7. Qualitative data is descriptive rather than
numerical, and it looks for context — it’s about
people’s perceptions. You gather it to understand
the reasons and motivations that drive certain
8. For example, qualitative data can reveal people’s
feelings and opinions about your organization,
and you can use it to determine why customers
buy your products (or don’t).
9. Based on the research paradigm and the chosen
research design, there are a series of data
generation methods that can be be used. Here
D. Document Collection
10. A. Interviews
It is a data collection strategy in which
participants are asked to talk about the area
Interviews can be used to investigate sensitive
11. A. Interviews
Interviews can explore emotions, experiences
or feelings that cannot be easily observed or
described through pre-defined questionnaire
Interviews are widely used in
phenomenologies, case studies
12. Kinds of of Interviews
a. Unstructured/ in-depth the researcher asks
the respondent a general queston regarding
the area of interest and asks them to tell their
own story; aims to discuss a limited number of
topics in great depth.
13. Kinds of of Interviews
b. Semi-structured- the interviewer has a slightly
more focused. Questions are phrased to allow
the particpants to tell, the story in their own
way and an interview guide is used to ensure
information is gathered on areas
of interest to the researcher.
14. Kinds of of Interviews
c. Structured- an interiew in which the questions
are pre-determined and asked to all subjects.
Closed questions are used with limited
15. Kinds of of Interviews
d. Focus groups- interviews of groups of people
with something in common. Focus groups are
used to encit the views ot a group (usually
6 to 10 individuals) who have
common experiences or interests.
16. B. Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a predefined set of
questions, assembled in a pre-determined
order. Questionnaires are frequently
associated with surveys,
but they are used in interviews
31. 1. Participant Observation
Participant observation often requires months
or years of intensive work because the
researcher needs to become accepted as a
part of the culture in order to
assure that the observations
are of the natural phenomenon.
32. 2. Systematic or Direct Observation
1. The type of events to be observed, the
frequency and duration are decided in
2. Systematic observation usually involves
counting or timing,
so it leads to the generation
of quantitative data;
33. 2. Systematic or Direct Observation
3. Using an observation schedule from the
literature might prove useful;
4. Multiple observers can work on the study,
if they are properly trained and use a
common observation schedule
34. D. Document Collection
Document collection is used in historical
research and in other research designs in
combination with other ways or data
35. D. Document Collection
Found Documents: Produced by
1. Formal records: personnel, sales records,
shareholder reports, minutes of the
2. Intormal communications:
notes, memos, email
36. D. Document Collection
Found Documents: Produced by
1. Public records: electoral registers, registers
ot births, marriages,
37. D. Document Collection
Found Documents: Produced by Individuals
1. Personal papers: diaries, logs, letters, phone
2. Documents from everyday
lives: shopping lists, bus,
and train tickets.
40. Data Collection and Analysis Procedures
4. focus group
1. Yes/ No answers
2. Quantity questions
3. Agree/ Disagree with
4. Degree ot agreement/
5. Scale questions
6. Semantic differential
7. List questions
8. Rank order questions
2. Systematic or Direct
1. Produced by
2. Produced by
4. Secondary Data
41. Systems for Analysis of Qualitative
Data Involving Language
1. Content analysis is a research tool used to
determine the presence of certain words,
themes, or concepts
within some given qualitative
data (i.e. text).
42. 2. In grounded analysis, you do not start from a
defined point. Instead, you allow the data to
‘speak for itself’, with themes emerging from
the discussions and conversations. This may
much harder to achieve.
43. 3. Social Network Analysis. This form of analysis
examines the links between individuals as a
way of understanding what motivates
behaviour. It’s often helpful to use a visual
approach to kind of analysis to generate a
diagram showing the relation
between members of a network.
46. 4. Discourse Analysis. This approach not only
analyses conversation, but also takes into
account the social context in which the
conversation occurs, including previous
conversations, power relationships and the
concept of individual identity.
47. 5. Narrative Analysis. This looks at the way in
which stories are told within an organisation
or society to try to understand more about
the way in which people think and are
organised within groups.
48. 6. Conversation Analysis. It assumes that
conversations are all governed by rules and
patterns which remain the same whoever is
talking. It also assumes that what is said can
only be understood by looking at what went
before and after.
54. 7. Computer-Aided Analysis. There are many
computer packages designed to support and assist
with the analysis of qualitative (language-based)
data, these include NVivo, Atlas.ti and the like. They
are widely used to analyse large quantities of data,
reducing the pressure on a
researcher to read and code
everything him- or herself.
57. Characteristics of Good Data-Collection Instrument
concise but able to elicit the needed data
seeks information that cannot be obtained
from other sources
questions are arranged in
sequence (simple to complex)
58. questions are arranged according to SOP
(statement of the problem) should pass the
validity and reliability easily tabulated and
61. Methodology in research is defined as the
systematic method to resolve a research problem
through data gathering using various techniques,
providing an interpretation of data gathered and
drawing conclusions about the
62. Writing Your Research Paper Methodology
Saunders et al. (2007) proposed the concept of the
research onion model to help researchers develop a
methodology and construct a research design within
the field of future studies.
63. Writing Your Research Paper Methodology
This research onion model has six main layers,
which serve as a step-by-step guide for
researchers to create and organize their
66. Writing Effective Methodology Section
Introduce your methods.
Establish methodological connection.
Introduce your instruments.
Discuss your analysis.
Provide background information.
Discuss sampling process.
Address research limitations.
67. Ethical Considerations
The rights to privacy of the individuals
The nature of participation in the research
must be voluntary and the individuals
involved must have the right to withdraw
partially or completely from the process.
68. Ethical Considerations
All participants must provide their consent
Maintenance of the confidentiality of data
provided by individuals as well as identifiable
69. Ethical Considerations
How participants react to the researchers’
methods in seeking to collect data.
How the participants will be affected by the
way in which data is
analyzed and reported.
The behavior and objectivity
of the researcher.