1. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 1
Mood Congruency on Picture Recall
Brittany K. Kirk and Hanna E. Reimer
Saint Francis University
2. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 2
The effect of mood congruency on picture recall has not been found in the literature. Forty-one,
female and male, college students ranging from 18-22, were randomly assigned to a positive,
negative or control music group. Participants entered the room listening to assigned music and
continued listening to these songs while studying 30 colored photographs. All photos expressed
either positive or negative emotion-evolving stimuli. Positive music invoked a positive emotion
in our participants, which caused them to recall more positive than negative pictures. Also,
negative music invoked a negative emotion in our participants, which caused them to recall more
negative than positive pictures. Results suggest the mood congruency effect can be extended to
recall of visual images.
Keywords: Mood congruency, college students, recall pictures, music, positive and
3. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 3
Mood Congruency on Picture Recall
A study was conducted to find the effects of mood congruency on the type of picture
recalled. The types of pictures to recall were either negative or positive objects or scenes. No
prior published work could be located that used recall of photos. The goal of the current study
was to ultimately discover whether or not positive or negative mood induction could impact
visual image recall aside from verbal information using short term memory.
Mood congruency may be studied by inducing people into a happy mood or an
unhappy mood by thinking about positive or negative life events. (Kellogg, 2003) In the study
called Music Enhanced Recall: An Effect of Mood Congruence, Emotion Arousal or Emotion
Function, they used three different theories to measure how music enhanced the recall in
humans. These three theories include: emotional arousal theory, mood congruence theory and the
function theory. The emotional arousal theory focuses on how the brain has hormonal and neural
mechanisms that react when the person hears or is exposed to emotional arousing stimuli. For
example, in Tesoriero and Rickard’s experiment to test this theory, they had participants view
neutral slides and listen to an emotional neutral story or they viewed emotionally arousing slides
and listened to an emotionally arousing story. With the mood congruence theory, experimenters
measure the emotional states of the participants by the type of information that is presented.
Participants are usually induced into an emotional state and then are told to participate in an
apparently unrelated study during which information is presented. The function theory states that
the effect of emotional states on encoding is related to the functions of the basic emotions. In
studies that have used the function theory directly investigated the effects of happiness, anger,
and sadness on the encoding of the different types of information in a narrative. (Tesoriero &
Rickards, 2012) Overall, there are several theories that can lead an experiment trying to find
4. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 4
results about mood and emotions. In our experiment, we used the mood congruence theory to
conclude how mood effects picture recall.
A study reported in 2002 by Knight, Maines and Robinson was conducted to
discover whether or not mood congruence operated differently in older adults rather than in
younger adults. For their procedures, their participants were extracted from Leisure Village
which is where the older participants were from or the University of Southern California which
is where the younger participants were from. The study itself was help in quiet meeting rooms in
both places. To induce the participant’s mood, they were instructed to read phrases that were
given to them silently, twice to themselves. The mood that was supposed to be induced was a sad
mood. The phrases were presented for fifteen seconds each and then following the presentation,
music was used to further maintain a sad or neutral mood. The music was played throughout the
entire study and then halted at the final task. Results of this study showed that younger
participants tended to show less change in emotion over time and finished with scores that were
not different than the baseline, whereas, older adults showed more change after induction and
those changes stayed elevated the entire time until the end of the study. Another result that was
found was older adults recalled 47% of positive words in the neutral group but only 40% in the
sad mood induced group. The younger adults recalled 43% positive words in the neutral group
and 46% in the sad mood induced group. These results suggest it is particularly challenging to
induce mood in younger adults and subsequent influence their recall. (Knight, Maines &
Tesoriero and Rickard (2012) looked at mood congruence from emotion arousal and
emotion-function to explain emotion-related recall. They wanted to find the effect of emotion-
inducing music on the short term recall of information about narratives. This study was an online
5. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 5
study where the participants were required to wear headphones the entire study to avoid
distractions, play the music and then administer the stimuli. The participants were told to close
their eyes as they listened to the music as well as the narrative. They were told to open them
when those tasks were completed. After that they were given two distraction tasks to ensure
long-term memory retrieval was used. One was to type out sounds and objects that they noticed
during the last time they went shopping for two minutes. The second was to view emotionally
neutral images for two minutes as well. Finally, they were told to type out what they remembered
from the narrative. The results were as follows: The happy category was singled out as the
highest rated emotion that the music excerpts evoked. (Tesoriero, & Rickard, 2012) Overall,
after listening to negative and positive music, the participants were able to recall both positive
and negative stories, but the mean recall of the positive stories was overall higher than the mean
recall of the negative stories.
Stalinski, and Schellenberg (2013) studied if listeners remember music that they like.
They studied the participants’ initial ratings of how much they liked a variety of musical excerpts
that were examined in conjunction to their subsequent recognition ratings. The listeners were
told to make a rating scale from 1 to 7 after listening to each of the 24 excerpts. There was then a
short delay followed by the liking phase during which the participants completed their
demographic surveys. In the subsequent recognition phase, participants heard 48 excerpts and
then for each they judged if it was presented in the liking phase and rated how confident they
were on a 5-point scale. Finally, they were asked whether any of the excerpts were familiar to
them based on any pre-experiment exposure. The results found, that in “the context of a single
exposure to unfamiliar musical excerpts, high initial liking ratings were associated positively
with subsequent recognition.” (Stalinkski & Schellenberg, 2013 p. 703) If they really liked a new
6. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 6
song never heard before 1st
time hearing it, they were more likely to later recognize it. In our
study, we had the participants rate their familiarity with the song that was playing throughout
their study, and how much they liked or disliked it as well to see if maybe that had an influence
on the results.
Finally a study was conducted to find the role of mood congruency memory effects
in dream recall. Schredl, Hebel, Klutsch and Liehe (2009) were especially interested in linking a
recent negative mood and negative dream content with the ability to recall positive vs. negative
story details.. To begin the procedure, the participants completed a dream questionnaire and a
mood checklist, regarding the past two weeks. The first half of participants received the mood
induction instructions and the other half had a short period without any task. They were then
asked to complete the mood checklist which was used as a manipulation check. A story was then
presented for six minutes and during this time, the participants also had a hard copy to follow
along. Then, a distraction task was administered to all participants. The participants had to record
as many details as they could remember regardless of the order of details from the story. The
results showed that 49 participants recorded dream emotions and only four participants stated
that they did not remember any dreams from the past two weeks. Of the 49 positive and negative
dream emotions did not differ significantly. Overall there was no difference found between
positive and negative emotions and evoking different types of dreams. (Schredl, et al, 2009) In
conclusion to this experiment, mood congruence did not occur because the experimenters did not
succeed in inducing different moods to get their results.
There are many similarities and differences relevant to what is expected to be
discovered in this current study. Many studies have examined the role of music inducing mood to
recall words or dreams from long term memory. Fewer studies have focused on mood
7. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 7
congruence effects on specific type of picture recall. An interesting difference found in the study
conducted by Zetner, Grandjean and Scherer, (2008) in their experiment they had their
participants rate an adjective and connect each to a color. “Participants were asked to rate each
term accoriding to the following criterion: “According to you, does this adjective describe an
internal affective state with a specific affective color so that, to describe this feeling you would
choose to use this adjective over another one?” (Zetner, et al. p. 497) This compares to our study
in the sense that we used music to induce the moods of our participants and pictures to verify that
mood instead of use colors and words. Finally, a study that was extremely different than ours is
the one conducted by Garrido and Schubert (2013). In their experiment they used a 120 question
survey to gain information about depression and mood. Their procedures included, “The opening
screen requested information about symptoms of depression that participants might be
experiencing and this was followed by 120 questions grouped according to the various
inventories used, as described in the measurements section.” (Garrido & Schubert, 2013, p.151-
152) In the study that participants were to rate an adjective and connect to it to a color, they use
the mood congruence theory in the sense that they wanted to induce a mood using an adjective.
Then, in the study that had they focused on gaining information about depression and mood,
helped us to screen out those with a mood disorder such as depression or bipolar. The reason
why our study is so unique is because there are not any findings of the direct experiment that we
conducted. Usually only one of the variables is being tested instead of both picture recall and
mood congruence with music. In other studies, they have used words to induce mood with their
participants whereas we used pictures along with music and a video clip to keep their mood the
same throughout the whole study. We chose pictures over words to induce the mood because we
8. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 8
felt as if there is more of a response to visual scenes and images rather than just seeing a word or
a description when having to recall them afterwards.
They were instructed into three possible sub groups according to the type of music
that they were supposed to listen to and be induced by. The three sub groups were a positive
mood group, a negative mood group and a control group with a neutral mood induction. All
participants were exposed to either a positive or a negative or neutral brief video clip to help
induce their mood, along with the corresponding emotion of music playing in the background. A
30 slide PowerPoint presentation with a single positive or negative picture on each slide was then
shown to all participants after mood induction. They were then asked to recall as many pictures
as they could in two minutes after completing a distractor task to empty working memory. The
main point of our experiment was to find how positive and negative mood affects the emotions
of people and how that emotion then affects their long memory recall of visual images.
Throughout this experiment we expected to find that when participants were induced
with a positive video clip and a positive background music it would then affect their mood
enough to elicit greater recall of positive photos than negative ones. In contrast, we expected to
find that when participants were induced with a negative video clip and negative background
music it would then affect their mood enough to recall more negative than positive pictures from
the PowerPoint presentation. As far as the neutral group goes, we expected no certain type of
picture would be recalled more than the other. We expected this to happen because several past
studies have shown that the mood congruence effect occurs for words, therefore we wanted to
extend this and change the words to pictures instead. For example, one of our positive pictures
that was shown is a baby smiling and one of the negative pictures included a scene from a
funeral of the casket being lowered. (See appendix 2)
9. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 9
Within this study there were a total number of participants that replied of 41 (37 females and 4
males). These participants were college undergraduates from a rural Catholic university in
central Pennsylvania. The response rate after all students on campus were invited was 17%. The
participants were obtained using an e-mail invitation to participate in this study. We also had to
result to some being a convenient sample. They were also given an incentive to participate,
which was a chance to win a thirty dollar gift card to Sheetz (a local convenience store/fast food
restaurant), as well as refreshments after the study was complete. The participants were screened
out if they had any of the following special characteristics: blind, color blind, dyslexic, have any
hearing disability or mood disorder, unable to speak English or were graduate students. We
screened those with these characteristics out because of there being pictures to be recalled that
would have to be seen as well as music and videos to hear at a volume of 32. Any mood disorder
would affect the outcome of the mood induction taking place. Finally graduate students were
screened out because their age would exceed the range we used.
There were various materials used in this study. A classroom Optoma video projector and a 6ft
7inches by 3ft 9 inch projector screen was used to display the Microsoft PowerPoint 2011
presentation of 30 photographs. In the presentation there are pictures from Google Images and
music from YouTube as well. (See Appendix 1) Following the consent form, the participants
were then induced into assigned mood further with a video clip along with music, which was
positive, negative or neutral depending on the group they were in. The positive video clip is a
clip from YouTube version 2014 from the movie Titanic where Jack holds Rose on the ledge of
10. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 10
the ship romantically. The negative video clip is a short movie clip played for three minutes,
retrieved from YouTube version 2014 but from the movie, Titanic. (See Appendix 1) A mass E-
mail was sent out to invite all undergraduate students on the Saint Francis University campus
using Novell, GroupWise 8.00. (See Appendix 2) A self-made demographic survey was
distributed to gain basic information about our participants. (See Appendix 3)
Also, a pretest for the positive and negative stimuli was created to be rated on a 5
point rating scale by 5 people not later in study. 1 most negative and 5 equaled most positive.
(See Appendix 4) The average for the ratings is as follows: 4.34 for the positive photos and 1.37
for the negative photos. Repeated-measures t-test was ran to analyze the pre-test results.
Design and Procedure
The percent of mood congruent items recalled depends on the type of music and current level of
education. This is a One-factor multiple-condition, between-subjects design experiment. The
participants were randomly assigned into a positive music group, negative music group, or
neutral group as control. We randomly assigned music conditions to one of the multiple possible
small group testing times. The photos were also randomized between all of the groups of
participants so that it eliminated any order effects. This experiment was designed to go quickly
and efficiently to keep the participants active and alert. There were about ten participants per
group and the amount of time it took from start to finish was approximately fifteen to twenty
minutes all together before refreshments. The experiment began at six o’clock in the evening but
five minutes was left to give others a chance to show up. As soon as those five minutes were up,
the experiment officially began. From the minute the administrators started giving instructions it
was three minutes of giving those instructions. Then, the demographic survey took about two
minutes and then, the one three minute video clip was shown. Then, the PowerPoint began and it
11. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 11
was two and a half minutes to view the slides on an automatic timer setting. Each slide was
numbered and had a title explaining what each photo was of. After that, the administrators gave
more instructions for thirty seconds about recalling the items and that took two minutes and
thirty seconds after the PowerPoint ended. One of the final tasks that the participants were asked
to complete was a distractor task which was to complete a word find in two minutes. (See
Appendix 5) Then, the participants took the final survey to use as a manipulation check and each
participant wrote their name on a slip of paper which took about three minutes to complete. The
participants were then released and told to enjoy the refreshments.
From the minute the participants entered the classroom; either a positive song or a
negative song was playing on repeat the entire time to help maintain mood induced by video clip.
The music that was played excluded the neutral group which did not have any music. The
administrators had them take a seat wherever they wished and advised them to stay quiet the
entire time as well. When they took their seat they saw two pieces of paper, and a pencil on their
desk. One piece of paper was the demographic survey (See Appendix 3) and the second one was
a blank sheet of paper for them to write all 30. As soon as all participants arrived, the
administrators read the instructions to them:
Thank you all for coming today and participating in our study. Please remain quiet until
this experiment is finished and you all are dismissed. We need you to be completely
honest in all responses and on the surveys for us to be able to retrieve and use good data.
You can now remove the top paper and begin filling out the survey underneath. After you
have completed your survey please wait patiently. One of us will be around to collect it
once everyone finishes. (Collect data) Now we will be presenting you with a thirty slide
12. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 12
presentation. On each slide there will be one item each. You will have five seconds to
study each slide. Once the PowerPoint ends, we will advise you when to start recalling.
Before recollection of the pictures, please work on this word find within two minutes.
The two minutes are up, please put that paper aside and take the blank piece of paper out.
Please try to recall as many items as you can remember when we say go on the blank
piece of paper for two minutes until we say stop. Once you are finished, please remain
seated and quiet until advised to do otherwise. (After the two minute distractor task)
(After all are finished)
Thank you for your participation, we need two more things from you, please fill out
this last survey with complete honesty and write your name on the small slip of paper for
the $30 gift card to Sheetz. After you are finished, you can leave all pieces of paper on
your desk. Please stay quiet for just a few more minutes to watch this short video clip.
(As the negative music groups were done, they were showed the positive video clip to
bring their mood to a stable happy mood) Now you are all set to go, please help yourself
to refreshments. Thank you and have a good day.
To interpret all of our results as significant or insignificant, we set the priori alpha level at p >
.05. We ran two post hoc tests on top of the One-way ANOVA. We used the SNK and the
Dunnett’s T3 tests just in case we had equal variances. All of the means we used were based on
subject means. Although, we had to drop our first five participants because instructions were
not followed as planned. The fault was the instructors because we did not follow what we
originally had planned to keep our conditions constant.
13. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 13
For our statistical analysis, we used a One-way ANOVA. After running this analysis we received
M= -.70 for our first condition, M=.10 for our second condition and M=.18. SE= .687 for our first
condition, SE= .687 for our second condition, and SE= .661 for our third condition. The df=2, p-
value = .760. The positive group recalled more negative stimuli than the negative group recalled
and the control group recalled more positive stimuli than negative.
In Table 1. It shows the means and the standard error between all of the conditions labeled as
positive, negative and control. (See Table 1.) In Figure 1. It shows the comparison of the total
number of positive and negative pictures that were recalled by each condition. ( See Figure 1.)
After completing all relevant statistical analyses on the results from our experiment, we found
that our hypothesis was rejected. It was rejected because the results did not show a significant
difference in total recall of the positive and negative pictures between the three conditions. We
can infer that the music or the movie clip that we chose to try and induce the participants’
mood did not work. Therefore we can infer that it is harder to change someone’s mood by just
presenting certain stimuli. This leads into another theoretical explanation as to why the results
were what they were. Also, we believe that it may depend on the different personalities or that
in general people remember negative objects more than positive objects. With the different
personality’s explanation, different people may react differently to positive or negative stimuli.
Some people also may just be generally negative people so therefore, they would remember
more of the negative pictures. With the in general people remember negative objects more
than positive objects explanation, this could be used because negative objects/stimuli are more
traumatic and it is proven from many different resources that people tend to remember more
14. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 14
traumatic experiences and memories. Another theoretical explanation that can be used to
explain why our results turned out the way they did was because when we checked our
manipulation checks, most people had our hypothesis correct. The participants knowing this
could have swayed what they wrote down when they were to recall the positive and negative
From all of our past studies that we looked at and analyzed only one study did an experiment
close to what we did. That experiment had their participants recall words instead of pictures.
We had many flaws in our experiment that if they were not present the results could have been
more significantly different. To begin, we lost five participants at the beginning of our study due
to not following the instructions we previously planned to use. Instead of playing the music clip
while they were watching the PowerPoint, it was turned off accidently without remembering to
turn it back on after the talking was over. This flaw would make our sample size even small than
it already was with them included in the results. Unfortunately, our response rate was generally
small and seeing if we had more participants reply, we could have had a bigger sample size.
Another flaw that we found was that we did not have our pretest group rate the movie clip or the
music clip. We just had them rate the title of the slide.
In the study reported in 2002 by Knight, Maines and Robinson, they inferred that it is difficult to
induce young people into a different mood than they are already in. These results would be
consistent with our results due to the fact that we inferred the same thing. In another study done
by Tesoriero and Rickard (2002) they found that after listening to negative and positive music,
the participants were able to recall both positive and negative stories, but the mean recall of the
positive stories was overall higher than the mean recall of the negative stories. These results
would be inconsistent with ours because they say that the positive stories were recalled more
15. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 15
overall than the negative whereas with ours, the negative stimuli were recalled more than the
positive. Stalinski, and Schellenberg (2013) did a study and had their participants rate how much
they liked 24 excerpts and their results concluded that in the context of a single exposure to
unfamiliar musical excerpts, high initial liking ratings were associated positively with subsequent
recognition. This would also be inconsistent with our results because it is saying that their
participants recognized more positive music rather than the negative ones. In one of our final
sources, the authors found that there was no difference found between positive and negative
emotions and evoking different types of dreams. Mood congruence did not occur because the
experimenters did not succeed in inducing different moods to get their results. These results are
consistent with our results because mood congruence did not occur in ours either.
Above and beyond the results, we can conclude that it is harder to manipulate the mood of
younger adults by simply just showing them a video clip or a song and the keep the mood
constant. We may be able to make them feel bad for a few seconds by showing them sad stimuli
but that does not necessarily mean that they will stay in that mood long enough to recall items
that we thought they would. Applying this to the real world, it is harder to manipulate someone’s
mood unless it is something so drastically tragic or on the other end of the spectrum something
that is so positive or happy. In general in the real world when you propose a negative or positive
situation many people will remember the negative situations over the positive.
In the future, we would need a bigger population and more time to induce the mood to make sure
that it stays at what mood we are trying to induce. Also, we would need more drastic images to
induce the mood more in depth. Overall, this experiment has shown that more people will
remember more negative images compared to positive images and their mood should have been
16. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 16
manipulated stronger and for a longer period of time to make sure the results was accurate and
came closer to meeting our hypothesis.
17. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 17
Garrido, S. & Schubert, E. (2013). Adaptive and maladaptive attraction to negative emotions in
music. Musicae Scientiae, 17(147), 147-166. Retrieved from SAGEPUB database.
Google Images (n.d.) Positive and Negative pictures. Retrieved: December 5, 2013 from
Katrina & The Waves. (2007). Walking On Sunshine. YouTube Podcast Retrieved December 5,
2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKh0dLIuIu8
Kellogg, R. T. (2003). Cognitive Psychology: Learning, Knowing, and Remembering (2nd
pp. 169). California, CA: Sage Publications.
Knight, B.G., Maines, M.L., & Robinson, G. S. (2002). The Effects of Sad Mood on Memory in
Older Adults: A Test of the Mood Congruence Effect. Psychology and Aging 17(4),
653-661. Retrieved from OVID database.
Konecni, V.J. (2008). Does Music Induce Emotion? A Theoretical and Methodological
Analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2(2), 115-129. Retrieved
from OVID database.
Landau, J. (Producer), & Cameron, J. (Director). (1997). Titanic [Motion Picture]. England:
McLaughlin, S. (2008, Jan. 18). In The Arms Of an Angel. YouTube Podcast Retrieved
December 5, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVbkz_3lO3c
Schredl, M., Hebel, M.E., Klutsch, R.C., & Liehe, L.J. (2009). The Role of Mood Congruency
Memory Effects in Dream Recall: A Pilot Study. Dreaming, 19(2), 113-118. Retrieved
from OVID database.
18. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 18
Stalinski, S. M. & Schellenberg, E. G. (2013). Listeners Remember Music They Like. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(3), 700-716.
Retrieved from OVID database.
Tesoriero, M. & Rickard, N.S. (2012). Music-enhanced recall: An effect of mood congruence,
emotion arousal or emotion function? Musicae Scientiae, 16(340), 340-356. Retrieved
from SAGEPUB database.
The Best Scene in Titanic. (2012). YouTube Podcast Retrieved January 27, 2014 from
Titanic Jack’s Death and Come Back Scene. (2013). YouTube Podcast Retrieved December 5,
2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1CW9ZoouA0
Zentner, M., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2008). Emotions Evoked by the Sound of Music:
Characterization, Classification, and Measurement. Emotion, 8(4), 494-521. Retrieved
from OVID database.
19. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 19
Don’t Worry Be Happy. (2012). YouTube Podcast Retrieved January 22, 2014 from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8I6DlVjZOSA – positive movie clip played at the
beginning of experiment
Titanic Jack’s Death and Come Back Scene. (2013). YouTube Podcast Retrieved December 5,
2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1CW9ZoouA0 – negative movie clip
played at the beginning of experiment
http://youtu.be/CKh0dLIuIu8 - Positive song that will be playing throughout whole entire study.
http://youtu.be/jVbkz_3lO3c - Negative song that will be playing throughout whole entire study.
20. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 20
Subject: Attention SFU community!
Do you like refreshments? Do you like the chance of winning a $30 Sheetz gift card? If so, this
opportunity may be for you.
My name is Brittany Kirk and my partner is Hanna Reimer. We are currently enrolled in PSYC
202: Research Methods and Statistics II. We are in need of participants for a research study
regarding how music influences completion of a few different tasks.
If you are an undergraduate student between the ages of 18 and 22, and have just 30-40 minutes
of your time to spare, we would very much appreciate your help!
There are different times to participate. If you are willing to volunteer, please reply to this
message with the time that suits your schedule best.
The times to participate are as follows: Day of week at X:XX-X:XX; Day of week at X:XX-
X:XX and Day of week at X:XX-X:XX.
Warning: There will be some happy and sad stimuli, which may affect your mood.
If you can make any of these times, please volunteer to participate in our experiment as soon as
possible, as it is a requirement to complete this course.
If there are any questions, comments or concerns, feel free to e-mail me or Hanna at
firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
21. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 21
Positive picture example
Negative picture example
22. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 22
Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and answer them accordingly. When
finished please sit quietly and take out the blank sheet of paper and wait for further instructions.
1. Gender: Female or Male (please circle one)
2. Age ________
3. Race: (please circle one)
Native American/Alaskan Native
Other: (Please describe) _________________________________________
4. Current level of education (circle one)
5. Do you currently have any hearing disabilities? (circle one)
6. Do you currently have any vision disabilities? (circle one)
23. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 23
7. Please rate how much you like the song currently playing. 1 being I hate this song 3 being love
1 2 3
8. Please rate how familiar you are with this song. 1 being never heard this song in my life and 3
being I have heard it many times.
1 2 3
24. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 24
Instructions: Please rate each title of a photo on its positivity from 1-5. 1 being the least positive
and 5 being the most positive
1 2 3 4 5
Instructions: Please rate each photo on its negativity from 1-5. 1 being the least negative and 5
being the most negative.
1 2 3 4 5
25. Running head: MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT AND PICTURE RECALL 25
Difference of Positive
and Negative Items
Positive Negative Control
Type of Stimuli
Mean -.70 .10 .18
Standard Error .687 .687 .661
Positive Condition Negative Condition Control Group
Figure 1. Total Number of Recall Within
Each Condition of Positive and Negative
Total Positive Recall
Total Negative Recall