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Research design power point for adult aging class

Adult and Aging

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Research design power point for adult aging class

  1. 1. National University College of Letters and Sciences Research Methodology in Adult Development and Aging Steven Mendoza, Ph.D.,MSCP Psychology Adjunct Professor March 2015
  2. 2. Chapter 5 Research Methodology in Adult Development and Aging. • The Psychology of adult development is a branch of scientific psychology, and thus shares the methodological concerns of the parent field. • Adult development psychology uses the same kinds of data, generated by the same procedures, as do other fields of psychology. • The formal experiment, the correlational study, the use of survey methodology are as much in evidence here as elsewhere.
  3. 3. Chapter 5 • As is true for other areas of psychology, researchers in this field often have trouble finding an adequate control group, to which to compare their experimental group--- • ---they have problems generalizing their results beyond the particular individuals whom they happened to observe, and they worry about statistical distortions.
  4. 4. Chapter 5 • Cross sectional designs compare several age groups (Cohorts) at the same time. • They yield data on age differences. • Longitudinal designs compare the same cohort at different times. They yield data on age changes….
  5. 5. Chapter 5 • There also are additional concerns, not always faced in other branches of psychology, that relate directly to the fact that in the developmental sciences we not only describe static phenomenon. • But most importantly are concerned with the measurement of change over time. Finally, there are special methodological problems in doing research with older subjects.
  6. 6. Chapter 5 • Longitudinal studies suffer from subjects loss, practice effects, and historical changes that affect behavior. • But, cross sectional studies are more prone to confusion of age effects with differences between generations (Cohorts).
  7. 7. Chapter 5 • Cross sectional cont’d: • Difference scores tend to be less reliable than scores on single occasions; alternate methods, require three, or more measurement points.
  8. 8. Chapter 5 • A major research problem in adult development is finding representative samples; white, middle- class males are generally overrepresented in the research literature. • but in advanced old age woman are overrepresented in the research literature.
  9. 9. Chapter 5 • Longitudinal studies also have the problem of keeping the sample representative once it is recruited; lower-class subjects, for example, tend to drop out in disproportionate numbers. • Sequential designs are complex combinations of the simple cross-sectional, and longitudinal designs. • A cross-sectional consists of two, or more cross- sectional studies run at different times.
  10. 10. Chapter 5 • A longitudinal sequence consists of concurrent longitudinal studies of two, or more cohorts. • Schaie’s most efficient design includes both cross sectional, and longitudinal sequence. • Formed by retesting the subjects of an earlier cross-sectional study while testing new subjects in a new cross-sectional study.
  11. 11. Chapter 5 • Analysis of the resulting data can be cohort- sequential (cohort v. Age), cross-sequential (cohort v. time of measurement). • In repeated measures design the same subject are tested at different times. • Independent samples designs test new subjects from the same cohort, instead of re-testing the same subjects at different times.
  12. 12. Chapter 5 • Many experiment Designs (quasi experiments) may yield important insights and allow researchers to examine alternative explanations for a variety of aging phenomena. • Age-comparative experiments compare groups of subject of different ages to assess their performance of some behavior in order to determine if a particular factor explains the age differences in behavior.
  13. 13. Chapter 5 • Single age group intervention designs study a group on whom longitudinal data is available, and compare the effects of intervention on stable individuals experiencing decline. • Molar equivalence-molecular decomposition experiments seek to discover how the older person might compensate for declines in performance in one area by enhance performance in another area.
  14. 14. Chapter 5 • In addition to concerns about reliability , validity, and objectivity, several issues bear on the validity of developmental research. • Relationships between observables, such as test performance and behavior, and latent constructs, such as anxiety and intelligence, must be stable across time to provide valid representation of performance.
  15. 15. Chapter 5 • The method of confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the equivalence of these relationships across time, or different age groups. • The generalizability of research finding must also be taken in to account.
  16. 16. Chapter 5 • The extent to which research findings can be broadly applied depends greatly on the representativeness of the sample. • It is also necessary to be aware of the demographics, and health characteristics of subjects in order to understand how finding may be relevant to other populations.