1. There is no easy answer to this question due to the many different
classifications of computers. The first mechanical computer, created
by Charles Babbage in 1822, doesn't really resemble what most
would consider a computer today. Therefore, this document has been
created with a listing of each of the computer firsts, starting with the
Difference Engine and leading up to the computers we use today.
Note: Early inventions which helped lead up to the computer, such
as the abacus, calculator, and tablet machines, are not accounted for
in this document.
When was the first computer invented?
2. The word "computer" was first recorded as being used
in 1613 and originally was used to describe a human who
performed calculations or computations. The definition of
a computer remained the same until the end of the 19th
century, when the industrial revolution gave rise to
machines whose primary purpose was calculating.
The word "computer" was first used
3. In 1822, Charles Babbage conceptualized and began developing the Difference Engine,
considered to be the first automatic computing machine. The Difference Engine was
capable of computing several sets of numbers and making hard copies of the results.
Babbage received some help with development of the Difference Engine from Ada
Lovelace, considered by many to be the first computer programmer for her work and notes
on the Difference Engine. Unfortunately, because of funding, Babbage was never able to
complete a full-scale functional version of this machine. In June of 1991, the London
Science Museum completed the Difference Engine No 2 for the bicentennial year of
Babbage's birth and later completed the printing mechanism in 2000.
First mechanical computer or automatic
computing engine concept
4. In 1837, Charles Babbage proposed the first general
mechanical computer, the Analytical Engine. The
Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic
Unit (ALU), basic flow control, and
integrated memory and is the first general-purpose
computer concept. Unfortunately, because of funding
issues, this computer was also never built while
Charles Babbage was alive. In 1910, Henry Babbage,
Charles Babbage's youngest son, was able to
complete a portion of this machine and was able to
perform basic calculations.
5. The Z1 was created by German Konrad Zuse in his
parents' living room between 1936 and 1938. It is
considered to be the first electro-
mechanical binary programmable computer, and
the first really functional modern computer.
First programmable computer
6. The Turing machine was first proposed by Alan
Turing in 1936 and became the foundation for theories
about computing and computers. The machine was a
device that printed symbols on paper tape in a manner
that emulated a person following a series of logical
instructions. Without these fundamentals, we wouldn't
have the computers we use today.
First concepts of what we consider a modern
7. The first electric programmablecomputer
The Colossus was the first electric
programmable computer, developed by
Tommy Flowers, and first demonstrated
in December 1943. The Colossus was
created to help the British code breakers
read encrypted German messages.
8. Short for Atanasoff-Berry Computer, the ABC began development by Professor John Vincent Atanasoff and
graduate student Cliff Berry in 1937. Its development continued until 1942 at the Iowa State College (now
Iowa State University).
The ABC was an electrical computer that used vacuum tubes for digital computation, including binary math
and Boolean logic and had no CPU. On October 19, 1973, the US Federal Judge Earl R. Larson signed his
decision that the ENIAC patent by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly was invalid and named Atanasoff the
inventor of the electronic digital computer.
The ENIAC was invented by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania and began
construction in 1943 and was not completed until 1946. It occupied about 1,800 square feet and used about
18,000 vacuum tubes, weighing almost 50 tons. Although the Judge ruled that the ABC computer was the first
digital computer, many still consider the ENIAC to be the first digital computer because it was fully
The first digital computer
9. The TX-O (Transistorized Experimental computer) is the
first transistorized computer to be demonstrated at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology in1956.
The first minicomputer
In 1960, Digital Equipment Corporation released its first of many PDP
computers, the PDP-1.
The first desktop and mass-market computer
In 1964, the first desktop computer, the Programma 101, was unveiled to
the public at the New York World's Fair. It was invented by Pier Giorgio
Perotto and manufactured by Olivetti. About 44,000 Programma 101
computers were sold, each with a price tag of $3,200.
In 1968, Hewlett Packard began marketing the HP 9100A, considered to
be the first mass-marketed desktop computer.
The first transistor computer
10. The first workstation
Although it was never sold, the first workstation is considered to be
the Xerox Alto, introduced in 1974. The computer was
revolutionary for its time and included a fully functional computer,
display, and mouse. The computer operated like many computers
today utilizing windows, menus and icons as an interface to its
operating system. Many of the computer's capabilities were first
demonstrated in The Mother of All Demos byDouglas Engelbart on
December 9, 1968.
Intel introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on
November 15, 1971.
The Vietnamese-French engineer, André Truong Trong Thi, along
with Francois Gernelle, developed the Micral computer in 1973.
Considered as the first "micro-computer", it used the
Intel 8008 processor and was the first commercial non-assembly
computer. It originally sold for $1,750.
11. In 1975, Ed Roberts coined the term "personal computer"
when he introduced the Altair8800. Although the first personal
computer is considered by many to be the KENBAK-1, which
was first introduced for $750 in 1971. The computer relied on a
series of switches for inputting data and output data by turning
on and off a series of lights.
The first personal computer
12. The IBM 5100 is the first portable computer, which was released on
September 1975. The computer weighed 55 pounds and had a five
inch CRT display, tape drive, 1.9MHz PALM processor, and 64KB of RAM.
In the picture is an ad of the IBM 5100 taken from a November 1975 issue of
The first truly portable computer or laptop is considered to be the Osborne I,
which was released on April 1981 and developed by Adam Osborne. The
Osborne I weighed 24.5 pounds, had a 5-inch display, 64 KB of memory, two
5 1/4" floppy drives, ran theCP/M 2.2 operating system, included a modem,
and cost US$1,795.
The IBM PC Division (PCD) later released the IBM portable in 1984, it's first
portable computer that weighed in at 30 pounds. Later in 1986, IBM PCD
announced it's firstlaptop computer, the PC Convertible, weighing 12
pounds. Finally, in 1994, IBM introduced the IBM ThinkPad 775CD, the first
notebook with an integrated CD-ROM.
The first laptop or portablecomputer
13. The Apple I (Apple 1) was the first Apple computer that
originally sold for $666.66. The computer kit was developed
by Steve Wozniak in 1976 and contained a 6502 8-bit
processor and 4 kb of memory, which was expandable to 8 or
48 kb using expansion cards. Although the Apple I had a fully
assembled circuit board the kit still required apower
supply, display, keyboard, and case to be operational. Below is
a picture of an Apple I from an advertisement by Apple.
The first Apple computer
14. IBM introduced its first personal computer called
the IBM PC in 1981. The computer was code
named and still sometimes referred to as
the Acorn and had a 8088processor, 16 KB of
memory, which was expandable to 256 and
The firstPC clone
The Compaq Portable is considered to be the
first PC clone and was release in March 1983
by Compaq. The Compaq Portable was 100%
compatible with IBM computers and was capable of
running any software developed for IBM
The first IBMpersonal computer
15. The firstmultimedia computer
In 1992, Tandy Radio Shack became one of the first companies to
release a computer based on the MPC standard with its introduction
of the M2500 XL/2 and M4020 SX computers.
Other computer company firsts
Below is a listing of some of the major computers companies first
Commodore - In 1977, Commodore introduced its first computer,
the "Commodore PET".
Compaq - In March 1983, Compaq released its first computer and
the first 100% IBM compatible computer, the "Compaq Portable."
Dell - In 1985, Dell introduced its first computer, the "Turbo PC."
Hewlett Packard - In 1966, Hewlett Packard released its first
general computer, the "HP-2115."
NEC - In 1958, NEC builds its first computer, the "NEAC 1101."
Toshiba - In 1954, Toshiba introduces its first computer, the "TAC"
16. A single person did not create the Internet that we know and use today. Below is a listing
of different people who have helped contribute to and develop the Internet.
The initial idea of the Internet is credited to Leonard Kleinrock after he published his
first paper entitled "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets" on May 31, 1961.
In 1962, J.C.R. Licklider became the first Director of IPTO and gave his vision of a
galactic network. Also, with ideas from Licklider and Kleinrock, Robert Taylor helped
create the idea of the network that later became ARPANET.
The Internet as we know it today first started being developed in the late 1960's in
California in the United States.
In the summer of 1968, the Network Working Group (NWG) held its first meeting,
chaired by Elmer Shapiro, at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Other attendees
included Steve Carr, Steve Crocker, Jeff Rulifson, and Ron Stoughton. In the
meeting, the group discussed solving issues related to getting hosts to communicate with
In December 1968, Elmer Shapiro with SRI released a report "A Study of Computer
Network Design Parameters." Based on this work and earlier work done by Paul
Baran,Thomas Marill and others, Lawrence Roberts and Barry Wessler created the
Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications. Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.
(BBN) was later awarded the contract to design and build the IMP subnetwork.
Who invented the Internet?
17. General public learns about Internet
The UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)
put out a press release introducing the public to the
Internet on July 3, 1969.
On August 29, 1969, the first network switch and the
first piece of network equipment called "IMP"
(Interface Message Processor) is sent to UCLA.
On September 2, 1969, the first data moves from the
UCLA host to the switch. The picture to the right is
Leonard Kleinrock next to the IMP.
18. On Friday October 29, 1969 at 10:30 p.m., the first Internet message was
sent from computer science Professor Leonard KleinRock's laboratory
at UCLA, after the second piece of network equipment was installed
at SRI. The connection not only enabled the first transmission to be
made, but is also considered the first Internetbackbone.
The first message to be distributed was "LO", which was an attempt at
"LOGIN" byCharley S. Kline to log into the SRI computer from UCLA.
However, the message was unable to be completed because the SRI
system crashed. Shortly after the crash, the issue was resolved, and he
was able to log into the computer.
The first message andnetwork crash
19. E-mail is developed
Ray Tomlinson sends the first network e-mail in 1971. It's the first
messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.
TCP is developed
Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973 and later publish it
with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshinein December
of 1974 in RFC 675. Most people consider these two people the inventors of
First commercial network
A commercial version of ARPANET, known as Telenet, is introduced
in 1974 and considered to be the first Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Ethernet is conceived
Bob Metcalfe develops the idea of Ethernet in 1973.
The Modemis introduced
Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington released the 80-103A Modem
in 1977. TheModem and their subsequent modems become a popular choice
for home users to connect to the Internet and get online.
20. TCP/IP is created
In 1978, TCP splits into TCP/IP, driven by Danny
Cohen, David Reed, and John Shochto support real-time
traffic. The creation of TCP/IP help create UDP and is later
standardized into ARPANET on January 1, 1983. Today
TCP/IP is still the primary protocolused on the Internet.
DNS is introduced
Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduce DNS in 1984,
which also introduces thedomain name system. The first
Internet domain name, symbolics.com, is registered on March
15, 1985 by Symbolics, a Massachusetts computer company.
21. Firstcommercial dial-upISP
The first commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the US,
known as "The World", is introduced in 1989. The World was the first
ISP to be used on what we now consider to be the Internet.
In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee develops HTML, which made a huge
contribution to how we navigate and view the Internet today.
Tim Berners-Lee introduces WWW to the public on August 6,1991.
The World Wide Web (WWW) is what most people today consider the
"Internet" or a series of sites and pages that are connected with links.
The Internet had hundreds of people who helped develop the
standards and technologies used today, but without the WWW, the
Internet would not be as popular as it is today.
22. Mosaic is the first widely used graphical World Wide Web browser developed and first
released on April 22, 1993 by the NCSA with the help of Marc Andreessen and Eric
Bina. A big competitor to Mosaic was Netscape, which was released a year later. Today,
most of the Internet browsers we use today, e.g. Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, etc.,
got their inspiration from the Mosaic browser.
Originally known as oak, Java is a programming language developed by James
Gosling and others at Sun Microsystems. It was first introduced to the public
in 1995 and today is widely used to create Internet applications and
other software programs.
Script. It was first introduced to the public with Netscape Navigator 2.0 and was
interpreted client-side scripting language that allows a web designer the ability to insert
code into their web page.
First graphical Internet browser
23. In a technical sense, a server is an instance of a computer
program that accepts and responds to requests made by
another program, known as a client. Less formally, any
device that runs server software could be considered a
server as well. Servers are used to
manage network resources. For example, a user may setup
a server to control access to a network, send/receive e-
mail, manage print jobs, or host a website.
Some servers are committed to a specific task, often
referred to as dedicated. As a result, there are a number of
dedicated server categories, like print servers, file servers,
network servers, and database servers. However, many
servers today are shared servers which can take on the
responsibility of e-mail, DNS, FTP, and even multiple
websites in the case of a web server.
Because they are commonly used to deliver services that
are required constantly, most servers are never turned off.
Consequently, when servers fail, they can cause the
network users and company many problems. To alleviate
these issues, servers are commonly high-end computers
setup to be fault tolerant.
Examples of servers
There are many classifications
of servers. Below is a list of the
most common types of servers.
i. Application server
ii. Blade server
iii. Cloud server
iv. Database server
v. Dedicated server
vi. File server
vii. Print server
viii. Proxy server
ix. Standalone server
x. Web server
24. An input device is any hardware device that sends data
to a computer, allowing you to interact with and control
the computer. The picture shows a
Logitech trackball mouse, an example of an input device.
The most commonly used or primary input devices on a
computer are the keyboard and mouse. However, there
are dozens of other devices that can also be used to
input data into the computer. Below is a list of computer
input devices that can be utilized with a computer or a
25. Audio conversion device
Biometrics (e.g. fingerprint scanner)
Business Card Reader
Digital camera and Digital Camcorder
Finger (with touchscreen or Windows Touch)
Gamepad, Joystick, Paddle, Steering wheel, and Microsoft Kinect
Light gun and light pen scanner
Magnetic ink (like the ink found on checks)
Magnetic stripe reader
Medical imaging devices (e.g., X-Ray, CAT Scan, and Ultrasound
Microphone (using voice speech recognition or biometric
Types of input devices
Mouse, touchpad, or other pointing
Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
Pen or Stylus
Punch card reader
Sensors (e.g. heat and orientation
Sonar imaging devices
Voice (using voice speech recognition or
Video capture device
VR helmet and gloves
26. An output device is any peripheral that receives data
from a computer, usually for display, projection, or
physical reproduction. For example, the image shows an
inkjet printer, an output device that can make a hard
copy of any information shown on your monitor. Another
example of an output device is a computer monitor,
which displays an image that is received from the
computer. Monitors and printers are two of the most
common output devices used with a computer.
28. Short for Global Positioning System, GPS is a network of satellites that
helps users determine a location on Earth. The thought of GPS was
conceived after the launch of Sputnik in1957. In 1964,
the TRANSIT system became operational on U.S. Polaris submarines
and allowed for accurate positioning updates. Later this became available
for commercial use in1967. The picture shows an example of the
GARMIN nuvi 350, a GPS used to find locations while driving.
On September 1, 1983 Soviet jets shot down a civilian Korean Air Lines
Flight 007 flying from New York to Seoul and kill all 269 passengers and
crew. As a result of this mistake, President Ronald Regan orders the U.S.
military to make Global Positioning System (GPS) available for civilian
Today, with the right equipment or software, anyone can establish a
connection to these satellites to establish his or her location within 50 to
29. Often no larger than a toaster and only weighing a few pounds,
a projector is an output device that can take images generated
by a computer and reproduce them on a large, flat (usually
lightly colored) surface. For example, projectors are used in
meetings to help ensure that all participants can view the
information being presented. The picture is that of a View
30. A printer is an external hardware output device responsible for taking electronic data
stored on a computer or computing device and generating a hard copy of that data.
Printers are one of the most commonly used peripherals on computers and are
commonly used to print text and photos. The picture to the right is an example of a
computer printer, the Lexmark Z605 Inkjet printer.
Types of printers
Below is a list of all the different types of computer printers. Today, the most
common printers used with a computer are Inkjet and Laser printers.
All-in-one (AIO) printer
Dot Matrix printer
Multifunction printer (MFP)
31. The first mechanical printer was invented by Charles Babbage, for use
with theDifference Engine, which Babbage developed in 1822. Babbage's
printer utilized metal rods with printed characters on each rod to print text
on rolls of paper that were fed through the device.
While inkjet printers started being developed in the late 1950s, it wasn't
until the late 1970s that inkjet printers were able to reproduce good
quality digital images. These better quality inkjet printers were developed
by multiple companies, including Canon,Epson, and Hewlett-Packard.
In the early 1970s, Gary Starkweather invented the laser printer while
working at Xerox. He modified a Xerox 7000 copier to essentially be a
laser printer, by having a laser output electronic data onto paper.
However, it wasn't until 1984 that laser printers became more widely and
economically available when Hewlett-Packard introduced the first low-
cost laser printer, the HP LaserJet. The following year, Apple introduced
the Apple LaserWriter laser printer, adding the PostScript technology to
the printer market.
History of the printer
32. › There are different interfaces or ways a printer can connect to the computer.
Today, the most common cable and ways a printer connects to a computer is by
using a USB or Wi-Fi connection. Below is a full list of cables and interfaces
used to connect a computer to a printer.
› Parallel port
› Serial port
USB CABLE AND PORT
33. Short for television a TV or telly is an electronics device that
receives a visual and audible signal and plays it to the viewer.
Although debated, the TV is often credited as being invented
by Vladimir Zworykin a Russian-born American who worked
for Westinghouse, and Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a boy in
Beaver City, Utah. Vladimir held the patent for the TV, but it
was Farnsworth who was the first person to first successfully
transmit a TV signal on September 7, 1927. The picture of
the Panasonic TH-58PZ750U is a good example of a
34. A Floppy Disk Drive, also called FDD or FD for short, is a
computer disk drive that enables a user to save data to removable
diskettes. Although 8" disk drives were first made available in 1971,
the first real disk drives used were the 5 1/4" floppy disk drives,
which were later replaced with the 3 1/2" floppy disk drives.
A 5 1/4"floppy disk was capable of storing between 360KB and
1.2MB of data, and the 3 1/2" floppy disk was capable of storing
between 360KB and 1.44MB of data. For both sizes of floppy disk,
the amount of data that could be stored was dependent on whether
the disk was single or double sided and whether the disk was
regular or high density.
Today, due to their extremely limited capacity, computers no longer
come equipped with floppy disk drives. This technology has largely
been replaced with CD-R, DVD-R, and flash drives.
35. Alternatively known as a display adapter, graphics
card, video adapter, video board, or video controller,
a video card is an IC or internal board that creates a picture on
a display. Without a video card, you would not be able to see
36. Video card ports
The picture above is an example of a video card with three connections, or video ports, on the
In the past, VGA or SVGA was the most popular connection used with computer monitors.Today,
most flat panel displays use the DVI connector or HDMI connector (not pictured above).
Video card expansion slots
In the picture above, the video card is inserted into the AGP expansion slot on the
computer motherboard. Over the development of computers, there have been several types
of expansion slots used for video cards. Today, the most common expansion slot for video cards
is PCIe, which replaced AGP, which replaced PCI, which replaced ISA.
Note: Some OEM computers and motherboards may have a video card on-board or integrated
into the motherboard.
37. Short for speech-generating device, an SGD, is an electronic output device that
is used to help individuals with severe speech impairments or other issues that
result in difficulty in communicating. For example, SGDs can be utilized by
those who have Lou Gehrig's disease (such as astrophysicistSteven Hawking,
shown right) to supplement or replace speech or writing for them. Speech-
generating devices also find use with children who are suspected of having
How do they work?
Although SGDs vary in their design, most consist of several pages of words or
symbols on a touch screen that the user may choose. As the individual makes
their choices, suggestions are made for the next symbol or word based on what
they might want to say. Additionally, the communicator can navigate the various
pages manually if the predictive system fails. Most speech-generating can
produce electronic voice output by utilizing either speech synthesis or via digital
recordings of someone speaking.
38. 1. A speaker is a term used to describe the user who is giving vocal commands to
a software program.
2. A hardware device connected to a computer's sound cardthat outputs sound generated by the
computer. The picture shows the Altec Lansing VS2221 speakers with subwooferand resemble what
most computer speakers look like today.
When computers were originally released, they had on-board speakers that generated a series of
different tones and beeps. As multimedia and games became popular, higher quality computer
speakers began to be released that required additional power. Because computer sound cards are
not powerful enough to power a nice set of speakers, today's speakers are self-powered, relatively
small in size, and contain magnetic shielding.
Rating a speaker
Speakers are rated in Frequency response, Total Harmonic Distortion, and Watts.
The Frequency response is the rate of measurement of the highs and lows of the sounds the
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is the amount of distortion created by amplifying the signal.
The Watts is the amount of amplification available for the speakers.
39. Alternatively referred to as an audio output device, sound
board, or audio card. A sound card is an expansion
card or IC for producing sound on a computer that can be heard
through speakers or headphones. Although the computer does
not need a sound device to function, they are included on every
machine in one form or another, either in an expansion
slot (sound card) or on the motherboard (onboard).
40. The picture is an example of a sound card audio ports oraudio jacks on
the back of your computer, associated colors, and the connector symbols.
Digital Out (White or Yellow; words: "Digital" or "Digital Out") - Used
with surround sound or loudspeakers.
Sound in or line in (Blue; Arrow pointing into waves) - Connection for
external audio sources, e.g. tape recorder, record player, or CD player.
Microphone or Mic (Pink; Microphone) - The connection for
a microphone or headphones.
Sound out or line out (Green; Arrow pointing out of waves) - The primary
sound connection for your speakers or headphones. This sound card also
has a second (black) and third (orange) sound out connector.
Firewire (Not pictured) - Used with some high-quality sound cards for
digital video cameras and other devices.
MIDI or joystick (15 pin yellow connector) - Used with earlier sound
cards to connect MIDI keyboard or joystick.
Tip: Usually the cables connecting to the devices are also color-coded and
will match or be close to the colors the cables connect into. For example,
the end of the speakers cable may have a green line or be completely
Sound card connections
Audio CDs and listening to music
Creating and playing Midi
Uses of a computer sound card
42. A plotter is a computer hardware device much like a printer that is used for
printing vector graphics. Instead of toner, plotters use a pen, pencil, marker, or another
writing tool to draw multiple, continuous lines onto paper rather than a series of dots like
a traditional printer. Though once widely used forcomputer-aided design, these devices
have more or less been phased out by wide-format printers. Plotters are used to produce
a hard copy of schematics and other similar applications.
Advantages of plotters
Plotters can work on very large sheets of paper while maintaining high resolution.
They can print on a wide variety of flat materials including plywood, aluminum, sheet
steel, cardboard, and plastic.
Plotters allow the same pattern to be drawn thousands of time without any image
Plotters are quite large when compared to a traditional printer.
Plotters are also much more expensive than a traditional printer.
43. Sometimes referred to as earphones, headphones are a
hardware device that either plugs into your computer (line out)
or your speakers to privately listen to audio without disturbing
anyone else. The picture is an example of
a USB headset fromLogitech with a microphone and a popular
solution for computer gaming.
44. Sometimes abbreviated as FPD, a flat-panel display is a thin
screen display found on allportable computers and is the new
standard fordesktop computers. Unlike (CRT) monitors, flat-
panel displays use liquid-crystal display (LCD) or light-
emitting diode (LED) technology to make them much lighter
and thinner compared to a traditionalmonitor. The picture
shows an example of an ASUSflat-panel display.
45. A braille reader, also called a braille display, is an electronic
device that allows a blind person to read the text displayed on a
computer monitor. The computer sends the text to the output device,
where it is converted to Braille and "displayed" by raising rounded
pins through a flat surface on the machine.
Braille readers come in various forms, including large units (about
the size of a computer keyboard) and smaller units, designed to
work with laptops and tablet computers. There are also Braille
reader apps for smartphones and tablets that work in conjunction
with a Bluetooth-connected Braille output device.
Note: Some apps and devices also allow text input via the braille
46. Bluetooth is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how
devices such as mobile phones, computers, or personal digital assistants can communicate
with each other.
Bluetooth is an RF technology that operates at 2.4 GHz, has an effective range of 32-feet
(10 meters) (this range can change depending on the power class), and has a transfer rate of
1 Mbpsand throughput of 721 Kbps.
How is Bluetooth used?
A good example of how Bluetooth could be used is the ability to connect a computer to a cell
phone without any wires or special connectors. The picture is an example of a USBBluetooth
adapter from SMC.
Below are some other examples of how Bluetooth can be used
i. Bluetooth headphones - Headphones that can connect to any Bluetooth device.
ii. Bluetooth keyboard and mouse - Wireless keyboards and mice.
iii. Bluetooth speaker - Speakers that can connect to any Bluetooth audio device.
iv. Bluetooth car - A car with Bluetooth can make hands-free calls in the car.
v. Bluetooth watch or health monitor - Bluetooth wrists devices can transmit data over
Bluetooth to other devices.
vi. Bluetooth lock - Door lock that can allow you to remotely lock and unlock a door.
47. Created by Charles Hull in 1984, the 3D printer is a printing
device that creates a physical object from a digital model using
materials such as metal alloys, polymers, or plastics.
An object's design typically begins in a computer aided design
(CAD) software system, where its blueprint is created. The
blueprint is then sent from the CAD system to the printer in a
file format known as a Stereolithography (STL), which is
typically used in CAD systems to design 3D objects. The
printer then reads the blueprint in cross-sections and begin the
process of recreating the object just as it appears in the
computer aided design. In the picture below is an example of a
3D printer called the FlashForge.
48. 3D printers are used in many
archaeology, biotechnology, and
information systems are a few
examples of industries that utilize
them. As an example, a 3D printer
might be used in the field of
archaeology to physically
reconstruct ancient artifacts that
have been damaged over time,
thus eliminating the need of a
Application of 3D printers
49. A yoke is a hardware input device used with computer games,
such as flight simulation games, that allow a player to fly up or
down, or back or forth by pulling or pushing the device.
The picture shows an example of a flight yoke by Saitekand is
a good example what a typical yoke that connects to your
50. A webcam is a hardware camera connected to a computer that
allows anyone connected to theInternet to view either
still pictures or motion videoof a user or other object. The
picture of theLogitech Webcam C270 is a good example of
what a webcam may look. Today, most webcams are either
embedded into the display with laptopcomputers or connected
to the USB or FireWire port on the computer.
51. The first webcam is considered to be the XCoffee, also known as
the Trojan Room coffee pot. The camera started in 1991 with the
help of Quentin Stafford-Fraser and Paul Jardetzky and connected
to the Internet in November of 1993 with the help of Daniel Gordon
and Martyn Johnson. The camera monitored a coffee pot outside the
Trojan Room in the University of Cambridge, so people didn't have
to make trips to the coffee pot when it didn't have any coffee. After
being mentioned in the press, the website had over 150,000 people
online watching the coffee pot. The webcam went offline August
22, 2001. The picture to the left is an example of how the XCoffee
Note: Unlike a digital camera and digital camcorder, a webcam
does not have any built-in storage. Instead, it is always connected to
a computer and uses the computer hard drive as its storage.
52. Short for Virtual Reality, VR is a computer-generated
artificial environment that allows a user to view, explore, and
manipulate the environment and a term popularized by Jaron
Lanier. Virtual Reality is a computer generated reality
manipulated and explored using various input devices such as
goggles, headphones, gloves, or a computer. Using these
devices a user can browse throughout a virtual world or pickup
and manipulate virtual objects. The picture shows a NASA
employee using a VR system.
53. › Internal or external device that connects from the computer or
device to a video camera or similar device capable of capturing
a video signal. The video capturedevice is then capable of
taking that video signal and converting it to a stored video
format, allowing you to store, modify, and show video on a
computer. The picture shows an example of an external video
capture device from Geniatech that connects your digital
camcorder to your computer using USB. There are
also internal video capture devices that can be installed into
your computer to capture video.
54. 1. In chat based communication such as IRC, voice is a feature
used in moderated chat where users with a microphone to talk
to one another, and those without, to spectate. This form of
chat is used to cut back on typed questions or comments.
2. Voice chat is a real-time online discussion using
amicrophone instead of typing.
3. Your voice can also be an input device with voice
recognition to control your computer.
55. Developed in August 1988, by Jarkko Oikarinen, IRC is short
for Internet Relay Chat and is a popular chat service still in use today.
IRC enables users to connect to a server using a software program or web
service and communicate with each other live. For example,
the Computer Hope chat roomuses an IRC server to allow its users to talk
and ask computer questions live.
To connect and chat with other IRC users, you must either have an IRC
client or a web interface that connects you to IRC servers. There are
numerous software IRC clients that enable users to connect and
communicate to other IRC servers. We suggest the HydraIRC program.
Below is a listing of some of the IRC commands that can be used while
connected to an IRC server. Although most of these commands will work
with most IRC clients and IRC servers, some commands may be invalid.
56. A touchscreen is a monitor or other flat surface with a sensitive panel
directly on the screen that registers the touch of a finger as an input.
Instead of being touch-sensitive, some touchscreens use beams across the
screen to create a grid that senses the presence of a finger.
A touchscreen allows the user to interact with a device without
a mouse or keyboard and is used with smartphones, tablets, computer
screens, and information kiosks.
The idea of a touchscreen was first described and published by E.A.
Johnson in 1965. It wasn't until the early 1970s that the first touchscreen
was developed by Frank Beck and Bent Stumpe, engineers at CERN.
Together they developed a transparent touchscreen that was first used
in 1973. The first resistive touchscreen was developed by George Samuel
Hurst in 1975 but wasn't produced and used until 1982.
57. Note: Not all touchscreens act the same, and any of the below actions may react
differently on your device.
Tap - A gentle touch or tap of the screen with a finger once to open an app or select
an object. When comparing with a traditional computer a tap is the same
action clicking themouse performs.
Double-tap - Depending on where you are a double-tap can have different functions.
For example, in a browser double-tapping the screen zooms into where you double-
tapped. Double-tapping text in a text editor selects a word or section of words.
Touch and hold - Gently touching and holding your finger over an object selects
orhighlights the object. For example, you could touch and hold an icon and then drag
it somewhere else on the screen or highlight text.
Drag - After you have touched and held anything on the screen while keeping the
your finger on the screen drag that object or highlight in any direction and then lift
your finger off of the screen to drop it in place or stop highlighting.
Swipe - Swiping your finger across the screen scrolls the screen in that direction. For
example, pressing the finger at the bottom of the screen and quickly moving it up
(swiping) scrolls the screen down.
Pinch - Placing two fingers on the screen and then pinching them
together zooms out and pinching your fingers together and then moving them away
from each other zooms into where you started.
How do you use the touchscreen?
58. 1. With hardware, a scanner or optical scanner is a hardwareinput device for a
computer. Scanners allow a user to take a printed picture, drawing, or document
and convert it into a digital file (either an image or a text file) so that it can
stored, viewed, and edited on a computer. The picture shows an example of a
flatbed photo scanner, the Epson V300.
How is a scanner connected?
A scanner can be connected to a computer using many different interfaces
although today is most commonly connected to a computer using USB.
59. There are also other types of scanners that can be used with a computer.
Sheetfed scanner - scanner that scans paper by feeding paper into the
Handheld scanner - scanner that scans information by holding the
scanner and dragging it over a page you want to scan.
Card scanner - scanner designed to scan business cards.
Note: A handheld scanner should not be confused with a barcode reader.
2. With software, a scanner may refer to any program that scans computer
files for errors or other problems. A good example is an anti-virus program,
which scans the files on the computer for any computer viruses or other
Other types of computer scanners
60. 1. When referring to a connection a remote connection or to
connect remotely is another way of saying remote access.
2. A hardware device that allows a user to control a device or
object in another location. For example, the TV remote allows a
person to change the channel, volume, or turn on and off the TV
without having to get up and press the buttons on the front of the
TV. Dr. Robert Adler of Zenith invented the first cordless TV
remote control in 1956, before that TV remotes had wires
attached from the TV to the remote. The picture is an example of
a remote, the Harmony One Universal Remote from Logitech.
61. Early method of data storage used with early
computers. Punch cards also known as Hollerith
cards and IBM cards are paper cards containing several
punched holes that were punched by hand or machine to
represent data. These cards allowed companies to store and
access information by entering the card into the computer. The
picture is an example of a woman using a punch card machine
to create a punch card.
62. Using a punch card machine like that shown in the picture
above, data can be entered into the card by punching holes on
each column to represent onecharacter. Below is an example
of a punch card.
How did punch cards work?
63. Once a card has been completed or the return key has been pressed the card technically
"stores" that information. Because each card could only hold so much data if you wrote a
program using punch cards (one card for each line of code) you would have a stack of
punch cards that needed to remain in order.
To load the program or read a punch card data, each card is inserted into a punch card
reader that input the data from the card into a computer. As the card is inserted, the
punch card reader starts on the left-top-side of the card and reads vertically starting at
the top and moving down. After the card reader has read a column it moves to the next
How can a human read a punch card?
Most of the later punch cards printed at the top of the card what each card contained. So,
for these cards you could examine the top of the card to see what was stored on the card.
If an error was noticed on the card it would be re-printed. If no data was printed at the
top of the card the human would need to know what number represented and then
manually translate each column. If you are familiar with modern computers, this would
be similar to knowing that binary " 01101000" and "01101001" are equal to "104" and
"105", which in ASCII put together spells "hi".
64. How were punch cards used?
Punch cards are known to be used as early as 1725 for controlling textile looms.
The cards were later used to store and search for information in 1832 by Semen
Korsakov. Later in 1890, Herman Hollerith developed a method for machines to
record and store information on punch cards to be used for the US census. He
later formed the company we know as IBM.
Why were punch cards used?
Early computers could not store files like today's computers. So, if you wanted
to create a data file or a program the only way to use that data with other
computers was to use a punch card. After magnetic media was created and
began to be cheaper punch cards stopped being used.
Are punch cards still used?
Punch cards were the primary method of storing and retrieving data in the early
1900s, and began being replaced by other storage devices in the 1960s and today
are rarely used or found.
65. Short for Optical Mark Reading or Optical Mark
Recognition, OMR is the process of gathering information
from human beings by recognizing marks on a document.
OMR is accomplished by using a hardware device (scanner)
that detects a reflection or limited light transmittance on or
through piece of paper.
OMR allows for the processing of hundreds or thousands of
physical documents per hour. For example, students may recall
taking tests or surveys where they filled in bubbles on paper
(shown right) with pencil. Once the form had been completed,
a teacher or teacher's assistant would feed the cards into a
system that grades or gathers information from them.
66. Short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, MIDI is a standard for
digitally representing and transmitting sounds that was first developed in
the 1980s. The MIDI sound is played back through the hardware device
or computer either through a synthesized audio sound or a waveform
stored on the hardware device or computer. The quality of how MIDI
sounds when played back by the hardware device or computer depends
upon that device's capability.
Many older computer sound cards have a MIDI port, as shown in the top
right picture. This port allows musical instrument devices to be connected
to the computer, such as a MIDI keyboard or a synthesizer. Before
connecting any MIDI devices to the computer, you need to purchase a
cable that takes the MIDI/Game port connection into the standard 5-pin
DIN midi connector or a USB to MIDI converter. If you do not have a
MIDI port, the most common way today to connect a MIDI device to a
computer is to use a USB to MIDI port cable.
Tip: The file extension .mid is used to save a MIDI file.
67. Sometimes abbreviated as mic, a microphone is a hardwareperipheral originally invented
by Emile Berliner in 1877 that allows computer users to input audio into their computers. The
picture is an example of Blue Microphones Yeti USB Microphone - Silver Edition and an
example of a high-quality computer microphone.
Most microphones connect to the computer using the "mic" port on the computer sound card.
See our sound card definition for further information about these ports and an example of what
they look like on your computer. Higher quality microphones or microphones with additional
features such as the one shown on this page will connect to the USB port.
What is a microphone used for on a computer?
Below is a short list of all the different uses a microphone could be used for on a computer.
Voice recorder, VoIP, Voice recognition,Computer gaming,Online chatting
Recording voice for dictation, singing, and podcasts
Recording musical instruments
How does a microphone input data into a computer?
Because the microphone sends information to the computer, it is considered an input device. For
example, when a microphone is used to record a voice or music the information it records can be
stored on the computer and played back later. Another great example of how a microphone is an
input device is with voice recognition which uses your voice to command the computer at what
task to perform.
68. A magnetic card reader is a device that can retrieve stored
information from a magnetic card either by holding the card
next to the device or swiping the card through a slot in the
device. The picture is an example of a magnetic card reader
and a good example of the type of card reader you would see at
most retail stores.
Magnetic card reader
69. When referring to computers and security, biometrics is the identification of a person by the
measurement of their biological features. For example, a user identifying themselves to a computer or
building by their finger print or voice is considered a biometrics identification. When compared to
apassword, this type of system is much more difficult to fake since it is unique to the person. Below is a
listing of all known biometric devices.
Other common methods of a biometrics scan are a person's face, hand, iris, and retina.
Types of biometric devices
Face scanner - Biometric face scanners identify a person by taking measurements of a person face. For
example, the distance between the persons chin, eyes, nose, and mouth. These types of scanners can be
very secure assuming they are smart enough to distinguish between a picture of a person and a real
Hand scanner - Like your finger print, the palm of your hand is also unique to you. A biometric hand
scanner will identify the person by the palm of their hand.
Finger scanner - Like the picture shown on this page a biometric finger scanner identifies the person by
their finger print. These can be a secure method of identifying a person, however, cheap and less
sophisticated finger print scanners can be duped a number of ways. For example, in the show Myth
Busters they were able to fake a finger print using a Gummy Bear candy treat.
Retina or iris scanner - A biometric retina or iris scanner identifies a person by scanning the iris or
retina of their eyes. These scanners are more secure biometric authentication schemes when compared to
the other devices because there is no known way to duplicate the retina or iris.
Voice scanner - Finally, a voice analysis scanner will mathematically break down a person's voice to
identify them. These scanners can help improve security but with some less sophisticated scanners can be
bypassed using a tape recording.