Culture, language, and verbal art

29 de Aug de 2019

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Culture, language, and verbal art

  1. Culture, Language and Verbal Art Boutkhil Guemide University Mohammed Boudiaf, M’sila Algeria
  2. INTRODUCTION What is art? The role of art in society The functions of art Verbal art as literature and social rituals Engagement and interaction between audience and performers Literary and cultural values of verbal art Conclusion
  3. INTRODUCTION  Every society is unique; It is distinguished from the rest of other societies in terms of: race, social behavior, social rituals, language, and art.  Art: The most prominent pillar upon which society stands.  Most societies past and present have used art to give meaningful expression to almost every part of their culture, including ideas about religion, kinship, and ethnic identity.
  4. Art…  …enhances daily experiences.  …is linked to quality of life.  …touches everyone.  …is all around us.
  5. Some “Truths” About Art 1. There is no agreed-upon definition of art. 2. Art does not necessarily have to be beautiful. 3. Art can be created for any number of reasons.
  6. What is Art ?  Art is very difficult to define,  The reflection of art it is the understanding of culturally different meanings.  Anthropology defined its discipline through the investigation of meanings  It refers to the manifestations of human creativity through which people express themselves in dance, music, song, painting, sculpture, pottery, cloth, story telling, verse, prose, drama, and comedy.  Art is the creative use of the human imagination to aesthetically interpret, express, and engage life, modifying experienced reality in the process.  Franz Boas (1929): art is an essential part of all cultures.  Art: “Another type of language”, one without words, expresses ideas and forms and serves to maintain and develop its culture.  Words can be a limitation.  The pictorial language in many ways expresses content more meaningfully than speech or writing does, especially when content is not concrete.
  7. The Meaning of the Word Art… Ability The human capacity to make things of beauty and things that stir us. Process The different forms of art such as drawing, painting, sculpting, architecture, and photography Product The completed work
  8. Art Should …. 1. The artistic process should be creative, playful, and enjoyable and need not be concerned with the practicality or usefulness of the object being produced. 2. From the perspective of the consumer, art should produce an emotional response. 3. Art should be transformational.
  9. Art Should …. 4. Art should communicate information by being representational. 5. Art implies that the artist has developed a certain level of technical skill not shared equally by all people in a society.
  10.  Art should make a symbolic statement about what is being portrayed.  In other words, art should communicate information a) by being technically skilled. b) by being transformational. c) by being creative. d) by being representational.
  11. How art is performed in society? Paint Tatooing Sculpture Music & dance Sport Filmography Utility
  12. The Purpose/ or Functions of Art o PERSONAL FUNCTION: The artist tries to express his or her personal feelings through the artwork. o SOCIAL FUNCTION: Art that conveys a sense of family, community, or civilization. Cultural. o SPIRITUAL FUNCTION: An artist may create a work to support the Religious or Spiritual beliefs of a culture. o PHYSICAL FUNCTION: Functional Art: objects use in everyday life— such as architecture, jewelry, pottery, furniture, etc. o EDUCATIONAL FUNCTION: Art that has been used throughout time as a way to pass on historical facts. Teaches about cultures.
  13. Types of Art Verbal arts – Folklore Music – Verbal – Nonverbal Pictorial Arts – Painting – Sculpture
  14. Verbal arts  Stories within a culture reflecting a history, gender relationships, proper or improper behavior, or religious beliefs.  Examples: Narratives, dramas, poetry, incantations, proverbs, compliments, and insults.
  15. Verbal Arts - Myth  Religious  A myth provides rationale for religious beliefs and practices.  Creation myths
  16. Verbal Arts – Legend  Stories told as true  Common elements – No known author – Multiple versions – Detail – Insight to society
  17. Verbal Arts - Tale  Common elements – Secular – Nonhistorical – Entertainment – May be moralistic  Motif – Story situation
  18. Verbal Arts – Poetry and Epics  Poetry - Allows for inappropriate subjects to be talked about – Epics - Long oral narratives, sometimes in poetry or rhythmic prose, recounting the glorious events in the life of a real or legendary person.
  19. Music  Verbal and nonverbal  Abstract emotion  Define – Indigenous terms – Musical lingo  Melody, rhythm, form  Components – Repetition – Tonality
  20. Functions of Music  Social function – Entertainment – Work – Oral tradition
  21. Pictorial Art  Various mediums – Drawing, painting, sketching, etc… – Walls, rock, fibers, wood, animal hide, plants, clay, etc…  Symbolic expression
  22. How does Art Impact Communities?  Increasing social capital and community cohesion:  “Art is a process that involves professional artists and community members in a collaborative creative process resulting in collective experience and public expression”  It provides a way for communities to express themselves;  It enables artists, to engage in creative activity with communities;  Art has a beneficial impact on the economy: Economic impacts are perhaps the most widely touted benefits of the arts;  Arts attract visitors (art as ‘export’ industry);  Arts attract residents and businesses;  Arts attract investments;  Art is good for individuals:  The arts improve individual health;  The arts improve psychological well- being;  The arts improve skills, cultural capital and creativity;
  23. Verbal Art  What is verbal art ?  A.k.a. oral literature: exists in different genres;  Verbal art: a text- centered & performance- centered approach;  These genres are performed in all cultures & specific contexts;  Myths, legends, folktales, ballads, proverbs, riddles, and jokes;  What does PERFORMANCE mean in verbal art?  Dual senses:  Artistic action (doing of folklore) Art form  Artistic event (performance situation) (performer, audience, setting) Performance assumes the responsibility to an audience for a display of communicative competence— the knowledge and ability to speak in socially appropriate ways.
  24. Verbal art as literature and social rituals  Every culture has its own unique literary expression.  Literature can be defined more broadly to include songs, speeches, stories and invocations.  Carter (2001): Literature is as old as human language, … . The first literature in any culture is oral. The classical Greek epics, the Asian narratives… the earliest version of the Bible…were all communicated orally, and passed on from generation to generation- with variations, additions, omissions and embellishments until they were set down in written form in versions which have come down to us. (p. 3)
  25. Oral Traditions Oral traditions: the first way people had of communicating knowledge and beliefs from one generation to the next.  Oral traditions have provided cultural continuity in ancient communities through the sharing of stories, songs, history, personal experiences, and social commentary;
  26. Orature  The literature of aboriginal societies was based in oral traditions best described as “orature.”  Individuals who were eloquent and had a strong command of the language were highly respected in native communities.  They were often storytellers.  Oral traditions were intricate and full of meaning.  Aboriginal orators were highly respected, and words had a great deal of power.  Orators used wit, metaphor, irony, emotion, imagery and eloquence to enrich their orature.
  27. What characterized Oral Traditions in those remote times?
  28. The Recording of HistoryThe Aboriginal tradition in the recording of history is an oral one, involving legends, stories, and accounts handed down through the generations in oral form. In the Aboriginal tradition, the purpose of repeating oral accounts from the past is broader than the role of written history in western societies.
  29. Oral Accounts  Oral accounts of the past include a good deal of subjective experience.  They are not simply a detached recounting of factual events but, rather, are facts enmeshed in the stories of a lifetime.  They are also likely to be rooted in particular locations, making reference to particular families and communities.
  30. Characterized History These histories are characterized by how a people see themselves, how they define their identity in relation to their environment, and how they express their uniqueness as a people.
  31. Immediacy Unlike western tradition, which creates a sense of distance in time between the listener or reader and the events being described, the tendency of Aboriginal perspectives is to create a sense of immediacy. This is done by encouraging listeners to imagine that they are participating in the past event being recounted.
  32. Validation The purpose of the accounts may be to educate the listener, to communicate aspects of culture, to socialize people into a cultural tradition, or to validate the claims of a particular family to authority and prestige.
  33. Drawing your own conclusions  Those who hear the oral accounts draw their own conclusions from what they have heard, and they do so in the particular context (time, place and situation) of the telling of the story.  Thus, the meaning to be drawn from an oral account depends on who is telling it, the circumstances in which the account is told, and the interpretation the listener gives to what has been heard.
  34. Storytellers There were many storytellers in Aboriginal communities. Children hear ancient legends and tales and learn the history of their communities by talking with their elders. In particular, storytelling was a vital ingredient in teaching young children and youths. Stories were often used to discipline
  35. A storyteller is…  A good storyteller could transport listeners to a particular territory.  A storyteller could evoke the lessons of ancestors long passed away.  A storyteller could shape the opinions of people reminding them of past actions and historical events.  In any oral tradition, spoken words had the power to capture the imagination and transform reality.
  36. Verbal art: literary characteristics  Verbal literature: A kind of history about the past situations;  Verbal literature: A medium for transmitting historical knowledge;  An inseparable part of history: It has a timeless quality; It reflects truths of all time of a particular historic moment.  Verbal art shares common ground with modern fictions because both are meant for teaching and entertaining through the medium of artistic language;  The poetic patterning of verbal art entails two transformational dimensions:Syntagmatic (horizontal) relations Interpersonal/ or producer- receiver relations Paradigmatic (vertical) relations. Historical and cultural events
  37. Syntagmatic (horizontal) relations Paradigmatic (vertical) relations
  38. Engagement & interaction between audience and performers
  39.  Verbal art deals with historic events and cultural contexts,  A sense of reality of those events that can validate the continuity of traditions and history, the relationship of the two, and the way they serve as literary tools that help manipulate the images of the past.
  40. The poetic character of the verbal art expressive feature stylistic features formal principle/organic unity cultural semantics
  41. Expressive features The changing of abstract ideas into literary form Stylistic features Essential ingredients of discourse analysis/ or the artistic use of language Formal principle/ organic unity The interconnection of events and the revelations of characters Cultural semantics Contextual- centered poetic meanings
  42.  Ben- Amos: A society usually classifies verbal communication into three ways: 1: Identifying and interpreting literary forms or genres within a wider ethnographic system (cognitive); 2: Performing them in a particular social context (pragmatic); 3: Formulating the oral art using poetic languages that are peculiar to them (expressive).  Thus, verbal art becomes coherent and valid if stylistic, thematic, and contextual aspects are taken into account.
  43. Verbal Communication Cognitive Pragmatic Expressive
  44.  Ben- Amos (1977): “Concerning the features of verbal art, there are three basic elements …., namely cognitive, pragmatic and expressive, is of capital importance.”  Ben- Amos (1977): The cognitive features consist of names, …, and commentary by which a society labels, categorizes, and interprets its forms of folklore within a wider system of discourse. The expressive features are the styles, the contents and structures which characterize each genre and the… pragmatic features are the constituents of the situational contexts of each folklore performance. (p. 2)
  45.  Pragmatic level: Functional differences are observable between the various oral forms of the verbal art; clearly be seen when they are performed in the specific cultural and social environment.  The suunsuma (satirical/ humorous poem): told for entertainment when people are free from work;  The mammaaka/ mammaaksa (proverb): occasions of argument, in times of seeking sound judgements, commenting on unfairness, criticizing or correcting erroneous views;  The Durduri (the trickster tale/ fable story): narrated in the context of unfolding deception, villainy and social corruption;  The weedduu hujii (work song): sung to reinforce belonging together, solidarity and friendship;  The weedduu jaalalaa (love lyric): sung to provoke romantic love feelings; the geerarsa (heroic tale): narrated in the context of promoting a sense of patriotism and a strong national feeling.
  46. Any questions?