Mood structure

28 de Sep de 2016

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Mood structure

  1. MOOD STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE BY Bushra Tabassum University of Gujrat
  2. WHAT IS CLAUSE A group of words that contains a subject and a verb Example  she smiled at him.  the boy is going to the school.
  3. TYPES OF CLAUSES Dependent Clause Independent Clause
  4. DEPENDENT CLAUSE A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb but does not contain a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence by it self. Example When he is at a baseball game.
  5. DEPENDENT CLAUSE  Dependent Clauses can come at the end or at the beginning of a sentence.  Example  The girl ran to her room when the boy called her.  After mother got home, she went to bed.
  6. DEPENDENT CLAUSE EXAMPLES 1.Because the door was open 2.When it started raining 3.Until your father gets home
  7. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. It can stand alone as a sentence by itself.. Example Rameez eats potato chip
  8. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Independent Clauses can come at the end or at the beginning of a sentence. Example 1. The girl ran to her room when the boy called her. 2. After mother got home, she went to bed.
  9. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE EXAMPLES  many people enjoy poetry  he memorized a poem last night  Mary will read her poem
  10. MOOD  Mood is a system through which interpersonal meanings are realized within conversation  It consist of two parts  Subject-Nominal group  Finite-verbal group  A Clause is consists of Mood + Residue 2016/9/28 1 10
  11. SUBJECT AND FINITE  Subject is a nominal group about which something is predicated  Ali is doing his work  Finite shows the tense in a sentence  He died 2016/9/28 1 11
  12. MOOD: SUBJECT + FINITE –Finite • The functions of the Finite are to show: • tense (for what time in relation to that of speaking is the proposition valid?) • polarity (does the proposition have positive or negative validity?) • modality (to what extent is the proposition valid?) 2016/9/28 1 12
  13. MOOD: SUBJECT + FINITE  Finite  Other things to note:  the finite is a verbal operator  the finite and the Predicator may be realized together (simple past or simple present tense) 2016/9/28 1 13
  14. WHAT IS COMPLEMENT?  The object; direct or indirect or anything which completes the sense of the clause is complement. It is always a nominal group.  Complement has a tendency to become a subject. 2016/9/28 1 14
  15. WHAT ARE ADJUNCTS? Prepositional phrases and adverbial phrases are called adjuncts. Example They arrived on Sunday. 2016/9/28 1 15
  16. MOOD AND RESIDUE I am writing This handout On my PC subject finite predicator complement Adjunct Mood Residue 2016/9/28 1 16
  17. RESIDUE  A small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used  It contains of two parts  Complement  Adjunt 2016/9/28 1 17
  18. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MOOD AND RESIDUE  Answer. In clause as exchange, the part of the clause has the subject and finite is called mood and the remaining part of the clause is called residue. 2016/9/28 1 18
  19. IMPERATIVE MOOD  Imperative (no subject or finite)  Lacks mood elements  Imperative mood expresses commands to or requests of the person addressed.  We use the imperative mood to make a Command or request.
  20. ONE WORD IMPERATIVE STATEMENT  The imperative mood in English usually occurs in the second person.The second person subject pronoun, “you” is not used but is implied.  In the simplest sense ,we can form a strong imperative statement using just one word. For ex: Take!, Eat! , Work! , Leave! etc.
  21. PHRASALVERB IMPERATIVE STATEMENT It is very common to see a phrasal verb with a particle. For ex: “ Come in” “ Sit down” “ Get up”
  22. IMPERATIVE STATEMENTS An imperative statement can use other words. For ex: “ Give me the book” “ Look at him “ “Take off your coat “
  23. BARE IMPERATIVE  We can make the imperative statement milder by using the word polite terms, called bare imperative. For ex: Please, sit down Pass me this plate, Please  Can make imperative statements by using the name of the person. For ex: Read this report , Bill Mary, bring me a cup of coffee
  24. IMPERATIVE MOODTO FORM PROHIBITION It is common to use the imperative mood to form a prohibition using the negative auxiliary “Don’t “. For ex: Don’t drive so fast. Don’t tell them our secret. Don’t do that.
  25. INDICATIVE MOOD:  We use the indicative mood to express a fact, to deny a fact or to ask a question.  The majority of the statements that are made in English are in the indicative mood.  Indicative means "stating a fact."
  26. CONT..  “Indicative” is where you do refer  E.g. where have you put your calculator ? Here “you” is indicator  A clause is indicative if it has subject and finite (without specifying the order) Types:  Declarative  interrogative
  27. CONT… We use the indicative mood to make factual statements.  The chair is red.  Jim works downtown.  The book is in the kitchen.  She is making lunch.
  28. CONT… The questions that we make are in the indicative mood. Is the paint dry? Are your shoes in the closet? Do you like chicken soup? Did Mary arrive?
  29. CONT… We sometimes see or hear an emphatic form of the indicative mood that gives emphasis to the verb.This form is usually in the affirmative simple present and simple past tenses using the auxiliaries do, does, did.  I do study every night.  He did deliver the letter.  She does see her mistake now.  We did win the championship.  They did arrive on time.
  30. DECLARATIVE CLAUSE: •A declarative clause states an idea or provides information. It does not give a command, nor does it ask a question, and it ends in a period.  according to speech role, declarative clause is giving of information (statement). A declarative clause has two elements in the order of subject^finite.
  31. EXAMPLES OF DECLARATIVE SENTENCES You took Ali has finished his work. Assessment will be by course.
  32. MOODTAGS:  refer back to the mood element  may be useful in identifying the Subject and the Finite  Examples: It is hot ,isn’t it ?
  33. INTERROGATIVE: •An interrogative clause asks question and ends in a question mark. •According to speech role, interrogative is demanding of information yes/no interrogatives are marked by the order Finite^Subject and ask the listener to specify the polarity of the message E.g. did you take her calculator?
  34. CONTII..  wh-subject  when he wh-element combines with the function of Subject, we have the order Subject^Finite, and the wh- element is part of the Mood.  E.g. who has stolen your pen? Wh= complement or adjunct  when the wh-element combines with a complement or adjunct, we have the order Finite^Subject, and the wh- element is part of the Residue.
  35. FIRSTTHING FIRST…  How can a verb have a “mood”?  According toTroyka and Hesse, “Mood in verbs conveys an attitude toward the action in a sentence.”  In English, there are three moods: Indicative, Imperative, and Subjunctive.
  36. WHENTO USETHE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD The Subjunctive mood is used when the verb is trying to express the following: Speculation Indirect Requests Demands Wishes Unlikely events Recommendations
  37. THE USE OFTHE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN PRESENT AND PASTTENSE.  Present Subjunctive: Use the SIMPLE forms of verbs.  Example: It is important that they be [not are] allowed back stage for the CheapTrick concert.  Past Subjunctive: Use the SIMPLE PAST forms of verbs.  Examples: If I only had a brain. EXCEPTION: Use were for present and past tense Subjunctive.  Examples: I wish they were coming home today. (Present)  Examples: We asked if we were allowed to skip school. (Past)
  39. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN IF, AS IF, AS THOUGH, & UNLESS CLAUSES  Used as Dependent Clauses  A dependent clause contains a subject and a predicate but can’t stand alone as a sentence. Usually adverb or adjective clauses.  Describes speculations or conditions contrary to fact.  Examples:  If it were to snow, our flight would be canceled.  We will never be friends again, unless she were to apologize.
  40. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN THAT CLAUSES That clauses are used to describe wishes, requests, demands, or recommendations. Examples: I wish that I had seen Blink-182. She recommended that I see a doctor.
  41. MODAL AUXILIARYVERBS INTHE SUBJUNCTIVE (OR HELPINGVERBS)  Modal AuxiliaryVerbs: would, could, might, & should.  These words can convey speculation and therefore are used in the Subjunctive Mood.  Examples:  If I were a little bit taller, I would be a baller.  She might lie to my face, as if I were nothing.  NOTE: Do NOT use a modal auxiliary verb in both the dependent and independent clause.
  42. TWO FORMS OF SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD BE-subjunctive WERE-subjunctive BE-subjunctive: realized by the base form of a verb WERE-subjunctive: realized by the verb “were”
  43. USES OF SUBJUNCTIVE  The subjunctive is used in English to express a command, desire, hypothesis, purpose, doubt, or supposition.  Content clauses expressing commands, requests, or suggestions commonly use the present subjunctive.
  44. USES OF SUBJUNCTIVE such a clause may be introduced by a verb like propose, suggest, recommend, move (in the parliamentary sense), demand, or mandate, by an adjective like imperative, important, adamant, or necessary, or by a noun like insistence or proposal
  45. USES OF SUBJUNCTIVE  To express a hypothesis  The past subjunctive is used after the conjunction if in a contrary-to-fact protasis. For example:  If I were a millionaire, I would buy a sports car.  If he had a car with him, he could drive us there.
  46. USES OF SUBJUNCTIVE  By far the most common use of the subjunctive is the use of the subjunctive after "if" clauses that state or describe a hypothetical situation.  If I were a butterfly, I would have wings.
  47. FORMS OF SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Non- subjunctive Form Non- subjunctive Example Subjunctive Form Subjunctive Example Is He is allowed . be It is essential he be allowe d. Was I was ordered . were If I were ordere d, I'd go. present verbs in the third person singula r (i.e., ending s) He cooks. remove the s I wish that he cook.
  48. SUBJUNCTIVE IN NEGATIVE FORM  Negative Examples:  The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting.  The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours.  I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.
  49. SUBJUNCTIVE IN PASSIVE FORM  Passive Examples:  Jake recommended that Susan be hired immediately.  Christine demanded that I be allowed to take part in the negotiations.  We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.
  50. SUBJUNCTIVE IN CONTINUOUS FORM  Continuous Examples:  It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane.  It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.  I propose that we all be waiting inTim's apartment when he gets home.