY DIAGRAMS..................................................................................... [9-22] 9.16 CALIBRATION AND TESTING................................................................................................... [9-24] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [9-27] 10 CONTROL CENTERS AND PANELS 10.1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... [10-1] 10.2 CONTROL ROOM LAYOUTS .................................................................................................... [10-1] 10.3 CONTROL ROOM ENGINEERING............................................................................................. [10-2] 10.3.1 Electric power systems............................................................................................... [10-3] 10.3.2 Control Room Lighting................................................................................................ [10-7] 10.3.3 Communication systems............................................................................................. [10-7] 10.3.4 Panel placement........................................................................................................ [10-8] 10.3.5 Electrical classification................................................................................................ [10-8] 10.3.6 Operators’ comfort .................................................................................................... [10-8] 10.3.7 General considerations............................................................................................... [10-8] 10.4 ENGINEERING ASPECTS AND DESIGN CRITERIA....................................................................... [10-8] 10.5 CONTROL PANEL TYPES.........................................................................................................[10-10] 10.5.1 Comparison of panel types ........................................................................................[10-15] 10.6 PANEL LAYOUT.....................................................................................................................[10-16] 10.6.1 Face Layout [10-16] 10.6.2 Rear Layout [10-16] 10.6.3 Auxiliary racks and cabinets.......................................................................................[10-17] 10.7 PANEL PIPING AND TUBING..................................................................................................[10-17] 10.7.1 Air Headers [10-17] 10.7.2 Tubing Runs [10-17] 10.8 PANEL WIRING .....................................................................................................................[10-19] 10.9 NAMEPLATE AND TAGS ........................................................................................................[10-20] 10.10 GRAPHIC DISPLAYS [10-20] 10.11 PANEL BID SPECIFICATIONS...................................................................................................[10-21] 10.11.1 Scope..................................................................................................................[10-22] 10.11.2 Bids.....................................................................................................................[10-22]
  10. 10. Table of contentsx 10.11.3 Drawings.............................................................................................................[10-22] 10.11.4 Codes and Standards............................................................................................[10-22] 10.11.5 Panel Construction...............................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.6 Painting...............................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.7 Graphic Section...................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.8 Nameplates and Tags.......................................................................................... [10-23] 10.11.9 Piping..................................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.10 Electrical Systems ................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.11 Instrument Equipment.........................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.12 Testing and Inspection .........................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.13 Delivery...............................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.14 Shipping..............................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.15 Guarantees..........................................................................................................[10-24] 10.12 PANEL INSPECTION [10-24] 10.13 SIGNIFICANCE OF CONTROL CENTER AND ITS DESIGN OBJECTIVES.........................................[10-27] 10.13.1 Control center design..........................................................................................[10-27] 10.13.2 Control room plan, section and detail drawings ....................................................[10-27] 10.13.3 Central control rooms .........................................................................................[10-27] 10.13.4 Control room one line diagram ............................................................................[10-28] 10.13.5 Field mounted control center ..............................................................................[10-28] 10.13.6 Field electronic location and conduit plan.............................................................[10-29] 10.13.7 Electronic one line diagram..................................................................................[10-30] 10.14 INTELLIGENT OPERATOR INTERFACE (IOI)..............................................................................[10-31] 10.14.1 Basic principles for operator interface design .......................................................[10-31] 10.14.2 ..... Example of submarine control system for understanding operator interface [10-32] 10.14.3 Operatorinterface data types..............................................................................[10-33] 10.14.4 Watch station displays.........................................................................................[10-33] Review Questions................................................................................................................ [10-34] APPENDIX “A” ( Study of Specification sheet of sensors, transmitters, control valves) APPENDIX “B”( Factory acceptance test procedure) APPENDIX “C” (Miscellaneous sheets)

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