Mais conteúdo relacionado

Similar a Combating Human Trafficking in the USA and investigating it Right(20)



Combating Human Trafficking in the USA and investigating it Right

  1. Human Trafficking: The New Game in Town
  2. Background • Instructor Byron Olivere • Grand Prairie PD 2002-2018 • U.T. Arlington PD 1992-2002 • Experience – Supervision – SWAT Sniper – Tarrant County Narcotics Task Force Detective – Investigator
  3. 2015 Texas Heat Map
  4. 2016 U.S. Heat Map
  5. U.T. Austin Study
  6. Penal Code • Trafficking of a Person – PC 20A.02 • (3) Traffics another person and, through force, fraud, or coercion, causes the trafficked person to engage in conduct prohibited by PC 43.02 (Prostitution) - PC 43.03 Promotion of Prostitution - PC 43.04 Aggravated Promotion of Prostitution - PC 43.05 Compelling Prostitution
  7. Force • Force: beatings, rape, physical confinement, kidnapping, denial of food/water, denial of medial care/medications, denial of contraceptives/condoms, forced abortion, forced to give up custody of children, forced to use drugs, forced participation in violent or sexual acts, forced to lie.
  8. Fraud • Fraud: deceptive employment offers, deceptive marriages, deceptive promises of a better life.
  9. Coercion • Coercion: psychological or mental abuse, document confiscation, fines for rule violations, control of children, photographing in illegal situations, forced to watch pornography to learn prostitution or stripping, forced to meet quotas, control of money.
  10. Trafficking Continued • Can be used against the person causing the person to engage, or a person receiving a benefit from participating in a venture that involves the described activity. • Adult – F2 • Child (Younger than 18) – F1 – Does not matter if the defendant knows the age of the victim
  11. Compelling Prostitution • PC 43.05 • Knowingly causes another by force, threat, or fraud to commit prostitution • Adult – F2 • Child (Younger than 18) – F1
  12. Promotion of Prostitution • PC 43.03 • Other than a prostitute a person Knowingly receives money or other property pursuant to an agreement to participate in the proceeds of prostitution • Solicits another to engage in sexual conduct with another person for compensation • Adult – MA • Child – (Younger than 18) F2
  13. $$$$$$$ • Estimated 100,000 children in the United States involved in sex trade • Sex Trafficking makes up 71% of reported trafficking cases • Estimated that 4.5 million are in forced sex exploitation globally • (Polaris Project 2015)
  14. $$$$$$$ • Very Low Risk • Very High Reward • Top 3 most profitable transnational crimes 1. Drug Trafficking 2. Human Trafficking 3. Illegal Arms Trade
  15. Crime Theory • Contemporary Crime Theory: – Traffickers rationalize the gains to be made from the sale and enslavement of humans against the risk of detection and apprehension by law enforcement. If gains outweigh the risk, human trafficking will continue to thrive.
  16. $$$$$$$ • Pimps in Dallas earn an average weekly gross cash intake of $12,025, according to the Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center, which conducted a study that estimates the underground commercial sex economy in eight major cities. Among the seven other cities, the highest average weekly earnings per pimp are in Atlanta with $32,833 and the lowest average weekly earnings are in San Diego with $11,129.41 • (Texas DPS 2014 Assessing the Threat of Human Trafficking in Texas)
  17. $$$$$$$ • Sex traffickers in Texas range from individuals to organized enterprises. Many gangs in Texas and elsewhere in the United States are currently engaged in sex trafficking and compelling prostitution. Individual gang members also engage in this activity, possibly independent of the operations of the gang; we have limited information regarding Mexican cartels directly involved in identified sex trafficking operations in Texas. • (Texas DPS 2014 Assessing the Threat of Human Trafficking in Texas)
  18. $$$$$$$ • (U) Throughout the United States, gangs have expanded into human trafficking involving minors and adults due to the potential for high, renewable profit and low risk of detection. Gangs are frequently recruiting victims through false promises of wealth and affection, but continuously compel the services of their victims through forceful means. • (Texas DPS 2014 Assessing the Threat of Human Trafficking in Texas)
  19. $$$$$$$ • (U) Gangs involved in sex trafficking in Texas • • Barrio Azteca • • Black Gangster Disciples • • Bloods • • Crips • • Sureños • • Tango Blast • (Texas DPS 2014 Assessing the Threat of Human Trafficking in Texas)
  20. Polywood Crip Case
  21. Why Its Easy • No equipment needed • Just need a “Bottom Girl” or a Associate with who can succeed in the “Grooming Process”
  22. The Grooming Process • The perpetrators of trafficking employ a “grooming process” to draw their victims away from their homes or to gain the trust and dependency of young victims who may have run away from home. The first step is often the development of a relationship with an older man, who the victim comes to regard as her “boyfriend”. • The perpetrator assesses the victim’s needs (vulnerabilities) and offers material items as “acts of love”. The adolescent female may be enticed to begin a sexual relationship with her “boyfriend”. The adolescent will be encouraged to stay away from home for increasingly longer periods of time, eventually leading to her not returning home at all.
  23. The Process • The process of Human Trafficking can be broken into 4 categories – 1. The Victim – 2. The Trafficker – 3. The Grooming Process – 4. The Customer
  24. The Victim • Victims do not choose to remain enslaved. • They do NOT however, attempt to escape for fear of harm for themselves or their families. Victims are under control, or under the illusion they are under the control of traffickers at all times.
  25. Control of the Victim • First achieved through false sense of security • Routine violence or threats of violence (physical assault or rape also used to “break- in” victim) • Restricting movement of victim • Brainwashing
  26. Control of the Victim • Psychological manipulation • Isolation • Constant supervision • Dependence on drugs and alcohol In essence, three main elements are used to control victims: force, fraud, and coercion.
  27. What to Look for… • Tattoos/Brands • Do not have their own identification • Look to someone else to answer questions • Do not have a purse or any normal personal belongings • Sex paraphernalia • Laptops • No Vehicle
  28. Branding
  29. Evidence • Obviously, not every person who has a tattoo similar to these is being trafficked, but it is a clue to dig a little deeper • While you can encounter a trafficking victim or trafficker on any type of call, you should be more aware during: – Disturbance calls at Hotel/Motels – Noise Violations with multiple people at Hotels/Motels – Women walking parking lots at Truck Stops or busy convenient stores
  30. Department Policy • In the event you locate a Human Trafficking ring, what is your first step? • Do you have an in house Detective with training in this field? – Human Trafficking investigations have many caveats that make them much different then a “basic” sexual assault investigation
  31. Investigation • A Human Trafficking investigation can include many aspects including: – Multiple Suspects – Multiple Victims – Multiple Jurisdictions/States – Multiple types or crimes encompassing Human Trafficking • Kidnapping/False Imprisonment/Assault/Aggravated Assault/Sexual Assault/Aggravated Sexual Assault/etc… • Must be collaboration
  32. Advertisement • The world of Sex Human Trafficking hides online, and a majority of investigations start there • is the top website to find victims of Human Trafficking • Backpage cooperates very well with Law Enforcement subpoenas in comparison to other websites • Other websites include;,, and etc..
  33. Approach • Use calm and non-threating statements • Males already have a huge dis-advantage with a female trafficking victim, adding the uniform and badge make it almost impossible to get the truth • Most of the victims have not had positive encounters with the Police in the past • Tevla Story
  34. Challenge in Dealing with Victims Frequently victims: • Distrust outsiders, especially law enforcement • Do not self-identify as victims; often blame themselves for predicaments • Although many victims have been beaten and/or raped, current situation may still be better than where they came from • May be unaware of rights or may have been intentionally misinformed about rights in this country • Fear for safety of families
  35. Forensic Interview • Police Officers or Detective should never interview a minor that is a possible trafficked victim. Basic information is ok, name, date of birth, address and phone number. • A forensic interview should be arranged as soon as possible. Forensic interviewers are the experts. What questions they ask, they have to testify for in court. SO DON’T INTERVIEW A MINOR! Next slide is possible questions that you might give the forensic interviewer as a guide.
  36. 1. How did you meet your (friend/pimp/controller)? 2. Did the pimp have a nickname, street name or alias? 3. Did the pimp insist that you adopt a street name, nickname, or alias? 4. Did the pimp move you around to different locations? If so, how did you travel? How often? 5. Did the pimp make you get a tattoo with his/her name, a phrase or symbol or mark you in any other way (branding), ect? 6. How were the commercial sexual services advertised? Where did it take place? Do you know a phone number that was used to advertise online? 7. Were you ever physically hit or slapped by the controller or anybody else? Can you tell me about a time when that happened? 8. Did you ever see any other person being physically hit by the controller or anybody else? Can you tell about a time when that happened? 9. Did the controller compel multiple people to engage in commercial sex? What were their ages? 10. How were you recruited? Through the pimp or through other victims? Were you ever asked to recruit other people? 11. Was there any other criminal activity present (gangs, drugs, theft)? Did anyone ever pressure you to engage in any sexual acts against your will? 12. Did anyone ever take photos of you and if so, what did they use them for? Were these photos ever sent to other people or posted on an online forum (Craig’s List, Backpage)? 13. Did anyone ever force you to engage in sexual acts with friends or business associates for favors/money? 14. Were you required to earn a certain amount of money/meet a nightly quota by engaging in commercial sex for someone? What happen if you did not meet this quota? 15. What were your expectations of what would happen if you left this person/situation or if you didn’t do what this person told you to do? 16. Did anyone ever threaten you or intimidate you?
  37. Google Search
  38. Eccie Review
  39. Investigative Questions • Were they forced to have sex as part of employment? • Can they freely leave their place of employment? • What happens if they make a mistake at work? • Does the employer hold wages? • Are there guards or video cameras to monitor their activities?
  40. Investigative Questions • Did they come to the U.S. for a specific job or purpose? • What type of employment do they have? • Who is their employer? • How much money are they paid a week/month? • Do they owe any money and/or services to their employer? • Is there an employment contract? What are the terms?
  41. Investigative Questions • Has victim or their family been threatened with harm if they try to leave? • What is their understanding of what would happen if they tried to leave? • Have they been physically harmed, deprived of food, water, sleep, medical care, or other life necessities?
  42. Investigative Questions • Are they allowed to buy clothing and food on their own? • Can they come and go as they please? • Can they freely contact (phone, write) friends and family? • Are they free to have a relationship with someone? • Are they isolated from the community? • Can they bring friends home?
  43. The Trafficker • Almost always believe they are the smartest person in the room, and usually refer to themselves as “business men” or “rap artists” • Local Traffickers are seen as a traditional pimp • Traffickers are usually male, but can be females • Usually have experience in narcotic trafficking and or gang life • Females usually serve as recruiters or the “bottom girl”
  44. The Trafficker • Low risk of being apprehended or punished – False sense of security – Law enforcements preoccupation with sale of drugs and weapons • Number of people working Narcotics/Gangs? • Number of people working VICE? • Very high profit margin – Dope can only be sold once, humans can be sold over and over to a number of different customers
  45. Terminology • 304: Referring to a “Hoe” • Bottom Girl: the top ranking girl with a pimp, also doubles as a recruiter • Buster: a wanna-be pimp • Curb Crawler: Corner prostitute • Daddy: what the females call their pimp • John-Trick-Date: Customer of the female • (Urban dictionary 2015)
  46. Terminology • Lot Lizard: Female working a truck stop parking lot • Peel a trick: When the female steals from the customer • Rasberry: a female working for a dope fix • Rent Boy: male prostitute • Stable: a group of females that are controlled by a single pimp • (Urban dictionary 2015)
  47. Enforcer • Many traffickers employ an enforcer to keep an eye on the victims and make sure that they do not get robbed or try to leave • May be called a “guard,” or “roof” • Provides protection for place of business • Minimal protection provided to victim • Enforce demands placed on victims • Verify victims do not escape • Make sure customer pays for services
  48. Why the Trafficker Thrives • Unclear targets for investigation • Lack of tools by law enforcement to conduct effective investigations • Lack of trained law enforcement
  49. The Customer • Can be any age and any race • Are willing to pay for services without the fear of being caught • No way to really characterize the customer, they come from all backgrounds
  50. The Customer • The only way to truly impact the rise of human trafficking is to reduce the demand – As long as there are numerous people who are willing to pay cash for illegal services, there are traffickers who will exploit the market
  51. Where are the Customers • Superbowl • All Star Games • Horse Races • Concerts • Large Award Ceremonies • Truck Stops • Hotel/Motels
  52. Investigations • Be proactive • Collaboration with other law enforcement agencies both local and Federal • Collaboration with social service providers • Safeguarding the rights of victims and ensuring their safety • Awareness of legal issues • Engaging the community
  53. Investigations • Allow enough time • Do not make promises • Be aware of Stockholm Syndrome • (feelings of trust or affection felt in certain cases of kidnapping or hostage-taking by a victim toward a captor.) • Cultural/Religious background awareness
  54. Investigations • Interview victim and trafficker separately • Find a trustworthy interpreter • Give victim choice of male or female interviewer • Informal conversation vs. Direct Questioning
  55. Investigations • Understand that these types of cases take a lot of time, and a lot of work • Interviews with the victim need to be done correctly the first time to reduce the stress you are placing on them leading up to a court date • Understand that a large number of victims will recant their stories due to fear of retaliation and being un-able to acclimate themselves with the real world
  56. OPS • Resources – HSI – FBI – ATF – Adjoining Jurisdiction
  57. OPS Case Agent UC Entry Team Counter Surveillance Transport Team Who picks the roles? Who runs the op?
  58. Online Escort Sites • Based on Department policies and website filters for MDC access, Officers should be familiar with online prostitution sites. • Look at these sites and become familiar with the people posting online is a great starting point for self initiated activity – Learn Hotel/Motel furniture – Understand that these types of investigations usually include illegal narcotics, guns, gang members, and other low life criminals
  59. Final Thoughts • Human Trafficking is a horrendous crime that we should be focused on not only as Police Officers, but as a human in general • No one, no matter their background or prior criminal transgressions, deserves to be a sex slave • Traffickers are the worst of the worst, they steal peoples lives, make them feel as if they have no self worth, and force them to be raped over and over with no concern for their mental and physical well being
  60. Final Thoughts • What would you want done if it were your child, sister, mother, etc… • Use common sense • Do not let your guard down and become so compassionate you lose your safety and tactics • WIN and Go Home